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The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions. Nga-Puhi [Vol. XI]

Chapter XVI — Tribes Occupy the Tiki Preparatory to a Battle (Nga-ti-haua)

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Chapter XVI
Tribes Occupy the Tiki Preparatory to a Battle (Nga-ti-haua)

Thou ocean, o thou sea come to the land,
And look at Motu-takapu now here
As now I fend off all the blows of Koke-roto
While loud voice Hupeke proclaims
The skills that map my frame from Tuhua,
With blasts that flow from off the sea,
With sharp and pungent grief continually
O change their course to current of Kowhiti-tangi
Where octopus of ocean is,
And cast them far away to Pupu,
Like long locks clipped, then should
I cease to as cowly as once I was.

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We got to the Tiki. There is a flat towards Waikato, the Hau-o-ira stream is beyond. Te-Waha-roa said "Nga-ti-paoa, I am here, I shall join the Waikato side." He then went down by a track to Waikato. Nga-i-te-rangi went by the main road. Waikato by the upper side of the road. Firing commenced. It commenced on the opposite side of the Hou-o-ira stream. We had taken possession of the Tiki.

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We had crossed the Hau-o-ira stream. A stand was made neither party budged. Nga-ti-haua were down in the hollow, Nga-ti-maru on the top of the hill, Nga-ti-paoa were at the end of the hill. A great many of the Nga-ti-haua were killed. The chief of Nga-ti-paoa - Te Pukeroa was still alive. Shortly after some of the Nga-ti-paoa were killed, and the Te Puke-roa was shot. Nga-ti-haua had lost 30. Te-Waha-roa got wounded in the hand. When Te Puke-roa was shot, Nga-ti-maru and Nga-ti-paoa fled. When they fled we pursued them. They turned and fired and killed one of us. We fired and shot one of them and so on. The last man killed was Te-Hiki of Nga-ti-maru at Te Rei-roa. We followed them to their Pa. They turned and fired on us, and killed the man mentioned. It was a small part of our force which followed them up to the Pa, and we saw men, women, and children escaping from the Pa on the other side. When the man was shot it was said he was of the Nga-ti-haua. They were satisfied and crossed to leave the Pa, night came on, and the fight ended. I don't know the name of the man who was shot. We returned to Taumata-wiwi.

Marutuahu did not follow us. We talked and proposed to attack them again next morning. Taumata-wiwi is the place where the two armies made the stand. We did not cross the Hau-o-ira stream that night. We remained on the battle field all that night. Our dead bodies were there too. We brought the bodies a short distance to our camp - a short distance on the other side of the Hau-o-ira stream. We removed them the same night - each hapu page (213)took its own dead. Our camp was at Taumata-wiwi. Our camp was far from where the bodies fell as from here to the Wynyard Pier. We slept at Taumata-wiwi that night.

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(Sketch map of battle field produced.) This plan is right. I said yesterday that Nga-ti-maru were on the top of the terrace.

The Nga-ti-maru had made entrenchments on the top of the hill to protect themselves.

I slept on the night of the battle at Taumata-wiwi, on the Hao-whenua side of Hau-o-ira stream. My people collected all the bodies on the day of the battle, our own and Marutuahu.

We burnt some of our dead on the same day in the evening after dark. We burnt them at the mouth of the Hau-o-ira stream. That same day we cut all Marutuahu dead up. We cut some up where they fell. Those that fell near to our camp we dragged whole into the camp. We had possession of all the bodies the same evening. The bodies of our dead which we did not burn we took on the following morning to Ka-wehi-tiki. A very few were taken to Ka-wehi-tiki. We sent some of our people to Kai-wehi-tiki with the bodies, the rest of us remained. None of our dead were thrown into the Wai-kato river. I heard Erana Ketu say that our inferior dead were thrown into the Waikato. The morning after the battle we had a talk about attacking the Marutuahu again. This talk took place at Taumata-wiwi - that is the great name of all that land. Our talk took place at our camp on the Hao-whenua side of the Hau-o-ira stream.

On the night of the battle Waikato and Nga-i-te-rangi camped on the Tiki side of the Hau-o-ira stream. We arranged to attack the Marutuahu, but when Tahuroku and the others made their appearance it was put an end to. We were all page (215)prepared to attack. Taha-roku came from Hao-whenua he came with the women mentioned by Nga-ti-maru and Taha-roku, Te Tipua, Wawa, Tira-ki-te-rangi and a Nga-i-te-rangi women whose name I don't remember. When they arrived we welcomed them. The woman were in front, the men behind. They sat down. Te Hura said "E Tira, haere mai." ("Tira, welcome.") Tira was a mokopuna (grandchild) of Te-Waha-roa and Te Hura "He aha te take i haere mai ai koutou?" ("What is the cause of your coming?") She said "He haere mai na Taha-roku na Te-Tupua ki te hohou i te rongo." ("Taha-roku and Te-tupua have come to make peace.") This was a private conversation with Te-Hura. The woman had left her own party and had come among us. I was present and heard the conversation. The conversation was privately told to all our chiefs. Te-Waha-roa got up and said, "E pai ana, e Taha-roku, mau i haere mai ki te hohou i te rongo. Taku whakaaro me hohou tonu. Nau i takahi mai te mate o Takurua kapai. Katahi ano au ka tae mai ki tenei whenua i runga i tenei whawhai ka mate mai tatou. Ki taku whakaaro inaianei me whawhai tonu." ("It is well o Taha-roku that you have come to make peace. My thought is that peace be made, and as you have cast aside the death of Takurua, it is good, for the first time have I been on this land, now that I am here in in war, in which we now are killing each other, but my thought this day is that we continue to fight.") These are the only words that I remember of Te-Waha-roa. Taha-roku got up and said, ("Yes, that is the reason I came, I came to make peace, as I think my life is my own.") - "Ae, koia tenei i haere mai ai au ki te hohou i te rongo. He whakaaro noku, noku aku mate." (My loss is my own) alluding to the loss of Nga-ti-maru at Huka-nui and Taumata-wiwi. Te-Waha-roa consented to make peace. He said "Whakatika, haere, maku tenei whenua. Te aroha tae noa ki Piako (i e). Tae noa ki te Aroha tae noa ki Piako." ("Rise, go, this land is for me, this is Te-aroha even to Piako, from Piako down to Te-aroha.") These are the only words page (216)that I remember that Te-Waha-roa said. Te Iro-nui stood up and said to Taha-roku "You must go to Nga-ti-kahu-nunu, and seek lands for yourself there." Te Tiwha got up and said the same as Iro-nui, Rawhiwhi stood up and said "Go hence and seek land at the south." All the chiefs said the same. "Ma tanu toa e rapu whenua mona." ("Let him by his bravery obtain land.") Te-Waha-roa got up again and turned to Nga-ti-haua and said, "Kati enei korero." ("Let these words close.") He said to Taha-roku, "Return to your land at Hau-raki." "E tai koe ki reira kei whakahokia mai te he ki au." ("And when you have got there, do not let the evil come back on to me.") That was all Te-Waha-roa said. No-one contradicted what Te-Waha-roa had said. After the talk the party returned to their own place to Hao-whenua. Taha-roku came about breakfast time. We had had our food. We were willing to fight if Taha-roku had not come. We had had our food before we belted to fight. We had according to Maori custom had our food cooked at night. Some of the Nga-ti-maru dead had been cooked on the evening of the battle. Before Taha-roku and the women came, none of the Nga-ti-maru came out of the Pa to attack us. I never saw them fire a volley at us. I don't know anything about any of them having come out of their Pa.

Had they done so we would have attacked them immediately. We should have been pleased had they come out. Had they fired we should have heard them. At the time page (217)of the discussion, the morning after the fight the greater number of the Waikato were at Te-Kohu, but some had joined us.

Some Waikato arrived at Te Kohu after Taumata-wiwi and came and joined us - the others stayed at Te Kohu. The Waikato had greatly increased in numbers at Te Kohu after Taumata-wiwi. Those who assembled at Te Kohu assembled for the purpose of exterminating Nga-ti-maru. I don't know that any presents were given by Nga-ti-haua to Taha-roku when he came. I never heard of any. I heard afterwards that Maikuku had said something to Kuku-tai about guns. Taha-roku and the women came once that I saw. The only visit that I know of was when Taha-roku and the women came.

It is false about the two visits. I was at our camp when they and the women came. I don't know that they returned with any guns belonging to us. They did not. Had Te Waha-roa given any guns I should have seen. I was sitting with my matuas - Te Waharoa and Te Hura.

I heard since from a Waikato that Maikuku had asked Kuku-tai for some guns to give to Nga-ti-maru, but I don't know about it myself. I only heard of it. I know that neither Te-Waha-roa nor any of our side gave guns to Maru-tuahu. We remained at our camp on the battle field. I stayed there two days after Taha-roku came and then went to Ka-wehi-tiki. I went with my relations and a great many more. My matuas and page (218)others stayed at Taumata-wiwi, but not long. They went to Ka-wehi-tiki. I know the number engaged at Taumata-wiwi on our side:

Nga-i-te-rangi 200
Te-Waha-roa and party of Nga-ti-haua 70
Nga-ti-haua from Ka-wehi-tiki 670
Waikato 400

We assembled at the bank of Waikato.

The Waikato that came from Tauranga had guns. There was a pakeha at Tauranga then selling guns to the natives at that time. One was named Clarke. There were other pakeha there. I remember the Marutuahu returning from Hao-whenua. After we returned to Ka-wehi-tiki, as peace had been made. My father was sent to Hao-whenua, also Pare-kahu-rangi - a woman related to Taraia, also Rangi-puhia (f). They went to Hao-whenua. Shortly afterwards Kiri-tapu went who was related to Nga-ti-paoa and Rangi-herehere who was related to Te-Taniwha. It was not three months before the Nga-ti-maru went from Hao-whenua as they have stated. In my opinion it was half a month. I know why these people went to Hao-whenua. They went to Hao-whenua - to "arahi" (lead) Marutuahu on the road to Hau-raki. The tribes that were not led were the Nga-ti-pukenga - they went first. Nainai was their chief - it was he who shot the man outside the Hao-whenua Pa. They went to Roto-rua and settled at Maketu. Another tribe was the Urewera. They went to the place where they are now - they were not page (219)led. I heard what I am relating from Te Ranga-a-kuri, near Te-Aroha. I am not certain whether the Whakatohea were led. My father, Taha-roku and the two women went together with Nga-ti-tama-te-ra - Taraia's tribe and some of the Nga-ti-maru. They went from Hao-whenua to the bank of the Waikato, crossed at Aniwaniwa, went on to Hinuwera, Kai-o-te-kahu, Ahirau, Turanga-moana, Te Ranga-a-kuri, between Matamata and the Aroha. I myself saw my father leave Ka-wehi-tiki with the two women. I did not see them and the Nga-ti-tama-te-ra start from Hao-whenua. I know when they did leave. It was not two months after the Taumata-wiwi battle that they left, in my opinion it was half a month. From what I heard from my father the Nga-ti-pukenga and Urewera were the first to leave. Before he got there they had left. The others went by two ways - one by Ranga-a-kuri, one by Tauwhare. The Ranga-a-kuri party were the first to leave. Rangi-herehere, Kiritapu, and Nga-ti-whanaunga were of this party. The third party went by way of Wai-kato. I did not see, but I heard from Te-Wherowhero, Te Kanawa, and the chiefs of Wai-kato. My father returned from Te Ranga-a-kuri with the two women to Matamata. We, the Nga-ti-haua had settled at Matamata. We went to Matamata to divide the Aroha. At Taumata-wiwi some of Nga-ti-haua were left in charge of Ka-wehi-tiki Pa. News arrived that some Nga-ti-paoa had fallen at Taumata-wiwi and that Nga-ti-haua had got the bodies, and that Taha-roku had come to make peace, and that Te-Waha-roa page (220)had said "That the Aroha should be his - reaching on to Pi-ako." On receiving this news the people at Ka-wehi-tiki, went to the Aroha, and also some of those who had fought at Taumata-wiwi, and some of those who had been to take the dead bodies to Ka-wehi-tiki, went to cut up the Aroha. No chiefs went on this expedition. Te Tiwha was the only one. I went with the party as far as Matamata where I stayed. The rest went on to the Aroha. There was no Pa at Matamata. One reason for going was to divide the Aroha, the other was to wait for Puke-rahaki and the two women coming back. They divided the Aroha first and then went to Matamata to wait. Maru-tuahu were at Hao-whenua at the time this party left for the Aroha. The party went to Matamata and stopped there. I don't know how many days. After a time they went on to the Aroha. First to Wai-harakeke, next to Te Ara-taua - a good place for eels, next to Tirotiro, and Manawa-ru. The party were away one day, and on their return to Matamata they told me what they had done. After we had been some time at Matamata, Puke-rahaki and the women joined us at Matamata. They had taken Nga-ti-maru as far as Ranga-a-kuri, and then returned. They knew we were at Matamata because it had been arranged before, that Puke-rahaki should go to lead Marutuahu and that we should go and cut up the Aroha, and afterwards wait at Matamata. After Puke-rahaki joined me at Matamata we did not remain long, we went back to Ka-wehi-tiki. We page (221)stayed there some time. Afterwards we went to Matamata and built a Pa. I was present at the building of the Pa. I was not tattooed then. We were not long at Ka-wehi-tiki before we built the Pa at Matamata. I remember the attack of Nga-puhi and Maru-tuahu on the Pa's of Matamata and Ka-wehi-tiki. Previous to that attack I had been on the Aroha. I went to complete the division of the Aroha - it was then divided and a piece given to each. After the Maru-tuahu had gone back to Hau-raki a number of us started for Ka-wehi-tiki and cut up the Aroha. I think the attack by Ngapuhi and Marutuahu on Matamata was about two years after Taumata-wiwi. All the Nga-ti-haua went to divide and take possession of the Aroha, went by Matamata, and Ranga-kino to Wai-harakeke. Te-Waha-roa went with this party and divided the eel weirs amongst us, as far as Te Rua-pa. At this time there was no-one on the Aroha. We built some eel pas. We commenced to divide at Wai-puna and Hua-karamu was the first, Wai-harakeke was Te-Waha-roa's piece - that is outside. Our portion of Hua-karamu belonged to Nga-ti-pare the other to Te-Ruarangi. Te Ruarangi got Manga-emiemi up to Te-Wai-puna. Muru-pura got Pou-rewa and Tupuhi. I got Papa-kauri up to Te-Ara-taua. Nga-ti-koi got Tiepa. Nga-ti-haua got the lower portion of Te-Rua-pa. We got the upper part. Te-Waha-roa said at Taumatawiwi that the boundary should be at Te Rae-o-te-papa. We did not get as far as that. We stopped our work at the Rua-pa. We built eel-pas at the time we went to divide the land as far as Te Rua-pa. We have kept the eel-pas up to the page (222)present time. The Nga-ti-haua have continued to repair them from time to time and have caught eels there up to the present time.

I don't know if any other people have used them. I have heard that Nga-ti-maru say that this land is theirs. I knew the chiefs of Marutuahu now present. I don't know of any of their chiefs using the eel weirs. Nga-ti-haua used the eel weirs from Taumatawiwi until the war when some Nga-ti-maru Hauhau used them. I don't know who of them. Tutuki may be using that at Te Ruapa, as he has a Pa there. None of the Marutuahu chiefs present have caught eels in these weirs that I know of. I myself have used them continually since Taumatawiwi. I have not done so lately as the Hauhau's are there. The eels we had at the Court at Waitoa were got from the Aroha to Piraunui. The weirs built by Nga-ti-haua were for the purpose of catching the eels, excepting when we were fighting we were never interrupted in catching eels. We did catch eels during the fights at Matamata and Kawehitiki, but we did it with caution.

The old woman who was killed was killed in going for eels. No-one has ever been to us to tell us to move off. When Marutuahu and Nga-puhi came to attack Matamata I was at Matamata. The first attack was at Ka-wehi-tiki and afterwards at Matamata. When the force left Ka-wehi-tiki the Nga-ti-haua remained in the Pa. When the party who had attacked Ka-wehi-tiki came to Matamata the others of this party had made a Pa at Tiko-rangi, some distance from Matamata. On their way to build page (223)the Pa Nga-kuku of Nga-ti-haua attacked them and killed one man before they had commenced the Pa. Marutuahu remained in this Pa. They attacked the Matamata Pa before they had finished their own and we went outside and fought. They lost two. One of the bodies we got. We lost none on this occasion. After this Te-Whare-kohe was called by Whare-kawa. I don't know why. They were related. Whare-kawa called out to cease firing. Whare-kohe went. Marutuahu left this Pa, and came to where they used to fight to meet Whare-kohe, and they killed him. I saw him killed. This was a murder. Afterwards an old man and a slave went to split wood. Nga-ti-maru heard them chopping and they came out and killed them. After this both parties met outside in the open. Mahanga of Nga-puhi was killed and Te-Pou-tao was mortally wounded. A large number of Waikato's had by this time come to Ka-wehi-tiki. A messenger came from the Waikato to Matamata. We at Matamata assembled. The messenger said - "Listen to the words of Waikato. Tomorrow morning I shall beat Waitoa. On the second day I shall beat Nga-tu-rapa. Te-Waha-roa, you attack the Pa at Tiko-rangi." When Te-Waha-roa heard this he reflected and he called to Te-Tupua (of Nga-ti-haua and Nga-ti-tama-te-ra). Te Tupua went to Matamata. Te-Waha-roa said "This is a koha (gift of love) of mine to you. Go to your people the Marutuahu, go at once, don't wait after my word. If you remain you will be annihilated. Waikato have arrived 2,000 strong at Maunga-kawa." Te Tupua left - he went back to Tiko-rangi.

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Te Waharoa then sent a messenger to the Waikato to go back the day after they should have come down lest they should have a journey for nothing. Te Tupua went to his Pa and the next day we saw their houses burning. The Waikato who came to Ka-wehi-tiki had been fighting at Taranaki. They came to Ka-wehi-tiki because of the death of Kumete. They had been successful at Taranaki, and captured a large Pa. I saw the prisoners they brought back. The Pa at Matamata could not run short of water as they had the river Wai-toa. There was food close to our Pa, and food at theirs, and between the Pas. They got possession of the cultivations of ours which were near their Pa. We had plenty of food. We went to the Pa at Tiko-rangi the same day the Marutuahu left and burned a portion of it.

I know ………. I heard his evidence about his coming and finding the Nga-ti-haua in their Pa at Matamata. I don't recollect about his visit.

After the attack at Matamata some of us went to O-tawhao and some remained. We went of our own accord because some of Nga-ti-haua went there. The Pa was not quite deserted, some of our hapu's (sub-tribes) stayed behind. I heard Erana Katu's evidence. It is not true. We went to talk about going to attack and kill the Taranaki's. I heard the evidence of Marutuahu about Ruru. I don't know anything about the message of Te Waharoa being sent to Hua about Ruru.

A black and white diagram showing the whakapapa from Tarera to Ruru and Tu-whakaraina.

Ruru was called Ruru at first, afterwards Tu-whakaraina. When Te Waharoa was dying his ribs showed and page (225)Ruru was called Tuwhakaraina. After this one died there was another called Tuwhakaraina - this one now in the Court. There was no other. Ruru was called Tuwhakaraina before Te Waharoa died. I don't know of any other Ruru besides. At the attack on Matamata, Ruru was at Matamata. When some of the Nga-ti-haua left Matamata he went to O-tawhao with his mother and father. He died lately at Maunga-kawa. He was alive when Governor Grey went to Matamata. He is buried at Te-Tapui at Maunga-kawa. Ruru had children. His elder daughter died. His son by a second wife is now here. Matamata Pa was only wholly evacuated lately - before the Taranaki war. It was left after Haora Tipa and party came to make peace. There are still settlements there. Between the building of the Matamata Pa and the coming of Haora to make peace we always lived in it. We left it after Haora's peacemaking. We cultivated and had houses at Matamata after the fight. From O-tawhao we went to Maunga-tautari - some returned to Matamata and joined them who had been there all along. The Ka-wehi-tiki Pa was deserted and the people went to Maunga-tautari and some to Matamata - they built a Pa at Maunga-tautari called Te Karaka, near Hao-whenua.

After this we cultivated at Matamata and we cultivated at Wai-hou and Te-Aroha. Our largest number lived at Wai-harakeke and extended on to Hua-karamu and Maunga-emiemi, Te-Kohiku, Te Turua-o-tamanoa, Manawaru on the river. On the East at Tokatoka-koko-tahaohao, Pukuhukuhu, Tawere-pioke, and on the south boundary. The lower workings were at page (226)Maunga-whenga. We did not cultivate lower than that. We did not because we were on the alert (or unsettled) and we were afraid of being attacked by Nga-ti-maru. While cultivating we caught eels. They were of the greater importance. Te Aroha is good land, and cultivatable all along the river. We occupied the land on account of the eels, and on account of the land itself. The reason that we occupied that land was that at the peace at Taumata-wiwi it was said that the land should be ours. I have heard what was said about Wai-harakeke. After peace had been made at Maunga-tautari, and after that Kumete was killed - which was a murder. Te-Waha-roa told Taha-roku to go to Hau-raki, and not come back to do evil, and after this Kumete was killed. I call it a murder because peace had been made at Taumata-wiwi. When the Nga-ti-maru war party went up Wai-toa. Hou sent Moaho to Matamata to our Pa. His word was - "The Nga-puhi and Maru-tuahu are coming." My opinion is that the cause of the Marutuahu coming with Nga-puhi was "pouri" (sorrow) for the losses in the affair of Takurua, Hukanui and Taumata-wiwi. They were "mauahara" (a feeling of malice). I know of no other cause. I don't know anything about the killing of Te-Horeta being one of the reasons. He was killed in Waikato. I don't know where. About the Waiharakeke affair, we were living at Matamata. The father of Kepa Te-Wharau was living with us. Those of Nga-ti-tumutumu, Toka-whero, Mau-whare and others were living with us. Kira, wife of Mokena, is in the Aroha now. When I say with me, I mean with Nga-ti-were were of Nga-ti-haua. They went backwards page (227)and forwards to this land, catching eels, and bringing them to me, and I ate them. I come now to the time when I lived permanently on the Aroha.