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London Missionary Society

Non-denominational missionary society formed in England in 1795 by evangelical Anglicans and Nonconformists.

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Figure 112.—Mangaian multiple lozenge lashing pattern. a, length of shaft and foot, 26 inches; height of foot, 6.3 inches; high heel with no lateral or posterior projections; shaft proximal end diameter, 1.2 inches; long narrow adz head with posterior median edge rounded off, marked shoulder, conforms to a Mangaian type; some ornamental turns of braid pass over end of heel and then lashing in series of spiral turns forms lozenges, which are not filled in the figure (British Mus., 55/12/50-172, … Figure 163.—Mangaian carved gong (British Mus., L.M.S. 488): length, 647 mm.; height, 220 mm.; greatest width, 207 mm. a, upper flat surface defined at ends by raised bands (3) and at sides by horizontal lines of carved panels, width 80 mm.; opening into interior hollow is triangular at each end (1, 1) with the bases outward, sides slightly curved and apices connected by a narrow slit (2) which is 127 mm. long; base of left triangle is 52 mm. and length from base to apex, 195 mm.; right triangl… Figure 172.—Atiu and Mauke clubs: a-e, Atiu; f, Mauke. a, narrow blade with blunt unflanged point (Fuller coll., 318). b, very narrow blade, with straight flanged point (Fuller coll., ?). c, shortest club with widest part of blade near tip; blunt point with faintly incised double chevron (Fuller coll., L.M.S.). d, long point with fairly wide blade; double flanged chevron point (Fuller coll., L.M.S.). e, narrow blade with triple chevron motif (1); two sets of four barbs (2, 2); slight enlargemen… Figure 185.—Flanged butt points of Mangaian clubs, a, triple serrated club (fig. 183): straight based flange; diameters of base, 21 mm. by 16 mm. b, spade club (fig. 181, a): four-pointed flange; base, 37 by 37 mm.; length of point, 39 mm. c, paddle club (fig. 181, d): length of point, 45 mm. d, serrated club (fig. 181, c): length of point, 40 mm. e, serrated club (Fuller coll., L.M.S.): base diameters, 42 by 35 mm.; four sets of incised lines following form of flange Figure 191.—Fisherman's god (British Mus., L.M.S.): height 440 mm.; head width above ears 184 mm.; width at ears 240 mm.; width at shoulders 240 mm.; narrowest width of body 111 mm.; penis amputated and navel protuberance broken off. a, front; b, back; c, right side Figure 194.—Image with smaller figures (British Mus., L.M.S., 42). a, front: total height 690 mm.; width of head with projecting ears 127 mm.; length of head 115 mm.; shoulder width 162 mm.; abdominal width at navel 127 mm.; hip width 160 mm., showing three figures on breast. The rectangular feet are notched on upper and lower front edges. b, side: showing projection outward of 3 breast figures, and 2 figures carved on flat on outer side of arm; middle part of arm uncarved for length of 43 mm.,… Figure 195.—Rarotongan large staff god (British Mus., L.M.S.), figured by Williams (81, p. 100): total length about 13 feet, a, full figure: 1, head length 102 mm., greatest width at back 46 mm., tufts of feathers attached to left ear (see fig. 196, d); 2, upper set of five small figures, arranged as in figure 197, c; profile figures with phallus decorated with feathers (fig. 195, d); 3, bundle of tapa cloth wrapped around middle staff section and tied with bands of cloth, red feathers and pear… Figure 199.—Smaller staff gods (a-d, British Mus., L.M.S., 306-19); e-f, British Mus., L.M.S., 18-20). a, full-length figure showing head (1), upper series of small figures (2), middle staff (3), lower series of figures (4), and terminal phallus (5); total length 1,640 mm. b, head and upper series of figures: head (1) with eye elements of eyeball, upper and lower lids, and brow; mouth defined by three notches instead of four as in large staff gods; typical ear and no nose; notched arm (2) and h… Figure 203.—Carved slabs, Aitutaki. a, probably breadfruit wood; total length, 457 mm.; greatest width, 62 mm.; greatest thickness, 18 mm.: top section (1) 112 mm. long with irregular side notches and mesial hole: middle section (2) with serrated sides and triangular depressions opposite alternate serrations; mesial raised longitudinal panel divided into serrated transverse bars: lower plain section (3) 34 mm. wide and 14 mm. thick at bottom end. (British Mus., L.M.S. coll., 112). b, brown wood… Figure 206.—Carved slab with arches (British Mus., L.M.S. 28). a, front: upper wide section (1) 180 mm. wide and 120 mm. deep, including three upper projections (4) obscured by feathers; upper edge below projections serrated; five sets of rectangular perforations in three vertical pairs and outer singles with vertical and horizontal grooves between; spaces between vertical pairs and outer singles occupied by four arches formed of two pillars with outward projections carved into lozenge-chevron … Figure 209.—Aitutaki god (British Mus., L.M.S., 95). a, front view: light wood, poor carving, total height 1,282 mm.; head length 148 mm.; head width 168 mm.; lower end 180 mm. by 145 mm.; forehead and nose on same plane with wood cut away to form lower plane for eyes and face, eyes and mouth formed by simple excisions, no ears, chin pointed, simple bust, without arms, column cut in transverse levels as shown. b, side view: showing transverse cuts coming around to sides but not reaching back, s… Figure 210.—Aitutaki goddess (British Mus., L.M.S., no number), a, front: total height including pedestal 525 mm.; head height 162 mm.; pedestal height 60 mm.;shoulder width 155 mm.; hip width 171 mm.; forehead with curved transverse line, with similar line below for eyebrows; nose formed by vertical mesial edge due to meeting of inclined planes of cheeks and bounded below by transverse cut; eyes and mouth formed by simple elliptical excisions; hands without fingers clasped on body; rectangular… Figure 215.—Wooden god from Atiu (British Mus., L.M.S., 94/35). a, wooden figure: height 350 mm.; width of head 105 mm. by 108 mm.; width lower end 113 mm.; head (1) dome-shaped with six vertical elliptical slots (2) crossed by middle bar (3), dividing head into six elliptical panels (4) which are carved on outer side; constricted neck (5) followed by vertical arches (6) on same vertical lines as head panels and radiating equally from common center to form upper series; upper ends of arches hav… Figure 217.—Staff with uncarved arches (British Mus., L.M.S., 295). a, full figure: 1, upper terminal; 2, upper set of four arches with no central rod; 3, central rod between sets of arches; 4, lower set of arches, showing upper knobs (5) and lower knobs (6); 7, lower rounded terminal with transverse edge (8) and bottom end (9) iractured; length from upper end to lower transverse edge (8) 455 mm. b, set of arches: 1, 2, side arches; 3, back arch; 4, front arch removed to show back arch; 5, uppe… Figure 218.—Sennit and feather god (British Mus., L.M.S., 36). a, full figure: thick sennit covered with folded strip of coconut stipule folded longitudinally to roughly form rounded head (1), long body (2), arms (3) 167 mm. long, and legs (4) 130 mm. long; waist width, 121 mm.; total length, 555 mm.; outer folds covered with thin bark cloth from 9 to 14 mm. wide; head and neck formed by constricting with cord and so with arms and legs. b, tropic bird tail feathers (1) with small red feathers (… Figure 219.—Large sennit feather god, Atiu (British Mus., L.M.S. coll., 572). a, total length 450 mm., circumference at top (1) 330 mm., at middle 520 mm., lower end (2) 415 mm.; foundation sennit thick and coarse, ranging from 10 mm. wide and 4 mm. thick to 25 mm. wide and 12 mm. thick; strands of fiber used in plies bound together by single coir fiber before plaiting; some of internal braid lengths covered with feathers on one side in same manner as outer sennit, evidently due to more braid b… Figure 220.—Mitiaro gods, head section. a: 1, vertex; 2, panels; 3, transverse bar, uncarved; 4, neck; 5, first arches of middle section (Cambridge University Mus., 104). b: greatest width 36 mm., neck width 21 mm., transverse bar (3) with single zigzag pattern (British Mus., 7050). c: greatest width 53 mm., height 85 mm., neck width 24 mm., transverse bar (3) with single zigzag pattern; shows upper ends of coir decoration attached to middle section; transverse lines (4) (British Mus., L.M.S., … Figure 222.—Middle section, formation of continuous arches. a, column of wood cut into radiating ridges which number seven: one ridge is shown with holes pierced through but none cut through to surface; holes numbered 1 correspond to those for true arches (fig. 221, c,4), and alternate holes (2) correspond to those which reach surface in separate arch technique (fig. 221, c, 5). b, wood over alternate holes (1) of a shaped to form true arches by a technique similar to that in separate arches (f… Figure 223.—Mitiaro gods, broken arches and feather decoration. a, central column (1), 8 mm. in diameter; perfect arch (2) 38 mm. between upper and lower pillars, and broken pillars (3) of other arches on same level may be seen; lozenge-chevron motif (4) used (British Mus., 2060). b, only specimen of series which has sennit braid decoration still attached to it; feathers and braid with transverse tufts of fiber are placed vertically in grooves between carved ridges and then tied in position by … Figure 224.—Lower staff ends of Mitiaro gods. a, staff (1) commences immediately below lowest arches (2) and widens, but part of length evidently cut off, as shown by cuts on either side with a middle fracture of wood; length 97 mm., width at top 14 mm., width, widest part, 32 mm. (British Mus., L.M.S., no number). b, other view of a: top thickness 13 mm., bottom thickness 12 mm. c, narrow view of staff (1) which has a distinct shoulder (3) below last set of arches (2); shoulder 22 mm. in diame… Figure 225.—Staff ends with tufted sennit decoration (fragments in Cambridge University Mus., numbered group Z6045, but each bears an old London Missionary Society number). a (107): length of wooden part 135 mm., lower end 14 mm. by 8 mm.; one long cord with cross tufts with lashing of turns of thin white bark cloth commencing just below last broken arches. b (106): length of wooden part 130 mm.; lower pillars of arches left with lozenge-chevron motif; two lengths of tufted braid each 540 mm. l… Figure 227.—Feather decoration, Mitiaro gods (a, b: British Mus., L.M.S., 107; c-e: British Mus., L.M.S., 49). a, four pieces of braid (1-4) successively combined by fraying out lower ends and combining them as plies with others, forming branched figure combined into one braid (5); small bunch of black feathers (6) tied together at quill ends (7) added to upper braid ends by lashing (8); upper ends of braid (9) frayed out to form part of decoration; some branches without feathers but transverse… Figure 229.—Wooden god (British Mus., L.M.S., 66?): total length, 812 mm.; divided into upper perforated part in three sections, lower staff part covered with sennit. a, front: upper section (1) with pointed end, curved sides, and two large openings; wood on sides and middle, perforated with spaced small holes; base width, 121 mm. and base thickness, 29 mm.; second section (2) with sides curved from narrow upper junction and four large openings as shown; five wooden limbs and base perforated wi… Figure 23.—Rarotongan fan handles (a, plain, attributed to Rarotonga but probably from Aitutaki; b-e, carved with two heads in profile, looking outward from midline of junction): a, round wood, uncarved, 28 mm. in diameter at proximal end, and uncovered part, with shoulder (1) where sennit braid wrapping in lozenge pattern commences; total length of handle including tang, 390 mm. (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z.6100). b, 1, double head with narrow notch to mark division, eyes formed by five incised cu… Figure 230.—God attributed to Mauke (British Mus., L.M.S., 66 or 99): cylindrical body (1), composed of thick five-ply coir braid, dark red in color, folded into lengths of 100 mm. to reach a diameter of 30 mm.; evidently unbraided coir fiber, which projects at one end, was also added inside to thicken body; braid foundation wrapped with white bark cloth and tied at each end with fine oronga thread; split black feathers tied in bunches and seized with single coir fiber added at each end; upper … Figure 232.—Tapa and feather gods, Mangaia. a: length of body and legs, 330 mm.; middle body width, 100 mm.; two arms (1, 1), 50 and 60 mm. long; legs (2, 2): body of folded lengths of sennit and wrapped with white tapa and tied with spiral turn of fine thread; tropic bird tail feathers kept in position by thread lashings (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z.6094). b: smaller than Cambridge figure and without arms; length of body and legs 142 mm.; body width 22 to 24 mm.; legs (2, 2), 36 and 34 mm. long an… Figure 233.—Spiked god (British Mus., L.M.S., 287), upper section. a, front: 1, upper row of five straight points, one broken; top width 168 mm.; 2, horizontal bar carrying upper and lower row of five curved spikes, some broken, width 155 mm., thickness 97 mm.; 3, second transverse bar connected at sides and middle with upper bar (2) and carrying heads of three spaced figures; heads with shaped brows and nose, eyes and mouth formed by rectangular depressions, heads pointed except middle one; 4,… Figure 238.—Carving of pillars and arches (British Mus., L.M.S., 31). a, front: pillars and arches show up in side view of end arch; 1, 1, spaced notches; 2, pillars; 3, arch section; 4, arch perforation; 5, actual arch; 6, lozenge-shaped hole; three sets of holes between four front ridges, each horizontal set on same level as arches; four front ridges (7) shown with geometrical carving, smaller areas on pillars and larger on arches. b, end, showing carving on two end ridges (8, 8) and side vie… Figure 239.—Tops and bottoms of carved slabs. a, top front (L.M.S., 30): carving commences with arches (1) above which ridges (2) are cut down for short distance to top; top border plain with slight concavities (3) between ridges (4); this slab has three front ridges (4), middle ridge shown without pillars and arches. b, top front (L.M.S., 31): similar to a with four front ridges (4). c, top front (L.M.S., 32): above top complete arch (1), a pillar (2) projects beyond outer plane of ridge, with… Figure 24.—Cook Islands fan (British Mus., L.M.S.). a, outline; length of plaited part, 395 mm.; base width, 430 mm.; length of external handle, 130 mm. b, front, showing short butt knobs (1, 1), raised flange (2) divided in middle line, rounded body (3) with large perforation, bilateral curved flanges with lower end (4) incised with chevrons and upper end (5) notched, terminal flange (6) with perforation below it, and plain lashing (7) of fine cord. c, side view with same numbering as b; upper… Figure 240.—Decoration of shafts (L.M.S., coll.: a,30; b,31; d,32): a, shaft seized with flat sennit 2.5 mm. wide for 45 mm. and bunches of split black feathers seized with single coir fiber caught under turn of shaft seizing; feathers, including occasional tropic bird white tail feathers, directed upward as in figure 239, d; three succeeding rows spaced successively 61, 58, and 69 mm. apart with effect shown (1); lowest feather row (2); 16 mm. below, two tufts of human hair (3) caught under se… Figure 241.—Pedestal of carved slabs, Mangaia (L.M.S. coll.: a,30; b,31; c,32). a, pedestal concealed by feather ornamentation; height 54 mm., base diameter 72 mm.; divided into 7 radiating ridges, carved into two pillars with intervening arch; outer surface of top pillar (1) with K-motif, top of arch below it with two K's facing each other, and lower pillar concealed by feathers. b, base diameter 85 mm.; nine ridges each with two arches (1, 2) and no intervening pillar; sunken lozenge in inter… Figure 248.—Wooden artifact (British Mus., L.M.S., 55). 1, middle staff: length 447 mm.; perfectly round in section with diameter of 35 mm. 2, blade: curved, sharp end edge; length, 156 mm.; greatest width near staff, 105 mm.; thickness, 30 mm. 3, blade: curved sharp end edge, like 2; length 152 mm.; greatest width 152 mm. and thickness 28 mm., chip depressions on blade visible Figure 249.—four feather objects (British Mus., L.M.S.). a, bunch of eight split black feathers (1), fairly stiff, projecting 154 mm. above lashing (2) of single coir fiber with seizing, 18 mm. long, and thickness at upper edge, 5 mm. b, coir cord holder: 1, three-ply cord, 135 mm. long to feather lashing (5); 2, end of coir fibers of cord (1), unraveled and projecting 172 mm. above lashing; 3, split black feathers, 108 mm. long from lashing; 4, outside layer of short white feathers, 37 mm. lon… Figure 250.—Sennit and feather bundle (British Mus., L.M.S., 63). Bundle formed of thick sennit, 9 mm. wide by 5 mm. thick, folded in lengths of 144 mm., with top and bottom turns (1) kept level; inserted in center of upper end is a plume (2) of five feathers, three narrow split black, one wide split black, and one tropic bird white tail feather, with upward projection of 170 mm.; bundle compressed into cylindrical form by close transverse turns (3) of same sennit; split black feathers and trop… Figure 251.—Tapa and human hair bundle (British Mus., L.M.S., 64): bundle composed of cylindrical folds of white tapa, 235 mm. long, with black frizzy hair (2) enclosed by upper end of tapa and fixed by transverse turns of sennit at top, middle, and bottom; top diameter 38 mm.; middle diameter 58 mm.; bottom diameter 30 mm.; hair length above bundle 240 mm.; a few white feathers and a tropic bird white tail feather are caught under top lashing; in top lashing (3), sennit commencement end is ben… Figure 252.—Feather shield (British Mus., L.M.S., 579). a, wooden framework three longitudinal rods (1, 2, 3), 715 mm. long; the two lateral rods (1, 3), 7 and 9 mm. thick and middle rod, 13 mm. thick, all slightly thinner at top; middle rod has handle (4) on back, about 93 mm. long and raised 35 mm. above rod plane; five crossbars about 7 mm. thick but lowest 9 mm. thick, spaced against front of rods, and lashed to them with oronga cord. A piece of dark tapa folded to right dimensions lies on … Figure 253.—Tapa covered cord bundle with feather cap (British Mus., L.M.S., 576). a, cylindrical body (1) of thick two-ply coir cord folded in lengths of 375 mm., covered with white tapa; near upper end (2), sets of 4 red feathers from wings or tail of parakeet bound together with single coir fiber and kept in position with spiral turns of oronga two-ply thread, feathers with tips downward and lowest layer about 130 mm. from upper end; at top end, small red and yellow feathers set close togeth… Figure 273.—Polynesian drums. a-d, direct upper attachment; e-h, indirect upper attachment. a, Aitutaki, Cook Islands, see figure 168: lower slot attachment. b, Tahiti, Society Islands (Cambridge University Mus.): lower slot attachment; height, 20.5 inches; upper diameter, 7.75 inches; lower diameter, 8.5 inches. c, Raivavae, Austral Islands (British Mus., L.M.S. coll.): lower attachment to rectangular slots with another row of unused rectangular slots above engaged slots; lower third carved; h… Figure 274.—Polynesian wooden images, front and side views. a, Rarotonga, fisherman's god (Peabody Mus., Cambridge, Mass., 53517). b, Aitutaki, goddess (British Mus., L.M.S.). c, Tahiti, sorcerer's image (ti'i) (British Mus., 7047). d, Raivavae, Austral Islands (British Mus., 54-12-29-120). e, Marquesas (Bishop Mus., 3020) f, New Zealand, carved figure with face tattooing pattern (Oldman coll., 14). g, Mangareva, god (La Rochelle Mus., H.498). h, Easter Island, carved figure (moai kava-kava) (O… Figure 28.—Painted tapa patterns. a, Mauke: white cloth painted with black bars, black triangles in pairs with apices meeting giving hour-glass appearance and internally blaked with thin parallel lines, and zigzag bars formed by crossing black lines; horizontal bars (1) and triangles (1) painted yellow; rectangles (2) and triangles (2) in red (Bishop Mus., Bloxam ms.). b, shows carved heads (1) and tapa bundle with zigzag pattern (2) at one end and double rows of black lozenges separated by two… Figure 54.—Feather headdress (British Mus., L.M.S. case), a, headdress: 1, coiled cap showing one edge of rim; 2, large triangular frame covered with black feathers; 3, large bunches of feathers of cuckoo tied on either side of cap rim; 4, streamers of Black feathers tied to cord; 5, piece of tapa cloth tied to cap rim. b, wooden frame: 1, front median rod 7 mm. thick lashed securely to cap by cord passing through coiled work; 2, back median rod 9 mm. thick, lashed to back of cap; 3, 3, lateral… Map II.—Sketch Map Showing Mission Stations of the London Missionary Society, 1797–circa 1845 Plate 13 — Wooden Images of Gods: A, B, Goddess, Aitutaki (British Mus., L.M.S.); C, Staff God, Rarotonga (Cambridge Univ. Mus., 101); D, E, Fisherman's God. Rarotonga (Munich Mus., 191) Plate 14 — Symbols of Gods: A, Aitutaki (British Mus., L.M.S., 28); B, Aitu (British Mus., L.M.S., 572); C, Aitu (British Mus., L.M.S., 94/35); D, E, Mitiaro (British Mus., L.M.S., no Number and 49); F, G, H, Mangaia (British Mus., L.M.S., 30, 32, 31); Mangaia (Oldman Coll., 432) Plate 16 — Tahitian Gods (To'o), A-G, British Museum: A, L.M.S., 377; B, L.M.S., 66 ?; C, L.M.S., 55; D, Tah. 64; E, L.M.S., 1; F, 78-11-1-594; G, Tah. 67. H, Bishop Mus., B1054, a Plate 4 — Fans: A, B, Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., 2167); C, Rarotonga, Back (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z.6101); D, Cook Islands, Front (British Mus., L.M.S.) Plate 7 — Feather Headdresses: A, Aitutaki (British Mus., L.M.S.); B, Rarotonga (British Mus., L.M.S.); C, Makea-Ariki Family, Rarotonga; D, Probably Aitu (British Mus., L.M.S., 120)

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