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The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions: Horo-Uta or Taki-Tumu Migration. [Vol. III]

Chapter X

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Chapter X.

Where are the hands and feet
That Tiki made? Gone with the gods.
Yes, O my children's mother!
Speak, and let me know
That I shall soon an infant see,
And priests shall stand before
The Ahu-rewa (altar), where,
With incantations, they shall chant
To bones of those of ancient days,
And taunt the earthquake-god.
Yes, yes, my children's mother,
Give me my infant now,
That, dandling it upon my knees,
My joy may be complete—
That I no more may feel
A want and ache not yet appeased.

Pa O Nga-Toko-Ono (The Pa Of The Six).

Between Fisherman's and Paua Bay, on the edge of a bold cliff, may still be seen the remains of the most ancient Maori pa in this locality. The date of its occupation can only be a matter of conjecture, but if it belonged to the Nga-ti-mamoe, as generally reported, it must be from three to four hundred years old. When Nga-i-tahu first arrived the pa was in much the same condition that it presents now; nothing but the earthworks remained to mark where it once stood. In answer to their inquiries respecting its origin, they were told that it was the pa of Nga-toko-ono, and that the tradition about it was, that six chiefs once dwelt there, who went out one day in their canoe to page 207 fish about a mile from the coast, when they were caught by a violent north-west wind, and were blown out to sea and were never heard of again.

Some light has lately been thrown upon the fate of these men by the Chatham Islanders, who say that their ancestors arrived at Whare-kauri (kauri house) after being blown off the coast of their own land. They also speak of some of their ancestors coming from the foot of Te-ahu-patiki (heap of flat-fish-Mount Herbert), and that the reason for their leaving was owing to the defeat and death of their chief Tira (company), who was killed while endeavouring to punish his daughter's husband, who had been guilty of adultery. On reaching Whare-kauri they were kindly received by Maru-po (shelter at night), the chief of a Maori-speaking race. By the advice of their hosts the new arrivals resolved to give up fighting and cannibalism. The Maori refugees carried kumara-seeds with them; but on planting them they died, so they returned to New Zealand for a further supply. The question naturally arises, How did Tira's people know of the existence of Whare-kauri? It seems highly probable that, after discovering the islands, Nga-toko-ono, or some of them, returned to inform their friends, who gladly availed themselves of a safe refuge from the relentless Nga-i-tahu, whose successes in the northern parts of the Island were beginning to cause them anxiety regarding their future safety.

Para-Kaka-Riki. (Nga-i-Tahu.)

Not far from the pa of Nga-toko-ono may be seen the outlines of the protective works of another ancient pa known as Para-kaka-riki (food of the green parrot). It was situated at the end of one of the spurs on the south side of Long Bay, and was an important stronghold of the Nga-ti-mamoe. It was captured and destroyed by Moki (raft), who, in the celebrated war-canoe Maka-whiu (hook cast away), coasted round the Peninsula, and completely subdued all the Nga-ti-mamoe inhabitants.

page 208

This chief, who resided, after the Nga-i-tahu migration, at O-te-kauae (the jaw), near the mouth of the Wairau (gleanings of the crop) River, was induced to undertake the expedition against the Peninsula by the report brought to him by his wife's two brothers, Kai-apu (eat by handfuls) and Te Makino (disgusted), who had accompanied Wai-tai (salt water) on his voyage from Wairau to O-takou (red ochre), when that chief, offended by Maru's (shade) determination to spare the Nga-ti-mamoe, seceded from the Nga-i-tahu confederacy. These two men had noticed, while coasting southwards, the vast extent of the plains stretching from the seashore to the snowy ranges, and had also been particular to mark the position of the numerous Nga-ti-mamoe pas passed during the voyage. When their canoe touched at Hiku-rangi (tail of heaven) they had learnt that their old tribal enemy Tu-te-kawa (the baptism) was living not far off, at Wai-kakahi (water of the kakahi—Unio shell), a piece of information which afterwards led to important results.

After accompanying Wai-tai to Muri-hiku (tail-end), and taking part in various encounters between his forces and the hostile tribes by which he was surrounded, Kai-apu and Te Makino were seized with a longing desire to avenge the death of a near female relative, and in order to accomplish their purpose they resolved to risk the journey overland to Wairau. As they travelled over the plains between the Wai-tangi (noisy water) and Wai-para (impure water) Rivers, they remarked with covetous eyes the luxuriant growth of the cabbage-palms, so highly valued for the favourite kauru food, prepared from the stems. They were astonished at the immense numbers of weka and rats which they saw in the long tussock-grass, and were equally astonished to find all the streams and lakes throughout the country swarming with eels and lampreys and silveries, and the great Wai-hora (water spread out) Lake full of flat-fish.

They passed safely through the hostile country, and reached page 209 the, outskirts of O-te-kauae, when they made inquiries for Moki's house. They were told they could not mistake it, as it was the loftiest building in the pa, with the widest barge-boards to the porch. They did not enter the pa until every one had retired to rest, when they made their way to the house indicated, and sat down close to the break-wind near the porch, where they waited till some one appeared to whom they could make themselves known. About midnight their sister came out, and, after sitting a few minutes in the yard, rose to return to the house. Hoping to attract her notice without making any noise, one of them opened a parcel of the tara-mea plant which he had concealed about him. She no sooner perceived the delicious fragrance of the plant than she approached the spot where her brothers were crouching, feeling her way towards them along the breakwind. As soon as she reached them they caught hold of her, when she gave a sharp cry, but they at once silenced her fears by telling her who they were. She was overjoyed by the discovery, and quickly re-entered the house to inform her husband. “Rise up, rise up, O Moki!” she cried. “Here are your brothers-in-law, the sons of Pokai-whao (bundle of chisels). They have returned, and are awaiting your pleasure outside.” Moki told her to bring the travellers in and to prepare some food at once for them, but not to make their arrival known to the pa till the morning. Marewa (lifted up) knew how important it was for her brothers' safety that they should take food under Moki's roof, because it would insure his protection in the event of their meeting with persons inclined to kill them; for in these stormy times it was the common practice for individuals to avenge their private wrongs, and in doing so it was quite immaterial whether they killed the person who had done them the injury, so long as they killed some one connected with him; unprotected people were therefore always in great danger of losing their lives. It was not surprising, therefore, that under the circumstances Moki's wife displayed the greatest alacrity in providing refreshments for her husband's guests, selecting page 210 the materials from her choicest stores. She listened till dawn to the story of their adventures by sea and land, and then she went to carry the news of their arrival to the other great chiefs of the place.

Te-rangi-whakaputa (day of energy) was the first to come and welcome them. He asked whether they had seen any good country towards the south. They replied that they had. “What food,” he asked, “is procurable there?” “Fern-root,” they replied, “is one food, kauru (tii-root) is another, and there are weka and rats and eels in abundance.” He then retired, and Mango (shark) took his place, and asked, “Did you see any good country in your travels?” “Yes,” they replied “Ohiriri (spirt) (Little River)—that is a stream we saw, and Wai-rewa (water lifted up) is the lake.” “And what food can be got there?” he asked. “Fern-root,” they said, “is one food; but there are many kinds: there are weka, and kaka, and kereru, and eels.” Mango (shark) replied, “Inland is a pillow for my head, on the coast a rest for my feet.” Te Rua-hiki-hiki (pit where charms were repeated), son of Manawa (breath), was the next to enter and interrogate them]. He, too, asked, “Have you seen any land?” They replied, “We saw Kai-torete (eat while fleeing), a plain, and Wai-hora (water spread out), a lake.” “What food can be got there?” “Eels,” they said, “abound there, and patiki (flat-fish), and the ducks putangitangi (paradise-duck) are food to be got there.” “That shall be my possession,” said Te Rua-hiki-hiki.

But there was another and still more powerful incentive than the acquisition of a rich food-producing district to induce Nga-i-tahu (descendants of Tahu) to undertake an expedition to the south, and that was the desire to vindicate the tribal honour. No sooner did Moki and the rest of the leading chiefs learn from the two travellers that Tu-te-kawa (Tu the baptized) was still living at Wai-kakahi (water of time Unio) than orders were immediately issued to prepare the great war-canoe, Te-maka-whiu (barracouta thrown away), for sea. This canoe was made page 211 out of an enormous totara-tree which grew in the Wai-rarapa (glistening water) Valley, on the North Island, the stump of which was shown until quite lately by the old Maoris there. On the completion of the conquest of Nga-ti-mamoe (the long cooked) the canoe was drawn up at Omihi (wonder, or sorrow), where it was subsequently buried by a landslip, the projecting bow only being left exposed. It was regarded as a sacred treasure under the immediate guardianship of the gods (atuas), and one man, who presumed to chip a piece off as a memento, paid the penalty of his sacrilegious rashness by dying immediately afterwards.

Tu-Te-Kawa. (Nga-i-Tahu.)

The feud between the chief Tu-te-kawa and the ruling family of Nga-i-tahu was caused by his having put Tuahu-riri's (altar of anger) wives to death at Te-mata-ki-kai-poika (the medium consulted when the game of balls was played), a pa on the southeast coast of the North Island. Tuahu-riri had from some cause incurred the ill-will of a powerful member of his own tribe, the renowned warrior Hika-oro-roa (friction continued to procure fire). That chief assembled his relations and dependents, amongst whom was Tu-te-kawa, and led them to attack Tuahu-riri's pa. When they were approaching the place at dawn of day, and just as the leader was preparing to take the foremost post in the assault, a youth named Turuki (sucker), eager to distinguish himself, rushed past Hika-oro-roa, who uttered an exclamation of surprise and indignation at his presumption, asking, in sneering tones, “how a nameless warrior could dare to try and snatch the credit of a victory he had done nothing to win.” Turuki, burning with shame at the taunt, rushed back to the rear, and addressed himself to Tu-te-kawa, who was the head of his family, and besought him to withdraw his contingent, and proceed at once to attack the pa from the opposite side, and thus secure the victory for himself, and for ever prevent such a reproach from again being uttered against any one of his family. Tu-te-kawa, who resented keenly page 212 the insult offered to his young relative, instantly adopted his suggestion, and so rapidly did he effect the movement that his absence was not discovered till he had successfully assaulted the pa, and his name was being shouted forth as victor. A few moments before the assault took place Tu-te-kawa said to his nephew, “Go quickly and rouse Tuahu-riri.” The young warrior ran forward, and on reaching the pa called out, “O Tu!” “What is it?” he asked. “Come forth.” “Wait till I fasten on my waist-belt.” “Wait for nothing: escape. They are close here!” “Where?” “Just behind my back.” Without stopping to put on a garment or to pick up his weapons, Tuahu-riri rushed out of his house, climbed over the fence, and ran for his life to the shelter of a neighbouring wood. Tu-te-kawa was the first to enter the pa and at once made his way to Tuahu-riri's house, where he found his two wives, Hina-kai-taki (grey-haired weeper) and Tuara-whati (broken back). These women were persons of great distinction, being related to all the principal families in that part of the country, and their lives ought to have been quite safe in the hands of their husband's relatives. But Tu-te-kawa turned a deaf ear to their appeal for protection, and killed them both. Though accused of killing these women unnecessarily, it is very probable that he may have put them to death to save the family honour, as it was no disgrace to die by the hands of a near kinsman, and he had good reason to suspect that Hika-oro-roa, having lost the credit of the victory, and having failed to secure the husband, would take his revenge on the wives. Tu-te-kawa might have argued, if they must die it was better he should kill them.

When the war-party were re-embarking in their canoes a few hours after Tuahu-riri came out to the edge of the forest and called to Tu-te-kawa, and asked him whether he had got his waist-cloth, belt, and weapons. On being answered in the affirmative he begged that they might be returned to him. Tu-te-kawa stood up in his canoe and flung them towards him, page 213 telling him at the same time what had happened to his wives. After picking up his weapons Tuahu-riri turned towards his cousin, whom he wished to reward for having saved his life, and called out, “O Tu! keep out to sea—or keep in shore, rather keep in shore.” This was a friendly intimation intended to save Tu-te-kawa from the destruction about to fall upon his companions in arms; for no sooner were the canoes under way than Tuahu-riri retired into the depths of the forest, and there invoked the help of his atuas to enable him to take vengeance on his enemies, and by their agency he raised the furious wind known as Te-hau-o-rongo-mai (the power of Rongo-mai). This tempest dispersed Hika-oro-roa's fleet, and most of his canoes were upset, and the crews drowned in the stormy waters of Raukawa (Cook Strait). Tu-te-kawa, forewarned, had hugged the coast, and so escaped destruction. After crossing the strait he landed on the South Island, where he decided to remain, and so escape the inevitable consequences of the attack on Tuahu-riri's pa. He had nothing to fear from the Nga-ti-mamoe, to whom he was related on the mother's side; and, further, he knew that his presence amongst them would be welcomed, because he was willing to employ the armed force that accompanied him against the remnant of Wai-taha (bowl for water) who continued to maintain their independence. Passing down the coast Tu-te-kawa took up his residence at Oko-hana (bowl of the red ochre) (Church Bush), near Kai-a-poi (game at balls), where eels were plentiful. He employed the few Wai-taha whom he spared from destruction to work the eel-fishery there for him. Hearing after a time that the eels of Wai-hora (Lake Ellesmere) were of a better quality, he removed to the shores of that lake, and built a pa at Wai-kakahi (Wascoe's), while his son Te Rangi-tamau (the heaven bound) built another at Tau-mutu (end of the mountain). Surrounded by his allies, and at such a distance from his enemies, Tu-te-kawa felt quite secure. But after the lapse of many years, and when he had grown old and feeble, his followers grew alarmed for his safety page 214 owing to the rapid advance southwards of the Nga-i-tahu. They urged the old chief to escape while the opportunity of doing so remained, but all their entreaties were in vain—his only reply was, “What will then become of the basket of flatfish spread open here?” (in allusion to the lake).

They soon had ample evidence that their fears were well grounded, for the war-canoe Te-maka-whiu, manned by the choicest warriors of Nga-i-tahu, and commanded by the experienced leader Moki, was rapidly approaching his retreat with the avowed intention of avenging Tuahu-riri's wives. When the expedition arrived at Koukou-rarata (tame owl) a council of war was held to decide whether to approach Wai-kakahi by sea or by land. Some advised an immediate advance on the place overland. This was opposed by Moki, who said he had been warned that Tu-te-kawa was sitting like a wood-pigeon on a bough, facing his foes, and that if they approached him from the direction he faced he would take flight before they could catch him. After much discussion it was decided to go by sea. The warriors accordingly re-embarked, and pulled southwards. As they approached Okain's Bay Moki observed the groves of karaka-trees growing near the shore, and, wishing to become the possessor of them, he whispered the following directions in his attendant slave's ear: “When I order the canoe to be beached, take care to be the first to reach the shore, and at once cry out aloud, ‘My land, ‘O Ka-raka!’” The slave prepared to carry out his master's instructions, and as the canoe neared shallow water he jumped overboard, and tried to wade ashore in advance of any one else. But he was forestalled by Mahi-ao-tea (work in daylight), one of the crew, who, suspecting Moki's design, sprang from the bows of the canoe on to the beach, shouting aloud, “My pa, Karaka! my bay, Kawa-tea (baptism of the light one)!” Encouraged by the success of the attempt to secure an estate for himself, this young man, who was only a chief of secondary rank, resolved to proceed overland to the destination of Te- page 215 maka-whiu. Accompanied by a few followers, he made his way from Okain's to Gough's Bay. In the forests he encountered Te-aitanga-a-hine-mate-roa (descendants of the daughter of continued disappointment), a wild race (thought to be enchanted black-pine trees), whom he overcame and destroyed; and between Pou-takaro (games all ended) and O-tu-tahu-ao (companion of the daylight) he fell in with Te-ti-a-tau-whete-ku (the tii of the year staring wildly), enchanted cabbage-trees that moved about and embraced each other like human beings. He also came across Te-papa-tu-a-mau-heke (the flat of him who caught the migrations), an enchanted broadleaf-tree. After a very adventurous march Mahi-ao-tea rejoined the expedition at Karuru (shelter) (Gough's Bay), where he found the canoe already drawn up on the land, and preparations being made for the advance on Para-kaka-riki. He learnt that after his departure from Okain's the expedition had moved on to O-tu-tahu-ao (set fire to in the day) (Hickory), where they encamped. There an incident occurred which had caused considerable amusement. One of the leading chiefs had presented a basket of dried barracouta for distribution amongst the crew. Those whose place was nearest the stern got the first helping, and by the time the basket reached those who occupied the bows only a few fine fragments remained. These were handed to a conceited chief named Wha-kuku (grate over a rough surface), a sort of captain of the forecastle, who, on seeing what had fallen to his share, said to his companions, “Hold tight, hold tight to the fish-dust!” (meaning that when his men fell in with Nga-ti-mamoe they should take care to secure for themselves something better than the leavings of the persons of higher rank). He named the cave where they took their meal “The Cave of Fish-dust Eating,” to commemorate his having been fed with the dust of Hika-tutu's (fire procured by a travelling party) fish-basket.

While the plan of attack was under discussion, Moki, the commander-in-chief, suddenly called out to Turangi-po (seen as spirits), a noted veteran, famed for deeds of valour performed page 216 on many a battle-field in the North Island. Turangi-po asked what Moki wanted. “You may eat,” he replied, “the head of your Lady Paramount.” Tu-rangi-po remained silent for some time, pondering over what was meant by this strange speech. He felt convinced that Moki was employing some spell to paralyze his energies, and rob him of any chance of gaining distinction in the coming encounter with Nga-ti-mamoe. He conjectured that Moki, annoyed at the failure of his attempt to secure for himself the karaka-groves at Okain's Bay, was now bent on making sure of better success at Para-kaka-riki, and that, in order to gain his end, he was endeavouring to cast a spell over the man most likely to defeat his purpose. Turangi-po was, however, equal to the occasion, and, having exhausted every means he could think of to break the spell and neutralize its ill effects, he resolved to try its potency on Moki himself. “Moki,” he cried. “What?” replied he. “You may eat the head of your Lady Paramount.” Moki made no reply, and, from the course of subsequent events, it became evident that he neglected to employ any precautions to neutralize the spell. While these two chiefs were exchanging these questionable civilities, the bulk of the warriors were wondering what their object could be in bandying such shocking expressions, for such allusions to the sacred head of a person of rank were regarded as blasphemous. Their speculations were interrupted by Moki suddenly calling out, “Who is for us?” (meaning, Who will act as scout?). Wha-kuku instantly replied, “I am; I will act as scout.” “How will you proceed?” “I will get above the pa, and, if you hear my voice sounding from high up the hill, then you will know that the pa is guarded; if my voice sounds low down, the pa is not guarded.” Wha-kuku at once proceeded to reconnoitre. He was followed by the main body, who, as they approached the cliffs to the north of Fisherman's Bay, saw several canoes anchored off the coast opposite the mouth of Long Bay. Moki, wishing to know whether the presence of his force on the coast had been observed by Nga-ti-mamoe, fastened page 217 his white whalebone weapon to his foot, and dangled it over the brink of the cliff; but the fishers failed to take any notice of it, and Moki accordingly concluded that they were unconscious of the approach of enemies, and resolved to continue his march without waiting to conceal his movements under the cover of darkness. He proceeded till he reached the woods on the south side of Long Bay. There the final disposition of the force for the meditated attack on the pa was completed; and, having found a suitable place of concealment, the men waited impatiently for the promised signals of their scout. Wha-kuku did not keep them long in suspense, for he soon succeeded in reaching a position overlooking the pa, where he at once commenced to imitate the cry of a wood-hen, “Ko-ee, ko-ee, ko-ee.” The women of the pa listened, and said one to another, “Hark! What bird is that? Surely it is a female weka that is crying in the wood above us.” He then climbed to a point still higher above the pa, where he commenced to cry “Tee-wake, tee-wake, tee-wake.” The women said again, “Hark! Surely that is the cry of a male weka.” He then descended and concealed himself in a shallow cave close to the pa. His companions, on hearing his signals, interpreted them to mean that, although there were many women in the pa, they were not altogether unprotected. So the order was passed along the line to delay the assault till dawn. The warriors with difficulty restrained their impatience, and as soon as the first rosy tints appeared in the eastern sky they rushed out from their place of concealment and took the pa by storm. Moki, who wished to secure the coveted distinction awarded to the warrior who killed the first foeman in battle, took care to occupy the foremost place. As he rushed forward, he encountered what he imagined, in the dim light, to be two of the enemy. He struck a furious blow with his taiaha, first at one and then at the other, shouting out at the same time, “By my hand has fallen the first foeman.” But, to his extreme mortification, he discovered that, instead page 218 of men, he had only aimed mortal blows at two upright blocks of stone that came in his way, and which were ever afterwards known as “Moki's pair.” His failure on this occasion was attributed to his having omitted to remove the spell which he provoked Turangi-po to cast upon him. That warrior, having discovered the mistake Moki had made, rushed past him and, having entered the pa, secured two women, Te-maeke (the cold) and Ta-whera (gaping), as his prisoners. Te-ao-tu-tahi (clouds close together), the principal chief of the pa, was killed by Mahi-ao-tea (work in daylight). His son Uruhanga (blast-usher of a southerly gale) made an attempt to escape by a path along the cliffs, but, being observed, was pursued. His superior knowledge of the dangerous footway might have enabled him to get off safely but for Wha-kuku, who, concealed in a cave above him, was intently watching his approach; and the moment he came within reach Wha-kuku plunged his spear into his shoulder, and hurled him down the cliff in the direction of his pursuer, calling out at the same time, “Your man.” “No,” replied the other; “yours.” “No,” said Wha-kuku; “you may have him, but do not conceal my name.” After the fall of Para-kaka-riki Moki returned to Koukou-rarata, carrying his prisoners with him. Having drawn up his canoe and placed a guard over the prisoners he advanced by a forced march over the hills to Wai-kakahi (Wascoe's).

The shadow of Moki's form across his threshold was the first intimation Tu-te-kawa had of the arrival of the Nga-i-tahu. The old chief, infirm and helpless, was found coiled up in his mats in a corner of his house, and Tu-ahu-riri's sons, mindful of their father's last words, “If you ever meet that old man, spare him,” were prompted at the last moment to shield their kinsman, but the avenger of blood thrust his spear between them, and plunged it into the old man's body. It may be necessary to explain here why the Nga-i-tahu chiefs hesitated at the last moment to carry out the avowed purpose of the ex-pedition. page 219 Tuahu-riri's injunction, and their desire to carry it out, were quite consistent with the Maori customs relating to feuds of this nature. Tu-te-kawa had spared Tuahu-riri's life, and therefore merited like protection at his hands. But Tu-te-kawa had killed Tuahu-riri' s wives, and their death required to be avenged, but not necessarily by the death of the person who killed them; it would be sufficient atonement if one of his nearest blood-relations suffered for the crime. This practice will be fully illustrated in subsequent pages containing the account of the Kai-huanga (relations eating each other) feud.

Having ascertained that Te-rangi-tamau (settled sky) was away at Tau-mutu (end of the hill), and not knowing what course he might take to avenge his father's death, Moki gave orders that a watch should be kept at night round the camp, to guard against surprise; but his orders were disregarded. Te-rangi-tamau, whose suspicions were aroused by observing a more than ordinary quantity of smoke arising from the neighbourhood of his father's pa, set off at once for Wai-kakahi, and arrived there after dark. Waiting till the camp was quiet, he passed through the sleeping warriors and reached his father's house. The door was open, and, looking in, he saw a fire burning on the hearth, and his wife, Puna-hikoia (stepping to the fountain), sitting beside it with her back towards him. Stepping in, he touched her gently on the shoulder, and, placing his finger on his lips as a signal to keep silence, he beckoned her to come outside. There he questioned her about what had happened, and, finding that she and his children had been kindly treated, he told his wife to wake Moki after he was gone, and give him this message: “Your life was in my hands, but I gave it back to you.” Then, taking off his dogskin mat, he re-entered the house, and placed it gently across Moki's knees, and then hurried away to the pa at Wai-kakahi, which stood on the hill between Birdling's and Price's Valleys, a few chains from the point where the coach-road passes. The spot is still page 220 marked by the ditch and bank of the old fortress. When Puna-hikoia thought her husband was safe from pursuit she woke Moki and gave him Te-rangi-tamau's message. Moki felt the mat, and was then convinced the woman told the truth. He was greatly mortified at having been caught asleep, as it was always injurious to a warrior's reputation to be caught off his guard. Issuing from the house, he roused his sleeping warriors with a mighty shout, and the expression used upon the occasion has since become proverbial—“Nga-i-tu-whai-tara mata hori!” (“O unbelieving Tu-whai-tara!”) The next day negotiations were entered into with Te-rangi-tamau, and peace restored between him and his Nga-i-tahu relations.

After the destruction of Para-kaka-riki and the death of Tu-te-kawa the various chiefs of Nga-i-tahu engaged in Moki's expedition who had not already secured a landed estate elsewhere for themselves took immediate steps to acquire some part of the Peninsula. The rule they adopted was, that whoever claimed any place first should have the right to it provided he went at once and performed some act of ownership there; and, also, that he should be entitled to as much land around it as he could traverse before encountering another selector. Te-rangi-whaka-puta (the day of daring) hastened to secure Te-whaka-raupo (like raupo—Typha angustifolia) (Port Cooper), Hui-kai (collect food together) hurried off to Koukou-rarata, and Mango to Wai-rewa. Te-rua-hikihiki landed at Wai-nui (great water) and commenced at once to dig fern-root and prepare it for food; he then passed round the coast, leaving Manaia (beautiful) at Whaka-moana (like the sea), and others of his party at Wai-kakahi, taking up his own permanent residence at Tau-mutu. Tu-takahi-kura (Tu who tramples on the red plume), leaving his sisters and his family at Pohatu(kowhatu)-pa (stone dam), walked quickly round the coast by the North head of Aka-roa (long root) Harbour, and up the shore as far as Taka-matua (prepare for the parent), and thence round by Para-kaka-riki to starting-point. While crossing one of the streams that flow page 221 through the present township of Aka-roa, he encountered Oi-nako (ngako) (fat oi-bird), a Nga-ti-mamoe chief, and a fugitive from Para-kaka-riki. They engaged in mortal combat, and Oi-nako was killed, and the stream was ever after known by his name. Te-ake (Dodonea viscosa), the ancestor of Big William, landed at the head of the bay, and, after trying in vain to reach Wai-nui (great water), owing to the rough nature of the coast, he retraced his steps, and tried to get round the other side of the harbour; but on reaching the grassy slopes between Duvauchelle and Robinson's Bay he felt too tired to go any further, and took possession of the point and its surroundings by planting his walking-stick in the ground; hence the place obtained the name of O-toko-toko (walking-stick). Fearing that his boundary towards the south might be disputed, Te-ake begged Te-rangi-tau-rewa (the opening of summer) to cross over in his canoe to a headland he pointed out, and then to hold up his white whalebone weapon, while he himself stood at O-toko-toko (the walking-stick) and watched him. His friend did as he was requested, and this headland has ever since been known as “The peg on which Te-rangi-tau-rewa's patu-paraoa (whalebone weapon) hung”—south side of French Farm. The beach below the point was called “The shell of Hine-pani (orphan daughter),” after some Maori lady who found a shell there which she greatly prized.

Some years after these events took place another section of Nga-i-tahu, under the command of Te-wera (the burnt), a fiery warrior destined to play an important part in the history of his tribe in the south, came in search of a new-home. They landed at Hiku-rangi (tail of heaven); but, finding that place already occupied, they sent to Whakamoana (towards the sea) for Manaia (handsome), a chief of very high distinction the upoko ariki (head lord), and heir to all the family honours of more than one hapu (sub-tribe) in the tribe. On his arrival a war-dance was held in his honour, and many speeches were made by the chiefs. Te-wera, after indulging in some rude witticisms on the personal page 222 appearance of their squint-eyed lord, extended his right arm and called upon Manaia to pass under it. Manaia rose and passed under the arm of Te-wera: thus peace was confirmed between them; but, to cement their friendship still more firmly, Ira-kehu (red wart), granddaughter of Te-rangi-whakaputa (day of daring), was given in marriage to Manaia, and became the ancestress of Mr. and Mrs. Ti-kao (dried root of the tii), Paurini, and other chiefs of rank. Te-wera and his party then sailed away to the south, and established themselves for a time near Wai-koua(kua)-iti (water become less), where they were as much dreaded for their ferocity by other sections of their own tribe as by the Nga-ti-mamoe, whom they were trying to exterminate.