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The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions. Nga-Puhi [Vol. XI]

Chapter XVII — Waha-Roa and War Party go to Tauranga and the Murder in Wai-kato in His Absence (Nga-ti-haua)

page (227A)

Chapter XVII
Waha-Roa and War Party go to Tauranga and the Murder in Wai-kato in His Absence (Nga-ti-haua)

My mind is clear, I still can think
And wait the coming of the star of heaven.
O sirs, why urge and state command,
Tis told ye dare to hope, to fill
The pit of Rua-rou-raka,
But all your blatant power is but
The skillful influence of noisy lips one day,
To be defied by some, and stared at in contempt
By others who may hear your loud command,
But o how shamed I feel, they liken me
To the black moron, and loudly speak
Their inflamed words and speech of me,
As though I dived, and again come up
Like, the bird close to that ocean cliff
Which answers back each word for word
When spoken to, or steal away, and dare
To show and make appear that I am what I never was.
O that my heart could once be seen
And speak the truth, but hence I pine
In misery, nor can I weave a mat
In which to sit and wait the coming end,
Come, grow up fresh again, be young again.

page (227)

We went from Wai-harakeke to Tauranga with Te-Waha-roa, Te Kupenga, and others - 100 in all. We went from Hua-karamu. We went to Tauranga to make a clearing. We stayed there a month. I longed to see my parents and returned. I came to Wai-harakeke and there found Te Piki, Te Koi and Ngutu-tui. These were all the men. They had two settlements. At one of them was Para-kahu-rangi - the woman who led Piringa from Taumata-wiwi, and Te Whata-ipo, and other women, and Te Reo, a sister of Te-iri-ori. I slept at Waiharakeke. In the morning I went to Matamata, slept there, and in the morning the attack was made by Taraia at Wai-harakeke. A slave of Te Tupua of Nga-ti-tama-te-ra was taken prisoner, Piringa and also sister of Hika-iro. Some swam across the river. They fired and killed Hine-tautoko, a woman, and Whakau-hinga, another woman. The cultivations I spoke of as ours on the Aroha we had there before this affair. I mentioned that about Kepa Te Wharerau in order that it might be known that some of Nga-ti-maru lived among us, related to both Te Wharau's first wife and my father's sister. Long before this a portion of the Aroha - Te Maire, part of Pirau-nui, had been given by Te Wharau to my father by reason of the marriage. Te Wharau lived at Pirau-nui, and used to go backwards and forward to the Aroha. The gift was long before Taumata-wiwi. Te Wharau and those who used to go with him to the Aroha to get eels, went there knowing that I had the mana (right) of the land. They knew of the expedition of Nga-ti-haua page (228)to divide the land. Te Wharau and the others lived at Matamata after the division of the land. Afterwards they went to Hau-raki. I don't know where.

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I remember the expedition of Te-Waha-roa to Roto-rua to avenge the death of Hunga. That was after the attack on Matamata. I did not go with Te-Waha-roa to Roto-rua. The expedition to the Aroha to divide the land the second time was after Matamata and before the expedition of Te-Waha-roa to avenge the death of Hunga. I heard the statement of one of the Nga-ti-maru witnesses that they gave Nga-ti-haua permission to catch eels for that expedition. I never heard of it. The Nga-ti-haua did not go to catch eels for that expedition. The reason we went there was to catch eels for our own use. I don't remember now whether they caught eels for the expedition to Roto-rua. I never heard that Te-Waha-roa asked Hou for permission to catch eels on the Aroha. After the attack on Wai-harakeke we left our cultivations not for long. We were afraid of Marutuahu, and tupato (on the alert) lest they should come back. We did not take revenge for Wai-harakeke. We did not take payment because Wi-Tamehana had become a believer in Christianity. The Nga-ti-haua chiefs were very earnest to fight Hauraki. A great force started from Matamata. Wi-Tamehana and 100 men went after the army. Te-Tiwha and Houkawa were the chiefs. The 100 men with Wi Tamehana were converts to Christianity too. Wiremu Tamihana overtook the army and quoted scripture. He said "Vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord." Wi Tamehana fired off his gun to let Nga-ti-maru hear, to warn them if they were near at hand. The war party got as far as Manawa-ru. Tamehana overtook them at Maunga-emiemi. I was with the large page (230)force, not with Wiremu Tamihana. The taua (war party) went back. There was no-one on the Aroha when we got to Manawa-ru, because it was a time of fighting. It was about a year after this that we went to our cultivations at Wai-harakeke. Some of us went there, some remained at Matamata. Above a hundred went to Wai-harakeke. Those who went there were Te-Hou-huia and Matamata. Te-Wharau did not go. I don't remember where he was at this time. The cultivations were north of Wai-harakeke, Manawa-ru and Takatakahi. We had settlements there. Takatakahi is on the east side of Wai-hou near the mountain. We cultivated off and on, cultivated sometimes and left sometimes. We cultivated there until the death of Te-Waha-roa. Te-Waha-roa was alive at the time of Wai-harakeke. He did not live very long after Wai-harakeke. Te-Waha-roa was alive when Wi Tamehana stopped the taua (war party) in deference to Wi Tamehana's request not to fight. He said "Let Nga-ti-maru have the neck of the men, I will have the neck of the land." I don't remember whether Te Waha-roa was alive when Nicholas first went to Wai-harakeke. I know he was alive when Nicholas came to Matamata first. While these people were at Wai-harakeke, I lived at Matamata. Besides the expedition that went to Manawa-ru there was another of Nga-ti-haua not long after. After the affair of Te-Uira. I was at Matamata when Te Uira occurred; one of the survivors escaped and came to us. Waharoa was ill but not dead. We heard of the death of the two women and one child. A war party of Nga-ti-haua started to cut the enemy's party off. They went to Pi-ako but found that they had gone in their canoes. The Nga-ti-haua army returned. I was not with this page (231)party. There was a taua (war party) after this. Our people went from Matamata by way of Wai-toa on a Sunday. All the religious people were in church. We halted at O-mako-rau. Te-Waha-roa was dead at this time. We started on Sunday lest Wi-Tamehana should follow us again. Got next day to Piraunui. Next night slept at Ngohengohe. We heard some dogs barking at pigs. Our party said there are Nga-ti-maru dogs barking at pigs. The divisions of the army separated. A scout was sent out - he found no-one there. He came back and said they were bush dogs. We saw that the Pa at O-kahu-kura was overgrown. This Pa belonged to Nga-ti-koi and the Whakatohea. Te-Patu-po and Te-Minuha were the chiefs. The inhabitants of the Pa had gone to Hauraki. The Pa was deserted. We slept at Te Awa-iti. We went on to Maunga-tahi. I myself felt hungry. I said to Hakiriwhi and others "So not light a fire." We fired. Those in front of us and those behind heard the firing, they fired. After firing we returned and killed the pigs as they went. These pigs belonged to Nga-ti-koi and Whakatohea. None of Marutuahu appeared. There were about 400 of our party. The O-kahu-kura Pa was quite deserted. Maori cabbage was growing up through the houses and all about. We saw no signs of fresh cultivations, only old cultivations. They were below at Manga-rahi. We crossed over to O-kahu-kura on our return from Manga-rahi. Some went back by the eastern side of Wai-hou; some by west side. We made "moki" (floats) for the guns and swam across. I was with the party on the East side. From O-kahu-kura we went upwards. Slept at Ngahu-oneone. We page (232)shot pigs along the road. Ngahu-oneone is below Te Rae-o-te-papa. We slept at Manawa-ru killing pigs as we went. We killed pigs at Te Rua-kowhawha. I don't know whether the pigs belonged to Nga-ti-maru or Nga-ti-koi. We crossed on to the west side of Wai-hou at Te Rua-kowhawha. We saw pigs and we shot them. We thought these pigs belonged to Nga-ti-maru and Nga-ti-koi. There were no cultivations as far as Te Rua-kowhawha. I saw neither Pa nor settlements at Kahu-puku. Had there been a Pa we should have seen it, but if there had been bush houses we might not have seen them. We shot no pigs from Rua-kowhawha to Manawa-ru. We saw no cultivations from Rua-kowhawha to Manawa-ru except our former cultivations. We stayed two days and two nights at Manawa-ru and caught eels there. On the third day we arrived at Matamata. We went along the bank of the Wai-hou. There was no-one on the Aroha at this time. We saw no signs of anyone having been living on it. The Nga-ti-haua had been cultivating on Manawa-ru not long before this expedition. After the Wai-harakeke affair we had cultivated on the Aroha. The Haua-rahi affair had not taken place at the time of this expedition. Hauarahi was after Te-Uira. At the time of the expedition Te Iro-nui was at O-tawhao. There were other expeditions of Nga-ti-haua that I heard of. The Waihou expedition had been put a stop to by Wi-Tamehana. A thought came into the mind of Te-Iro-nui. He went to the Waikato, the Nga-ti-haua and Nga-ti-whatua, and all the tribes of Waikato went on an expedition. 200 of Nga-ti-haua went with it. Wi Tamehana did not know of this expedition. They did not tell him page (233)because he always used to stop all war parties. He was very zealous in stopping fighting. There was a mission station at Matamata. After the Hau-raki fight we had cultivated on the Aroha at Wai-harakeke and at Hua-karamu, Manga-emiemi, Umu-kuri, Te-Kotuku, Manawa-ru, and Maunga-uhenga - those were all on the side of the river. On the last side of the hill, Tawere-pioke, Pukukowhatu, Kotuku-haohao, Takitakihi. These were all on the hill side. These were the principle cultivations. There were other smaller ones. We had made these cultivations before Haora Tipa's visit on his peace errand. We would go and cultivate for a time, and go away for a time and so on. Between Haua-rahi and the peace at Nga-hina-pouri there were none of Marutuahu living on the Aroha. None of them interfered with us during this time. We used the eel weirs every year. None of the Marutuahu used the eel weirs. I never saw or heard of Karauna using them. Tutuki first came to cultivate on the Aroha after the Waikato war. I heard of it from Nga-ti-haua hauhau. When Nga-ti-haua went to O-hine-roa. I went there shortly after the war. I had then no knowledge of Tutuki. He had not then arrived. About two years afterwards he came. That is the first time I heard of his being there. I don't know who he had with him except Te Rua and Te Hemo-po. I know why Tutuki went there. It was Wi Tamehana who made the Maori King. Some of the Hauraki people approved of it. Tauaru, Waraki, Piriha, Marutuahu, and some chiefs of Nga-ti-paoa, viz: Pokai, Ngati, Tuna-tiki-tua, and they went up to Waikato when Wi Tamehana made Potatau king. They approved. The Waikato war took place. They joined. They page (234)went with Wi Tamehana. Wi Tamehana's Pa was at Te-Tiki. The Hau-raki and others were in it. My place at that time was Te Awa-o-waikato, Te Mahau and Matamata. I received a letter from Wi Tamehana. He was thinking of leaving off fighting that he would leave himself open to be killed at Te-Tiki. He wished me to go and see him. I showed the other Queenites the letter. I proposed to go. I wrote to the General to tell him that he might know that I was going to see Tamehana at Te Tiki. I went. I sent Pene-tito with the letter I got to the Tiki. Some Nga-ti-paoa were there - they were fighting against the Queen's soldiers.. I don't know whether Tutuki was there, but he was on this side, also Tauaru. Waraki had been wounded. Wi Tamehana and the Waikato went from there to Po-tatere, I did not go to Po-tatere. From Po-tatere they went to the Aroha, and the Waikato went to Tokanga-mutu. The Nga-ti-haua went on to William Tamehana and Nga-ti-hine-rangi's portion at Mata-kokowai, at Wai-rere, at Maetoki, at Waiharakeke and at Koko-tahaohao. Those are the only places they resided at when they arrived in that district. Nga-ti-haua also resided at those places and Nga-ti-maru went back to Hauraki. Tauaru went to Hau-raki. Some of the places are in the boundary, some are not. All the Nga-ti-maru went back to Hauraki. Tutuki went to Hauraki. My cousin Hera was married to Tauaru. She was taken ill at Hauraki. When near death she asked Tauaru to take her back to our places. He did not want the Nga-ti-maru to be at the expense of the funeral feast. This is a custom of Nga-ti-maru. Tauaru took her to the Aroha to the Nga-ti-haua hauhau, to her relations, Paka-roa and Riki. She shortly after died and was buried there - that is why Tauaru is living there now. Tauaru had relations buried there before Taumata-wiwi. After this Tutuki, Harete and Te-Whare-nui came. Te-Karu of Nga-ti-haua, a "tuakana" (elder relation) page (235)of mine is on the Aroha. The place where Tauaru's wife is buried was Tauaru's burial place at the time of Nga-puhi war a O-hine-roa. Nga-ti-haua's burial place was Moe-toke. Our burial place is outside the line, south. I know of no other cultivations of Marutuahu on this block except this. Tutuki cultivated at his place on the Aroha. Tauaru with Nga-ti-haua on the north of the Aroha mountain. I never heard of Nga-ti-maru cultivating on the Aroha before the Waikato war. I heard that Marutuahu cultivated at Manawa-ru. I don't know who, I only heard Nga-ti-maru. It was shortly after the fight of Wai-harakeke and Te-Uira. They planted potatoes, the crop grew up and we went and pulled them up. There was no-one there when we pulled the potatoes up. The Nga-ti-maru had gone back to Hau-raki. I did not go with the ope (troop) that pulled the potatoes up. The cultivation was a large one. The party returned and afterwards I went and found the potato stalks dry. The Nga-ti-maru came up secretly and went away secretly. We did not know of their planting there. We pulled the potatoes up lest the Nga-ti-maru should say the land was theirs. We were going at the time to catch eels at our places. I know of another cultivation of Marutuahu before the Waikato war, namely Para-kauere's who was a half Nga-ti-maru, half Nga-ti-haua. (We pulled up the whole cultivation just spoken of about 1/4 acre.) Para-kauere's cultivation was a Mata-uraura. I know of no other cultivation of Marutuahu. The only other property of Marutuahu we destroyed was some pigs, on the hill at the north side of the Aroha. I killed them there, but pigs are things that move about. I heard they were page (236)Nga-ti-maru pigs. We had eaten Nga-ti-maru pigs before up to the time we brought wheat to Auckland. I supposed them to be young ones from the pigs of Nga-ti-koi, some of which were killed by us at the expedition to O-kahu-kura. I heard that Nga-ti-maru had brought pigs up after that expedition. A man of Nga-ti-koi told me that the pigs belonged to Nga-ti-maru who had brought them up. I said I will kill them - and I did so - new and old I killed them just the same. I was always at the killing of these pigs. Some were ear-marked. I understood they were Nga-ti-maru pigs. I killed them lest they should claim the land. I had pigs on the land. The killing of these pigs was before and after the peace at Nga-hine-pouri. Nga-ti-haua had grown wheat on the Aroha. They first grew wheat there after the peacemaking at Nga-hine-pouri. We grew the wheat at Hua-karamu and Wai-harakeke outside the block at Manga-emiemi and Te-Umu-kuri. The two last ones are inside, at Pukahukahu.

These were all. I know Mr Nicholl. We grew wheat at these places before Nicholl came to Matamata. The first crop was destroyed by an easterly gale, and we did not go back to those places. We saw that they were unsuitable. The places I have named. We did not go back for a long time. We returned again. This planting wheat was a long time after Ngahinepouri, and before Nicholl came. It was after Ongare. During the time we were cultivating the wheat I know nothing of Wi Tamehana having page (237)I said on Saturday that we gave up growing wheat at the places mentioned, and then afterwards went back again. The war put a stop to our cultivating. The King had been elected then. These were rumours of fighting. It was given up then. We finished cultivating wheat at Waiharakeke when the Bishop went to the great meeting at Peria. Some time after the fighting at Taranaki (Feb 1862). We cultivated wheat only on the places mentioned on Saturday. During this period

We continued to use the eel weirs in the creeks. We caught every year. There were no eel weirs on the east side. Only one at Manga-maire. It belonged to Tini Ponui's father, of Nga-ti-haua, and now belongs to him. Ponui Snr made it. We did not grow wheat at any other places than those we have mentioned but we grew potatoes on other places. On Manawa-ru, Te-Horo, Wai-rakau, Tokotakahi, O-tu-mata-hau, Waopuku, and other places, where we cultivated every year. These are all on the east side except Manawa-ru, Te-Horo, and O-tu-mata-hau. We grew potatoes permanently on the Aroha up to the time of the peacemaking of Matiu John, and Te-Wharau. The cultivations were left for a time. We went again and so on - I know of my own knowledge - they were my own cultivations. We commenced the cultivation of wheat on the second occasion when Nicholl came up to his place at Matamata from Kikowhakarere. I remember when wheat was first introduced among Maori's. Our first cultivation of wheat at Wai-harakeke was not long after that. During the time we were cultivating on the Aroha we page (238)were never disturbed. Para-kauwere was cultivating on the Aroha. We were never disturbed. Parakauere was cultivating on the Aroha at this time, and he was a half Nga-ti-maru and half Nga-ti-haua, also Wi-Hape-Waha-taupoko. He was with Parakauwere. He married a woman of Nga-ti-haua, sister of Te Tuatara and grand-daughter of Pua-manuka to whom the Aroha belonged. I think he was a Nga-ti-hue but I am not sure.

Te Aroha belonged to him long before Taumata-wiwi. These are all of Nga-ti-maru that I know of, who cultivated on the Aroha, before the Waikato war. These were on the Waikato side, and also the woman. They cultivated at Mata-uraura. Parakauwere went to hold the land on behalf of Nga-ti-haua, and to keep away his own other side of the Nga-ti-maru. Parakauwere also admitted the right of Nga-ti-kura, another tribe of his, represented by Whare-nui. Nga-ti-kura were a hapu of Nga-ti-haua. They claimed from two sources. They were of the original stock of the Nga-ti-hue, and from the conquest of Nga-ti-haua which was their substantial claim. Parakauwere lived on the Aroha under the mana (right) of Nga-ti-haua and Nga-ti-kura.

I heard what the witnesses on the other side said of having cultivated on the Aroha. I am certain that they did not cultivate before the Peria meeting on the place they have named.

After the Peria meeting our people remained at Peria. After that the Waikato war commenced. I remember Erana Ketu living with Nga-ti-haua. I don't remember when she went back to Hauraki.

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She was not a woman of rank among Nga-ti-haua. She was a serf belonging to my matua (elders). She and Te Wharau, her matua (parent), used to go to Pirau-nui to get eels for me and my children. I don't know about her cultivating on the Aroha. I said we discontinued to cultivate on the Aroha after the meeting at Peria. We went back to it again. During the time that the Waikato war was going on we the friendlies used to go to and fro to feed our pigs and grow potatoes. My place was Te Au-o-waikato on Piako. After the war the Nga-ti-haua hauhau fled, and then they went on to the Aroha. I know when they went back. I came to Auckland and then went back to the Uru-hau. A letter was sent to Wi Tamehana to come to Te-Uru-hau from the Aroha. At this time Wi Tamehana and his people were residing at Maokohe, Mata-kokowai, Wai-harakeke, Hua-karamu, Manawa-ru and Pukahukahu, when they went there from Patetere. I first saw Wi Tamehana at Mata-kokowai (say July 1864). They resided in numbers on the Aroha and made settlements the same year. The kainga's (settlements) they made were O-hine-roa, Takatakahi, Wai-rakau, Pukahukahu, Koka-tahaohao, Te-Kotuku, O-tu-mata-hau and Wao-puaka, also the place of Wharenui's daughter on the Aroha. I saw them on all these places except the places at the base of the mountain. There was no settlement at this time at Manawa-ru, only temporary eel places. When the Nga-ti-haua hauhau went to the Aroha they found no Nga-ti-maru there. I know it because while they were at Patetere I used to visit the Aroha.

I heard the evidence about page (240)Waraki having taken the Nga-ti-haua there. I never heard that he did so and don't assent to it. There are hauhau's here who can speak to that. On the former investigation there were some Nga-ti-haua hauhau brought by Nga-ti-maru to speak for them, namely Harara Ngotauri, Rewi, Parotene and Te Kepa Ringatu. There were some Nga-ti-haua hauhau who came forward and objected to the investigation. They stated their reasons.

There were some Nga-ti-haua hauhau who objected to the law for investigating native lands, because the Maori King was a "kaipupura whenua" (guardian of land).

The reasons they gave for objecting were given outside the Court but they got up and opposed in the Court. I heard the Nga-ti-haua hauhau say in the Court that the land belonged to Marutuahu.

They said the land had been taken by the bravery of Te-Waha-roa, but had been returned to them by Te Tiwha and Wi Tamehana.

That was the reason they gave for the land being Nga-ti-maru's. The Nga-ti-maru denied the conquest and the giving back. I know of other reasons why they sided with Nga-ti-maru.

They wished Nga-ti-maru to strengthen the Maori King as against the government.

They were also afraid lest we should get a grant for the land and sell it. It is not true that Te Tiwha gave back the Aroha. If the land had been returned there would have been a meeting about it. There never was such a meeting. The going of the Nga-ti-haua to Patitera was after the taking of Te Tiki by the General. The Waikato's went to Manawaru among the others, being hauhau and did not see any permanent settlement of Waikato at Manawaru.