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New Zealand in the World

Note on Sources

page 135

Note on Sources

Information on this subject must be dug out from the general sources of New Zealand history: that is, in the first instance from contemporary newspapers, from the Parliamentary Debates, and from the Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives. The newspapers are not indexed at all, while the Debates and the Appendices are indexed in such general terms that considerable ingenuity and experience are required to trace important references. For example, some of the critical debates on Imperial relations in 1870 are indexed under the letter C ('Conduct of Imperial Government') with no further subject reference. References to some of these elusive documents have been included in footnotes, but not where (as in 1869 and 1870) both debates and despatches are so continuously occupied with imperial relations that full citation would clearly be out of place in a work such as this. Useful references to sources are given throughout the Cambridge History of the British Empire, Vol. vii, Part ii (Cambridge, 1933). This volume has also a good bibliography.

The Historical Records of New Zealand, New South page 136Wales, and Australia should be consulted on the earliest phase of New Zealand history, but the principal official documents must be sought in British Parliamentary Papers relating to New Zealand. These are usefully supplemented by the works of A. J. Harrop, notably England and New Zealand (London, 1926), which gives full information on the French colonising projects, and by J. S. Marais's book The Colonisation of New Zealand (Oxford, 1927). Dr Harrop's England and the Maori Wars (London, 1937) prints valuable documents on New Zealand's external relations during the eighteen-sixties. From the English angle, the working of the Colonial Office has been thoroughly expounded by H. L. Hall in his Australia and England (London, 1934), and The Colonial Office (London, 1937), while valuable light is thrown on the ideas behind British statesmanship by such books as Bell and Morrell, Select Documents on British Colonial Policy (Oxford, 1928), W. P. Morrell, British Colonial Policy in the Age of Peel and Russell (Oxford, 1930), and J. E. Tyler, The Struggle for Imperial Unity (London, 1938). Earl Grey's own account of his policy is still valuable—The Colonial Policy of Lord John Russell's Administration (London, 1853); and so is the criticism of it by Adderley in his Review of the Colonial Policy of Lord John Russell's Administration (London, 1869). R. C. Mills, in The Colonisation of Australia (London, 1915), gives one of the best discussions of the ideas of Wakefield and his colleagues, and prints a full bibliography of Wakefield's own writings. The views of a 'Colonial Reformer' in charge of an actual colony are page 137vividly set out in The Writings and Speeches of J. R. Godley (Christchurch, 1863), and are supplemented in a most interesting way in Charlotte Godley's Letters from Early New Zealand (privately printed, 1936); see also a previous volume in this series, The Women of New Zealand by Helen M. Simpson, and books cited therein. Among visiting Englishmen who wrote about early New Zealand Trollope and Dilke are outstanding—Trollope in Australia and New Zealand (London, 1873); Dilke in Greater Britain (London, 1868) and Problems of Greater Britain (London, 1890).

There is as yet no adequate study of the career and ideas of Vogel, but the economic aspect of his career is critically discussed by Condliffe, New Zealand in the Making (London, 1930), which is one of the best introductions to New Zealand history as a whole; the facts about his Pacific imperialism are well set out by Scholefield, The Pacific, its Past and Future (London, 1920), and Masterman, The Origins of International Rivalry in Samoa (London, 1934). The career of Seddon also lacks full and critical treatment, though Drummond's Life and Work of R. J. Seddon (Christchurch, 1906) contains valuable material.

The evolution of Dominion status can be followed in the minutes and other official papers issued in connection with Colonial and Imperial Conferences: some of the key documents have been reprinted in A. B. Keith's useful little volumes Selected Speeches and Documents on British Colonial Policy (Oxford, 1918), and Speeches and Documents on the British Dominions (Oxford, 1932). Valuable page 138commentaries are provided in the numerous works of Keith, and in H. D. Hall's British Commonwealth of Nations (London, 1920); see also Egerton, Short History of British Colonial Policy (9th edn., London, 1932), and British Colonial Policy in the Twentieth Century (London, 1922). On post-war developments see W. K. Hancock's British Commonwealth Affairs, Vol. i, Problems of Nationality (Oxford, 1937; Vol. ii forthcoming) and Wheare, The Statute of Westminster and Dominion Status (Oxford, 1938). The British Commonwealth and the Future, edited by H. V. Hodson, (Oxford, 1939) summarises the efforts of a representative conference to define the nature and prospects of the Empire on the eve of war.

These books deal with the Commonwealth as a whole. The best introduction to New Zealand's individual attitude is still Siegfried's brilliant Democracy in New Zealand (English translation, London, 1914). There are good sections on external relations in Condliffe's New Zealand in the Making, already cited, and in Morrell's New Zealand (London, 1935); and W. Downie Stewart in his biography, Sir Francis Bell (Wellington, 1937), gives a striking account of New Zealand's attitude towards international affairs in the post-war period, as well as incidental information about earlier phases of New Zealand's external relations. Developments under the Labour Government elected in 1935 are described in Contemporary New Zealand (Institute of International Affairs, 1938) with an addendum by the present writer, New Zealand in Crisis (1939), which carries the story up to the outbreak of war; and I. F. G. Milner, page 139 New Zealand's Interests and Policies in the Far East (Institute of Pacific Relations, New York, 1939). A full and authoritative chronicle of current events has been provided since 1910 by the Round Table (London) supplemented in recent years by the Economic Record (Melbourne).

The relations between New Zealand and non-British countries have been very inadequately studied. New Zealand Affairs (Christchurch, 1929) has interesting chapters by T. D. H. Hall on Asiatic immigration and by G. H. Scholefield on the Japanese trade agreement of 1928, but the study by Milner, mentioned above, is the only systematic attempt to analyse our relations with Asiatic countries. The lack of intimate relations with France, and the reasons for this, are concisely explained in the report of a mission which visited this country after the last war—Economic Relations between France and New Zealand (Paris, 1919). It is noteworthy that relations with the United States, Canada, and Australia have not been thoroughly studied. New Zealand's historical literature displays everywhere her preoccupation with the British connection.