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First Lessons in Maori

§ 46. Active Voice

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§ 46. Active Voice.

i. Indicative.
1. Inceptive (Past, present, or future).

Ka karanga ahau, I began (begin or shall begin) calling, or I became, etc.

Ka kore ahau e karanga, I became (become or shall become) not catting, or I ceased (cease or shall cease) calling.

2. Imperfect (Continuous; past, present, or future).

E karanga ana ahau, I was, am, or will be calling.

Kahore ahau e karanga ana, I was not, am not, or will not be calling.

3. Perfect (Completed; past, present, or future).

Kua karanga ahau, I had, have, or will have called.

Kahore ahau kia karanga, I had not, have not, or will not have called.

4. Past (Indefinite).
  • I karanga ahau, I called.

  • Kihai ahau i karanga, I did not call.

5. Future (Indefinite).
  • E karanga ahau, I shall call.

  • E kore ahau e karanga, I shall not call.

6. Future (Emphatic).
  • Tera ahau e karanga, I shall (or will) call.

  • Tera ahau e kore e karanga, I shall (or will) not call.

7. Narrative form.
  • Karanga ana ahau, I called.

(Not used in the negative).

ii. Imperative.
1. Strong (Mandatory or Precatory).
  • Karanga! call! E noho! sit!

  • Kaua e karanga! Do not call!

2. Weak (Hortatory or Deliberative).
  • Me karanga ahau, I had better call or let me call.

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iii. Subjunctive.
1. Inceptive (Future).
  • Ki te mea ka karanga ahau, If I should begin calling.

  • Ki te mea ka kore ahau e karanga, If I should not begin calling, or If I should cease calling.

2. Imperfect (Continuous).
  • Mehemea (or me) e karanga ana ahau, If I were calling.

  • Mehemea (or me) kahore ahau e karanga ana, If I were not calling.

3. Perfect (Completed).
  • Mehemea kua karanga ahau, If I had called.

  • Mehemea kahore ahau kia karanga, If I had not called.

4. Past (Indefinite).
  • Mehemea (or me) i karanga ahau, If I called.

  • Mehemea kihai (or me i kahore) ahau i karanga, If I did not call.

5. Future (Contingent).
  • Ki te karanga ahau, If I should call.

  • Ki te kore ahau e karanga, If I should not call.

6. Future (Consequential).
  • Kia karanga ahau, That I may call, or Let me call.

  • Kia kaua ahau e karanga, That I may not call.

7. Future (Deprecatory or Precautionary).
  • Kei karanga ahau, Lest I should call, or Let me not call.

  • Kei kore ahau e karanga, Lest I should not call. (This negative is used only in dependent sentences).

iv. Infinitive.
  • Karanga, call, preceded by an article or definitive pronoun, thus: he karanga, te karanga, tana karanga, etc.