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Manual of the New Zealand Flora.

6. Dracophyllum, Labill

page 418

6. Dracophyllum, Labill.

Erect or prostrate shrubs, or more rarely small trees; branches ringed with the scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves crowded at the ends of the branches or imbricate along them, broad and sheathing at the base, above that suddenly contracted into a very narrow linear rigid or grassy usually concave blade. Flowers small, white or red, in terminal or lateral panicles or racemes or spikes, rarely solitary. Sepals 5, ovate or lanceolate, persistent. Corolla cylindric or campanulate; lobes 5, spreading, imbricate, often incurved at the tips. Stamens hypogynous, or the filaments adnate to the corolla-tube; anthers usually included in the tube, attached at or near the middle. Hypogynous scales 5, free. Ovary 5-celled; style inserted in a depression at the top of the ovary; stigma small, or larger and 5-lobed; ovules numerous, attached to a decurved placenta in the inner angle of the cell. Capsule 5-celled, loculicidally 5-valved. Seeds numerous.

In addition to the 18 species found in New Zealand, all of which are endemic, there are 10 in Australia and Tasmania, and 5 in New Caledonia. The student will find the species exceedingly difficult of discrimination, especially those of section B, where they appear to pass into one another by small gradations, and where the chief distinctive characters available are the highly variable ones of size, habit, and foliage.

A. Flowers panicled. Calyx small, much shorter than the corolla-tube, and always much less than the ripe capsule.

Shrub or small tree 8–20 ft. high. Leaves 10–18 in., 1–1½ in. wide at the base. Panicle terminal, 6–18 in. 1–1½ long. Flowers ⅛ in. diam. Capsules 1/10 in. 1. D. latifolium.
Similar to the preceding but much stouter. Leaves 10–24 in., 1–2 in. wide. Panicles denser. Capsules larger, ⅛ in. diam. 2. D. Traversii.
Shrub 10–20 ft. high. Leaves 6–12 in., ⅓–½ in. wide at the base. Panicles small, lateral below the leaves, drooping, 2–3 in. long. Flowers ⅙ in. long 3. D. Townsoni.
Small much- branched shrub, stem often decumbent below. Leaves 3–8 in. long. Panicles lateral, drooping, 3–6 in. long. Flowers large,⅓ in. long 4. D. Menziesii.
Small much - branched shrub. Leaves ½–¾ in. long. Panicles terminal, 1½–4 in. long. Flowers ⅕–¼ in. 5. D. strictum.

B. Flowers in spike-like racemes or solitary. Calyx almost equalling the corolla-tube or longer than it, always completely enclosing the ripe capsule.

* Flowers in spike-like racemes.

Shrub 4–15 ft. Leaves patent and recurved, 1½–5 in. long. Racemes lateral, 4–8-flowered. 6. D. Sinclairii.
Shrub 1–3 ft. Leaves patent and recurved, ½–1½ in. long, obtuse. Flowers in terminal bracteate spikes 7. D. recurvum.
Leaves erect, 3–10 in. long, sheathing base ½–¾ in. broad. Racemes 6–15-fiowered 8. D. longifolium.
Leaves erect, 1–5 in. long, sheathing base ⅛–¼ in. wide, truncate or auricled at the tip. Racemes 4–12-flowered 9. D. Urvilleanum.
Leaves in many series, erect and appressed, very stout, polished, glabrous,¾–1 in. long. Racemes 3–6-flowered 10. D. Pearsoni.page 419
Leaves erect, ¾–3 in. long, silky-pubescent above, margins ciliate with copious white hairs. Racemes 3–6-flowered 11. D. scoparium.
Very slender. Leaves small, erect, ⅛–1 in. long. Racemes 2–5-flowered; 12. D. subulatum.
Stout, spreading, much branched. Leaves spreading, 1–2½ in. long, ⅙–⅓ in. broad at the base, gradually tapering, evenly pubescent on both surfaces. Racemes 3–5-flowered 13. D.pubescens.
** Flowers usually solitary.
Decumbent. Leaves spreading, ¾–2 in. long, ½ in. broad at the base, gradually tapering, glaucous, glabrous. Flowers lateral, solitary 14. D. Kirkii.
Erect. Leaves ½–2 in. long (2–4 in. in var. aciculari-folium); blade 1/20 - 1 ⅕ in. broad, pungent. Flowers lateral 15. D. uniflorum.
Depressed or prostrate, rarely suberect. Leaves ¼–1 in., obtuse. Flowers usually terminating short lateral branchlets 16. D. rosmarini-folium
Small, prostrate, laxly or closely branched. Leaves imbricate, ⅛–¼ in. long, linear-subulate from a broad ovate base. Flower terminal 17. D. prostratum.
Small, forming densely compacted tufts a few inches across. Leaves closely imbricate, 1/10–⅛ in. long, tips subulate, usually obtuse 18. D. muscoides.
1.D. latifolium, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 412.—A shrub or small tree 8–20 ft. high or more, with a trunk 4–12 in. diam.; young plants forming slender erect unbranched rods with a tuft of grassy leaves at the top; old ones much branched, the branches often whorled, curving outwards and then ascending, giving the tree a candelabrum-like appearance, closely ringed with the scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves crowded at the tips of the branches, squar-rose, spreading and recurved, 10–24 in. long, 1–1½ in. broad at the dilated sheathing base, gradually tapering into very long slender points, quite glabrous, coriaceous, striate, concave or rarely nearly flat, margins very minutely serrulate. Panicle terminal, 6–18 in. long, much and closely branched, linear - oblong, erect in flower, inclined in fruit, rhachis and pedicels densely pubescent. Flowers crowded, very numerous, shortly pedicelled, ⅛ in. diam., reddish. Calyx very small, not ¼ the length of the corolla; sepals broadly ovate, acute or obtuse, striate. Corolla campanulate, lobes rather longer than the tube, oblong, obtuse, sharply recurved. Anthers large, oblong, exserted. Capsule small, 1/10 in. diam., depresso-globose—Raoul, Choix, 44; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 167; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 181; Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 123. D. recurvatum, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxi. (1889) 92.

North Island: Common in hilly forests from the North Cape to Hawke's Bay and Taranaki. South Island: Nelson and Westland, from Collingwood as far south as Charleston. Sea-level to 3000 ft. Neinei.-January–February.

page 420
2.D. Traversii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 736.—Very closely allied to D. latifolium, but a larger and much more robust plant, sometimes 30 ft. high, with a trunk 2 ft. in diam. Leaves 1–2 ft. long, 1–2 in. broad at the base, gradually tapering into long almost filiform points, rigid and coriaceous, slightly concave, striated, margins smooth and entire or very obscurely serrulate. Panicle Terminal, strict, linear-oblong, much and very closely and densely branched; rhachis and pedicels stout, pubescent. Flowers much as in D. latifolium, but rather larger. Capsule larger and on stouter pedicels, ⅛ in. diam.

South Island: Nelson and Westland—Not uncommon in subalpine localities from Collingwood and the Mount Arthur Plateau to the Haast River and Jackson's Bay. 2500–4500 ft. January–February.

By far the finest species of the genus. Although very different in appearance from D. latifolium it is difficult to point out any character of importance to separate it from that plant apart from the increased size and stoutness, the more rigid leaves, denser panicles, and rather larger capsules. A state of D. latifolium, not uncommon on high peaks in the Auckland District, approaches it in foliage and in inflorescence, but not in habit.

3.D. Townsoni, Gheesem. n. sp.—A large branching shrub 12–20 ft. high; branches stout, ringed with the scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, very similar to those of D. latifolium but smaller, 6–12 in. long, ⅛–⅛ in. broad at the dilated sheathing base, very gradually narrowed into fine slender points, rigid and coriaceous, coneave, striate, margins minutely serrulate. Panicles small, lateral below the leaves, much curved and drooping, 2–3 in. long, rather closely branched. Flowers crowded, very shortly pedicelled or almost sessile on the branches of the panicle, about; ⅙ in. long. Calyx small, but almost as long as the tube of the corolla; sepals broadly ovate, obtuse, striate. Corolla campanulate, lobed nearly half-way down; lobes oblong, obtuse, sharply reflexed. Anthers exserted. Capsule small, ⅛ in. diam., depresso-globose.

South Island: Nelson—Vicinity of Westport, Townson!

This has the peculiar lateral drooping panicle of D. Menziesii, but is a much larger plant, with longer and proportionately narrower more grassy leaves. The corolla is markedly different, being not half the size, and deeply lobed nearly half-way down, with the lobes sharply reflexed. In D. Menziesii, in addition to the much larger corolla, the lobes are very small, not one-quarter the length of the tube.

4.D. Menziesii, Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 168.—A small much- branched shrub, often reduced to a foot or two in height; branches very robust, naked, ringed with the scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves crowded near the ends of the branches, like those of D. latifolium but much smaller, spreading and recurved, 3–8 in. long,½–¾ in. broad at the base, gradually tapering to a fine point, slightly concave, rigid and coriaceous, striate; margins cartil- page 421 aginous, closely and minutely serrulate. Panicles lateral from below the leaves, 3–5 in. long, sparingly branched and often reduced to a simple raceme, drooping; rhachis and pedicels pubescent. Flowers large, waxy-white, ⅓ in. long, on short curved pedicels. Calyx small, not ¼ as long as the corolla; sepals broadly ovate, subacute, striate. Corolla large, campanulate, tube three or four times as long as the calyx; lobes verv short, recurved. Anthers included. Capsule clepresso - globose, ⅙–⅕ in. diam.—Handb. N.Z. Fl. 181.

South Island: Canterbury—Askburton Mountains, Potts', (flowers not seen). Ocago—Lake district, Buchanan! mountains above Lake Harris, Kirk! mountains to the west of Lakes Wakatipu and Te Anau, Petrie! Humboldt Mountains, Cockayne! Dusky Bay, Mcnzies, Reischek! Port Preservation, Lyall. Stewart Island: Mount Anglem, Kirk! Ascends to 4500 ft., descends almost to sea-level in Dusky Sound. December–February.

An exceedingly distinct species, with the largest flowers of the genus. Alpine specimens are sometimes only 1–2 ft. high, with few very stout naked branches bearing a globose head of squarrose leaves.

5.D. strictum, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 48.—A much-branched shrub; branches bare below, ringed with the scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves erect or spreading, variable in size, 1–½–4 in. long, ¼–½ in. wide at the sheathing base, which is not conspicuously broader than the blade, gradually tapering into a rigidly acuminate or pungent point, flat or slightly concave, somewhat glaucous, coriaceous, margins minutely serrulate. Panicles terminal, 1½–4 in. long, narrow, erect or curved or certnuous; rhachis and pedicels glabrous or puberulous. Bracts caducous. Flowers rather numerous, ½–¼ in. long, shortly pedicelled, white. Calyx small, about ⅛ the length of the corolla; sepals broadly ovate, acute finely ciliolate. Corolla narrow-campanulate; lobes short, broadly triangular, with inflexed margins. Anthers included; filaments rather long. Capsule depresso-globose, small. 1/10 in. diam. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 168; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 181. D. affine, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 48; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 168. D. imbricatum, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 331.

North and South Islands: From the Thames River to the south of Otago, not common. In the South Island mainly found on the western side of the island. Sea-level to 3000 ft. Totoroivhiti. November–March.

Very variable in the size of the leaves. On young plants or on vigorous shoots they are frequently 4–5 in. long and proportionately broad; but on old plants or in exposed situations they are often reduced to 1 ½ in. or less.

6.D. Sinclairii, Cheesem.—A tall erect branching shrub, usually 4–8 ft. high, rarely taller and forming a small tree 12–20 ft. in height; bark brownish-black. Leaves spreading and recurved, suberect when young, often clothing the branches for a considerable length, 1–½–5 in. long, ⅙–⅓ in. wide at the sheathing base, which is not truncate nor auricled and not very much wider page 422than the blade, gradually narrowed into long acuminate points, coriaceous or somewhat grassy, concave; margins finely serrulate, ciliolate at the base. Racemes lateral, 1–2 in. long, 4–8-flowered, usually fascicled along the branches some distance below the tip. Bracts persistent, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Flowers ¼ in. long, white. Sepals almost equalling the corolla, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Anthers included. Style short, stout. Capsule small, concealed by the persistent sepals.—D. squarrosum, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 48. (not of R. Br.); Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 169; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 181.

North Island: From the North Cape as far as the East Cape, but. often local, usually near the sea. Ascends to 2500 ft. Flowers most of the year.

Hooker's name is most appropriate; but unfortunately it is preoccupied by an Australian species (D. squarrosum, R. Br. Prodr. 556). This was made the type of the genus Sphenotoma by Don, but was reunited with Dracophyllum by Bentham in the "Flora Australiensis."

7.D. recurvum, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 50.—A small rather stout much - branched shrub 6 in. to 2 ft. or 3 ft. high; bark blackish-brown; branches naked, ringed with the scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves crowded at the tips of the branches, spreading and recurved, ½–1½ in. long; sheathing base membranous, ⅛–¼ in. broad, ciliolate, suddenly narrowed into a rigid and coriaceous linear-subulate usually much recurved lamina, which is concave on the upper surface and almost keeled beneath, tip obtuse, margins minutely serrulate. Flowers ¼ in. long, in short and stout terminal bracteate spikes ½–1 in. long; bracts numerous. large, persistent, almost concealing the flowers, base broad and foliaceous, tip short, subulate. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, almost as long as the corolla-tube, ciliolate. Corolla narrow-campanulate; lobes short, ovate - triangular, acute. Anthers included. Style very short. Capsule small. ⅛ in. long, shorter than the sepals.—Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 171; Handb-N.Z. Fl. 181. D. rubrum, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 200. D. tenuicaulis, Col. l.c. xxii. (1890) 476. D. brachyphyllum and D. varium, Col. l.c. xxviii. (1896) 602, 604. D. brachycladum, Col. l.c. xxxi. (1899) 275.

North Island: Mount Hikurangi, East Cape district, Colenso! Tonga-riro and Ruapehu, Bidwill, Captain G. Mair, Kirk, and others; Ruahine Range, Colenso! H. Hill! Petrie! 2500–4500 ft.

Easily distinguished by the small size, recurved leaves, and short dense terminal spikes with foliaceous bracts. I have examined the type specimens of Mr. Colenso's new species preserved in his herbarium, but fail to see how they can be separated even as varieties.

8.D. longifolium, R. Br. Prodr. 556.—Very variable in stature, sometimes a shrub from 4 to 8 ft. high, at others forming a small tree 12 to 25 ft. with a trunk 6–15 in. diam.; bark black; branches slender, erect, naked below. Leaves page 423crowded at the tips of the branches, erect, or spreading when young, strict, 3–10 in. long, narrow linear-subulate; sheathing base ⅛–⅔ in. long and as wide, brown, striate, margins scarious, ciliate; blade ⅛–⅙ in. broad at the base, gradually tapering into a long acuminate pungent tip, concave, rigid and coriaceous, striate, often pubescent above, margins entire or minutely serrulate. Racemes terminal on short lateral branchlets or rarely ending the main branches, strict, erect or inclined, 1½–2⅓ in. long, 6–15-flowered. Bracts numerous, a large foliaceous one at the base of each pedicel and 2–4 equalling the calyx at the base of each flower. Flowers white, ¼–⅓ in. long. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, ciliate, almost equalling the corolla-tube. Corolla campanulate; lobes ovate-triangular, inflexed at the tip. Anthers included. Capsule ⅙ in. diam., enclosed within the persistent sepals.—A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 219; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 413; Raoul, Choix, 44; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 45, t. 31, 32; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 169; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 182; Kirk, Forest Fl,. t. 109. D. Lyallii. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 169. Epacris longifolia, Forst. Prodr. n. 68.

North Island: East Cape district, Bishop Williams! Adams and Petrie! Ruahine Mountains, A. Hamilton! Tararua Mountains, J. Buchanan! South Island: Not uncommon in mountain districts throughout. Stewart Island: Abundant, Petrie! G. M. Thomson! Kirk! Auckland and Campbell Islands: Forming a considerable proportion of the ligneous vegetation, Hooker, Kirk! F. R. Chapman! Sea-level to 4000 ft. Inanga; Grass-tree. November–March.

A very variable plant. In its extreme state, which is best seen in the sounds of the south-west coast of Otago, in Stewart Island, and in the Auckland Islands, it forms a tree sometimes 30 ft. in height, with leaves often a foot in length; but in open mountain districts in the South Island it is rarely more than a few feet high, with much shorter and narrower leaves. This form is difficult to separate from some varieties of D. Urvilleanum; in fact, there does not appear to be any strict line of demarcation between the two species.

9.D. Urvilleanum, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 221.—A much or sparingly branched shrub 4–8 ft. high; branches slender, erect; bark black or dark chestnut-brown. Leaves very variable, slender, often flexuous, erect, 1–5 in. long; sheathing base ⅛–¼ in. broad, brown, striate, membranous, truncate or auricled at the tip, margins scarious, ciliate; blade very narrow, 1/20–1/10; in. broad at the base, coriaceous, concave or canaliculate above, triquetrous or nearly so at the tip, margins minutely denticulate. Racemes on short lateral branchlets, rarely ending the main branches, strict, erect, ½–1 ½ in. long, 4–12-flowered. Flowers small, white or red, ⅕–¼ in. long. Sepals ovate - lanceolate, acuminate, as long as or longer than the corolla-tube. Corolla-lobes rather narrow. Anthers included. Capsule 2/8–⅙ in. diam., enclosed within the persistent sepals.—Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 182.

Var. a.—Branches long, slender; bark black. Leaves rather short,1–2½ in. long, concave above. Racemes 3–6-flowered, lateral, often crowded along the page 424branches for some distance below the tips. Flowers rather small, narrow.—D. Urvilleanum, A. Rich.; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 415; Raoul, Choix, 44; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 49; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 169.

Var. filifolium.—Branches long, slender; bark black or chestnut-brown. Leaves long, ⅔ in., very narrow, often flexuose, canaliculate above.—D. filifolium, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 169. D. setifolium, Stchegel. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xxxii. (1859) i. 23. D. virgatum and D. heterophyllum, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxviii. (1896) 605. (?)D. pungens, Col. l.c. 602.

Var. Lessonianum.—Branches stouter. Leaves 1 ½–3 in. long, strict, flat above, convex beneath. Racemes 6–12-flowered; flowers usually larger.—D. Lessonianum, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 223; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 416; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 170. Some forms of this approach D. longifolium very closely.

Var. montanum.—Smaller and stouter, often densely branched. Leaves ¾–2 in. long, erect or spreading, broad at the base and gradually narrowed into the sheath, which is nor. auricled above. Flowers in stout terminal or lateral spike-like racemes ½–1 in. long; bracts broad, concave. This is allied to D. scoparium, and was included in it by Hooker, but the leaves are quite glabrous.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Var. a. abundant on dry hills from the North Cape to Nelson; var. filifolium, from the Bay of Islands to Wellington, ascending to 4500 ft. on Mount Egmont and the Ruahine Mountains, &c.; var. Lessonianum, from Rotorua southwards to Stewart Island, usually in mountain districts; var. montanum, Mount Hikurangi, Tongariro and Ruapehu, Ruahine Mountains, Tararua Mountains, and apparently not uncommon in the mountains of the South Island, from 2500 ft. to 4500 ft.

At first sight the extreme forms of this look very distinct, but they are connected by so many transitional stages that I think Sir J. D. Hooker was right in referring them to a single species.

10.D. Pearsoni, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 223.—Apparently a stout erect much-branched shrub; branches with the leaves on nearly ½ in. diam. Leaves numerous, close-set, densely imbricating, erect and appressed to the branch, ¾–1 in. long; sheathing base ⅙ in. wide, not auricled nor truncate at the tip, margins ciliate; blade 1/20; in. wide at the base, linear-subulate, pungent, rounded on the back, flat or convex in front, smooth and polished, glabrous, margins minutely denticulate. Flowers small, a in. long, in dense 3–6-flowered spike-like racemes ½–¾ in. long. Sepals ovate, acuminate, rather shorter than the corolla-tube, margins ciliate. Corolla-lobes ovate-triangular, acute. Capsule obovoid, included within the persistent calyx-lobes.

Stewart Island: Mount Anglem and Smith's Lookout, Kirk! locality doubtful, Pearson!

This appears to differ from D. Urvilleanum in the more numerous densely imbricating closely appressed leaves, but further specimens may prove it to be a form of that plant.

11.D. scoparium, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 46.—A shrub or small tree, sometimes 20 ft. high or more; bark dark chestnut- brown; branches dense, erect. Leaves crowded at the tips of the branches, strict, erect, ¾–3 in. long; sheathing base ⅛–⅙ in. broad, page 425 not auricled nor truncate, margins scarious, ciliate with copious white hairs; blade 1⅖–1½ in. wide at the base, gradually tapering upwards, rigid and coriaceous, upper surface more or less silky-pubescent, concave or nearly flat, lower glabrous, convex or almost keeled towards the tip, margins ciliate with white hairs for their whole length. Flowers white, about ¼ in. long, in dense 3–6-flowered spike-like racemes ½–¾ in. long. Bracts broadly ovate, acuminate, silky within, margins ciliate. Sepals ovate, acuminate, ciliate, about equalling the corolla-tube Corolla-lobes short, triangular, acute. Capsule broadly obovate, included within the persistent calyx-lobes.—Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 170. D. Urvilleanum var. scoparium, Handb. N.Z. Fl. 182 (in part).

Var. major.—Taller and stouter, often 20–30 ft. high when fully adult. Leaves of mature plants 1½–3 in., margins more copiously ciliate; of young plants or of the lower branches of old ones 6–9 in. long or more, ½–¾ in. wide, fiat, ciliate, gradually tapering into long acuminate points. Racemes 4–8-flowered; flowers rather larger. Bracts and calyx-lobes often silky on the back.—D. latifolium var. ciliolatum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 736 (young-plant). D. arboreum, Cockayne in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxiv. (1902) 318.

Var. paludosum.- Smaller, 3–6 ft. high when adult, and often flowering when less than 6 in. Leaves 1–1½ in., not longer and wider in the young state. Racemes short, 2–4-flowered; flowers rather smaller.—D. rosmarinifolium, Buch. in Trans. N.Z: Inst. vii. (1875) 338 (not of Forst.). D. paludosum, Cockayne in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxiv. (1902) 318.

Campbell Island: Near the sea, not common, Hooker, Kirk! Chatham Islands: Var. major and paludosum not uncommon, the latter chiefly in swamps, Diefferibach, H. H. Travers! Enys! Cox and Cockayne!

Closely allied to D. Urvilleanum, to which it was reduced by Sir J. D. Hooker in the Handbook, but constantly differing in the conspicuously ciliate margins of the leaves, which are also silky-pubescent on the upper surface. The leaf-sheaths are also never auricled or truncate, as in D. Urvilleanum, but are simply rounded at the top, passing more gradually into the blade. My two varieties major and paludosum are both treated as distinct species by Mr. Cockayne. It is possible that he may be correct with respect to var. major, which differs not only in its much larger size, but also in the very distinct leaves of the juvenile stage. But the leaves and flowers of the mature stage are in both varieties so very similar to those of the original Campbell Island plant that I hesitate to separate either of them.

12.D. subulatum, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 50.—An erect shrub 2–6 ft. high, with long slender twiggy branches leafy at the tips; bark dark red-brown or almost black. Leaves small, strict or flexuose,⅛ in. long, rarely more; sheathing base 1/12–1/10 in. broad, truncate or auricled at the tip; blade very narrow, 1/30–1/40; in. wide at the base, pungent, rigid and coriaceous, concave or flat above, convex beneath, triquetrous at the tip, glabrous on the margins, most minutely serrulate. Leaves of young plants larger, sometimes ½–1¾ in. long by 1/12 in. wide at the base, spreading or recurved. Racemes small, lateral, often crowded along the branches, 2–6-flowered. Flowers small, 1/10–⅛ in. long. Bracts with broadly page 426ovate sheathing bases and erect subulate tips. Sepals usually exceeding the corolla-tube.—Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 171; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 182.

North Island: From Rotorua and the Upper Thames Valley to Taupo, Ruapehu, and the Ruahine Mountains. 350 to 3500 ft. Monoao. November–March.

Easily recognised by its small size and erect slender habit, short very narrow leaves, and small flowers.

13.D. pubescens, Cheesem. n. sp.—A. small densely branched woody shrub; branches stout, often decumbent below, erect or ascending above; bark dark reddish-brown or almost black. Leaves crowded, spreading or erecto-patent, 1–2½ in. long, ⅙–⅓ in. broad at the sheathing base, which is not much broader than the blade, gradually narrowed to an acuminate and pungent point, coriaceous, concave in front, rounded on the back, glaucous, striate, minutely and evenly pubescent on both surfaces, sometimes becoming almost glabrous when old. Flowers about ¼ in. long, in 3–5-flowered spikes terminating short lateral branchlets. Bracts ovate, acuminate; margins ciliate. Sepals ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, equalling the corolla-tube. Corolla-lobes triangular, acute. Capsule obovoid, included within the persistent calyx-lobes.

South Island: Nelson—Mountains near Westport, Townson! 1500–2500 ft.

Habit of D. Kirkii, Berggren, but a larger and stouter and more copiously branched plant, with the leaves finely and equally pubescent on both surfaces, and with the flowers in 3–5-flowered spikes, not solitary. The leaves are very similar in shape to those of small specimens of D. strictum, and are quite different to those of D. Urvilleanum, D. scoparium, and their allies.

14.D. Kirkii, Berggren in Journ. Bot. xviii. (1880)104.—A small depressed woody shrub; branches very stout, 6–18 in. long, prostrate or decumbent, suberect at the tips; bark reddish-brown. Leaves crowded, spreading or suberect, ¾–2 in. long, ⅙ in. wide at the sheathing base, which is not conspicuously broader than the blade, gradually narrowed into an acuminate pungent point, coriaceous, more or less concave, glaucous, quite glabrous, striate; margins very minutely serrulate. Flowers solitary, lateral, ¼–⅓ in. long, shortly pedicelled. Bracts 2–3, sheathing, the tips often exceeding the flower. Sepals ovate, acuminate, shorter than the corolla-tube, margins minutely ciliate. Corolla-lobes ovate-triangular, acute. Anthers included. Capsule broadly obovoid, -⅛ in. diam., enclosed in the persistent calyx-lobes.—D. uniflorum, Berggr. in Minneskr, Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) 15, t. 4, f. 1–11 (not of Hook. f.).

South Island: Nelson—Lake Tennyson, T. F. C. Canterbury—Mount Torlesse, Berggren; Arthur's Pass, Kirk! Cockayne! T. F. C.; Waimakariri Glacier, T. F. C.; Ashburton Mountains, Potts! Mount Cook district, T. F. C. Westland—Kelly's Hill, Petrie! 2500–4500 ft. December–February.

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A very distinct species. The leaves are quite unlike those of any other species belonging to the same section of the genus, having the sheathing bases not much wider than the blade; but they much resemble those of D. strictum, in the section with panicled inflorescence. Its only near ally is D. pubescens, which differs in the pubescent leaves and 3–5-flowered spikes.

15.D. unifloram, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 182.—A stout erect shrub 3–6 ft. high; bark dark-brown or almost black. Leaves crowded at the tips of the branches, erect, strict or flexuous, ½–2 in. long; sheathing base 1/10–⅙ in. broad, rounded at the tip but not auricled, margins ciliate; blade 1/20–1/10 in. broad at the base, rigid, coriaceous, pungent, semiterete below, triquetrous above, margin most minutely serrulate. Flowers solitary, lateral, ¼–⅓ in. long, shortly pedicelled. Bracts 3–6, with broad sheathing bases, tips pungent, often exceeding the flower. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, as long as the corolla-tube. Corolla-lobes ovate-triangular, acute. Capsule broadly obovoid, enclosed in the persistent calyx-lobes.—• D. acerosum, Berggr. in Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) 15.

Var. acicularifolium.—Leaves much longer, 2–4 in., narrowed into long acicular points; sheaths broader, auricled at the tips.

Var. virgatram.—Whole plant purplish-brown. Branches long, very slender, sparingly leafy. Leaves small, ¼–¾ in. long. Bracts with pale membranous margins.

South Island: Abundant in mountain districts from Nelson to Foveaux Straits, Var. acicularifolium: Broken River basin, and other localities in the mountains of Canterbury, Kirk! Enys! T. F. C. Var. virgatum: Westland—Near Kumara, Kirk! Denniston. J. Caffin! 2000–4500 ft. December–March.

16.D. rosmarinifolium, R. Br. Prodr. 556.—A depressed or prostrate, rarely suberect, much-branched rigid woody shrub 3–12 in. high; branches stout, spreading, leafy at the tips. Leaves erect or spreading, rigid, straight or curved, ¼–¾ in. long; sheathing base short, ⅛ in. wide; blade 1/20 in. wide at the base, very thick and coriaceous, convex at the back, flat or concave in front, tip trigonous, obtuse or rarely subacute, margins entire or very minutely scabrid. Flowers solitary, terminating the branchlets and often confined to the lateral ones, ⅙ in. long. Bracts numerous, with broad sheathing bases and subulate tips. Sepals ovate, acute, about as long as the corolla-tube. Corolla-lobes ovate, acute,—A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 220; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 414; Raoul, Choix, 44; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 171; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 183. Epacris rosmarinifolia, Forst. Prodr. n. 67.

Var. politum.—Stems long and creeping or short and tufted, sometimes forming compact masses. Leaves numerous, densely imbricated in many series, erect and appressed to the branch, ¼–⅓ in. long, red-brown, convex and smooth and polished on the back, concave in front, tips very obtuse. Flowers almost hidden by the leaves.

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North Island: Tararua Range, Buchanan! South Island, Stewart Island: Common in mountain districts throughout. Var. politum: Maungatua, near Dunedin, Petrie! Mount Anglem and Smith's Lookout (Stewart Island), Kirk! 2500–5500 ft. December–March.

17.D. prostratum, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1881)384.—A small prostrate species; steins 3–12 in. long, sometimes slender and sparingly divided, sometimes robust and copiously branched, but the branches never so closely compacted as in D. muscoides. Leaves imbricating, erect, incurved when dry, ⅛–¼ in. long; sheathing base short, with broad thin margins, narrowed into a linearsubulate blade, which is obtuse or subacute at the tip, coriaceous, convex at the back, flat or slightly concave in front, curved, margins minutely serrulate. Flowers solitary, terminating the branches, ⅙ in. long, white. Sepals ovate, subacute, rather shorter than, the corolla-tube. Corolla-lobes broadly ovate-triangular.

South Island: Otago—Mountains above Lake Harris; Longwood Range, Kirk! Maungatua, Olinton Valley, and Blue Mountains, Petrie! 1000–4000 ft.

Differs from D. muscoides in the larger size and much more lax habit, and in the longer leaves, which are not so closely imbricated; but some of Mr. Petrie's specimens are almost intermediate.

18.D. muscoides, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 183.—A small densely tufted rigid little plant, forming rounded masses a few inches in diameter; branches short, densely packed, clothed with minute closely imbricating leaves. Leaves 1/10–⅛ in. long, very thick and coriaceous, rigid, concave; sheathing base about half the length, broadly ovate, margins thin; tip short, subulate, polished, semiterete, obtuse or more rarely subacute. Flower solitary, terminal, ⅙ in. long, white. Sepals ovate, subacute, as long as the corolla. Corolla-tube short and broad, cylindrical; lobes very broad, obtuse or subacute.

South Island: Otago—Mount Alta and Hector's Col, Buchanan! Old Man Range, Hector Mountains, Mount Pisa, Mount St. Bathan's, Petrie! 4000–6000 ft.

In the Index Kewensis this is referred to the Tasmanian D. minimum; but, judging from a scrap of that species received from the late Baron Mueller, it differs in the more rigid habit and shorter and more closely imbricated leaves, which are also thicker and not nearly so acute.