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The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions: Horo-Uta or Taki-Tumu Migration. [Vol. II]

Chapter XI

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Chapter XI.

* * * * * *
Tell the news from countries trod by thee;
But thou, when asked to give our history,
Make answer, “I am young, and but a child,
And have forgotten what my parents taught.”
Yet we have heard from days of old
That Tai-nui, Arawa, and Mata-tua,
With Kura-hau-po and Toko-maru,
Were the canoes in which our great progenitors
Sailed across the mighty ocean which we see.
And Hotu-roa, Nga-toro, Tama-te-kapua
And Rongo-kako, these with Tama-tea
In the Arawa came, and whose descendants now
Have spread and covered all these lands (New Zealand).
* * * * * * * *

Original Canoes.
The Tradition of Nga-Ti-Awa Respecting the Arrival in New Zealand of the Several Canoes.

The ancestors of the Nga -ti-awa (sons of Awa), and the Whaka-tohea (like a niggard thief) of Whaka-tane (like a man), came in the Mata-tua (ceremonies performed to the face) canoe.

The ancestors of the Nga-ti-mania-poto (descendants of Maniapoto—short plain country), Nga-ti-raukawa (descendants of Rau-kawa—sweet-scented leaf), Nga-ti-apa-kura (descendants of Apa-kura—party of red men), Nga-ti-maru (descendants of Maru—shade), Nga-puhi (descendants of Puhi-moana-ariki—plume of the lord of the sea), and Nga-ti-toa (sons of Toa-rangatira — brave chief) came in the Tai-nui (great tide) canoe.

page 177

The ancestors of Nga-ti-whaka-ue (descendants of Whaka-ue—propel a canoe with a paddle worked against the side), Rangi-tihi (day of trifling), Nga-ti-piki-ao (descendants of Piki-ao—come to the rescue), Rangi-wewehi (day of fear), Tu-hou-rangi (day of the feather-plume), Nga-ti-wahi-au (divide the current), and Nga-ti-tu-whare-toa (descendants of Tu-whare-toa—house of the brave) came in the Arawa (shark) canoe.

The ancestors of Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu (descendants of Kahu-ngunu—garment of the dwarf) and Nga-i-tahu (descendants of Tahu—the spouse) came in the Taki-tumu (lift the king) canoe. The ancestors of Nga-rauru (hair of the head), Nga-ti-rua-nui (descendants of the big pit), Nga-ti-apa (descendants of Apa—body of workmen), Rangi-tane (day of men), Nga-ti-Hau (descendants of Hau—the scalp of the slain), and Moa-upoko (head of the moa) came in the Ao-tea (clear day) canoe.

The ancestors of the Nga-ti-Hau came in the Kura-hau-po (or Kuru-au-po) (red clouds of the windy night, or great work in the current at night) canoe.

The ancestors of the Nga-ti-area (descendants of Area—open space) of Tara-naki came in the Tonga-maru (or Toko-maru) (calm south, or broken staff) canoe.

The ancestors of the people who occupied the Patea (white fort) and Wai-mate (water ceased to flow) Plains came in the Ariki-mai-tai (lord from the sea) canoe. Turi (deaf, knee) found them there on his arrival, and made war on them, and took the land and women, and made slaves of the men.

Some time after this two strange canoes arrived on the Tara-naki (planting, and chanting the incantations and ceremonies) coast. One contained two women, the daughters of a great chief or god; the other canoe was filled with the wares and retinue of these two great women. Tradition says they started from their island home to visit their relatives on some other island, and were carried by the sea-currents and the winds page 178 from the right course, and were driven to these islands of New Zealand. The descendants of Turi received these strangers in a very cordial manner, and treated them with very marked respect, as befitted their high rank. On their return from New Zealand to their own home their father was so much pleased with their account of the reception given to them by the Maori that he inquired what he could do to requite such kindness to his daughters. They said the Tara-naki country was very good land, being rich and productive, so that food for the people was of the best kind and abundant. There was only one thing to find fault with, and that was the Tara-naki coast was one mass of huge boulders, which hurt the feet of those who travelled along it, and there was no sand on the coast where a canoe could land in safety. “Oh!” said the father, “I will soon remedy that for them.” He immediately sent a canoe-load of sand from his island home, which he directed to be put on the beach to form sand-hills to cover the boulders, so that if the sea should wash away any of the coast-sand there might be on the shore sufficient to replace it.

Another account says that an old priest in walking along the coast hurt his foot with the stones, and in anger he uttered a karakia (incantation) which caused sand to be immediately thrown up by the sea along the whole coast.

The Tradition of the Nga-Rauru of the Same.

The Mata-orua (or Mata-hou-rua) (besmeared face, or face tied up) canoe came to New Zealand, and returned to Hawa-iki. The following canoes remained in New Zealand : Ao-tea (clear day), Oro(Horo)-uta (grind, or sharpen on shore), Arawa, Toko-maru, Kura-au(hau)-po, Tai-nui, Ma-ta-tua (or Mata-atua), Tai-rea (sufficient tide) (or Rangi-ua-mutu — day when the rain ceased), Motumotu-ahi (piece of wood from the fire), and Taha-tuna (eel's side).

The Tradition of the Nga-i-tahu.

The north-east wind brought the pora (ship) Arai-te-uru (stay the west wind) to Ao-tea-roa, and there men increased and page 179 multiplied so that they spread over all the different places. The canoe Arai-te-uru, in which they came from the other side of the ocean, is now to be seen at a place on the South Island called Mata-kaea (wander-ing face). The chiefs who came in her were called Kiri-kiri-ka-tata (near small food), Aroaro-kaehe (inclined to wander), Manga-atua (barracouta for the gods), Ao-raki (dry day), Kake-roa (long ascent), Te-horo-koa-tu (the rapid, and the neap-tide), Ri-tua (perform the sacred rites to the gods behind a screen), Nga-mau-tau-rua (food kept two years), Poko-hiwi-tahi (only one shoulder), Puke-tapu (sacred hill), Te-maro-tiri-a-te-rehu (the apron offered to the gods), Hiku-roroa (long tails), Paha-tea (white one gone), Te Wai-o-te-ao (the water of the world), and Hape-ki-tu-a-raki (bandy-legged stranger), with the fishing-net and the calabash, now seen, turned into stone, at Moe-raki-(rangi) (sleep in the day-time). There were also other pora which came to these islands—namely, Tai-rea (sufficient tide), and Taki-tumu (lift the king) (this latter became stone, and is now to be seen at Muri-hiku — end of the tail); also Toroa (albatross) and Mata-horu (Mata-hou-rua) (face besmeared with red ochre, or face twice bound), which belonged to Kupe (obstinate) and Kake (Ngake) (centre of a fishing-net). There were also Tai-nui (great tide) and Ara-hura (road opened). Ara-hura was a god, and consisted of pou-namu (greenstone); and the chiefs in her were Pe-ki-te-tahua (pulpy food set before guests) Rongo-ka-he (false news), Rangi-tatau (days counted), Hine-raho (daughter of the platform), Te-rangi-tamau (held one day), Tae-whenua (exudation of the soil), Te-mikimiki(mingimingi) (twisted), Atua-whaka-nihoniho (quarrelsome god), Te Atua-whaka-taratara (annoying god), and Whaka-rewa (put afloat).

The Tradition of the Nga-ti-Hau.

The chief of the canoe Mata-o(hou)-rua was called Kupe. She came to Whanga-nui-a-tara (great harbour of Tara-barb) (Port Nicholson). The ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui came in her. page 180 Toto (drag) was the name of the chief who made this canoe and the Ao-tea. These two canoes were made out of one tree, which split in two when it fell.

The chief Turi came in the Ao-tea (or Ao-tea-roa) canoe. He brought with him the karaka (Corynocarpus lsevigata) and the kumara (Ipomsea batatas) called Kakau (stalk). The karaka he planted at the Ao-tea Harbour; also the paraa-tawhiti (Marattia salinica) and the perei (pare-tao—Asplenium). He also brought the birds pukeko (or pa-kura) (Porphyrio melanotus), kaka-riki (small green parrot), and others that rob the kumara and other plantations; also the kiore (rat). The ancestors of the tribes Nga-ti-rua-nui (descendants of Rua—nui-great pit), Nga-rauru (descendants of Rauru—hair of the head), Nga-ti-Hau (descendants of Hau—the wind), and Nga-ti-maru (descendants of Maru— shelter) came with Turi (deaf or obstinate).

The chief of the Tai-nui canoe was Hotu-roa (long sob). He brought the kumara called Anu-rangi (cold of heaven). The ancestors of the Nga-ti-mahuta (descendants of Mahuta—jump), Nga-ti-rau-kawa, Nga-puhi, and Nga-ti-awa came with him. The chief Nga-toro-i-rangi (put the hand out towards the clouds) came in Te Arawa canoe, with Tama-te-kapua (son of the clouds—stilts) and the ancestors of the Nga-ti-whakaue (descendants of Whaka—ue-the inciter) and Nga-ti-porou (descendants of Porou-rangi-collect cockles at night). The chief Kapua (cloud) was also in her. She was a double canoe, and the largest of all the canoes that came to these islands.

The chief Ru-a-tea (Rua-tea or Rua-atea) (earthquake not near) came in the Kuru-au-po (or Kura-hau-po) canoe. The ancestors of the Nga-ti-apa, (descendants of Apa—company of people), Nga-ti-awa, Nga-ti-rua-nui, Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu, and Nga-ti-Hau came with him.

The chief Uenga-pua-ariki, or Ue-nga-pu-ariki (a-naki) (incite the assembly of lords), came in the Oro (Horo)-uta canoe. The page 181 ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui came with him.

The chief Tama-tea-hua-tahi-nuku-roa (only child, the white one of a distance) came in the Taki-tumu canoe, and the ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui came with him.

The chief Rua-auru (pit of the west) came in the Mata-atua (god-face) (or Mata-tua-baptized face) canoe, with the ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui and Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu. Rua-auru brought the taro (Colocasia antiquorum) with him.

The chief Rake-wananga-ora (live medium of the south) came in Panga-toru (or Papa-ka-toru) (three stages or three-decker) canoe, with the ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui and Nga-rauru tribes. The people in this canoe were not allowed to land by the original inhabitants of New Zealand, who drove them off the coast by force, and they returned to Hawa-iki.

The chief Rake-ora (bound in life) (or Rakei-ora—walk with agility) came in Toko-maru (bruised staff) (or Tonga-maru—shade in the south) canoe. The ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui, Nga-ti-tama (descendants of Tama—son), Nga-ti-mutunga (descendants of Mutunga—the end), and Nga-ti-awa (descendants of Awa-nui-a-rangi–great river of heaven) came in her.

The chief Pua-tau-tahi (bloom of one year) and the ancestors of the Nga-rauru and Nga-ti-rua-nui came in the Motu-motu (or Motu-motu-ahi) (piece of wood from a fire) canoe.

The chief Tama-tea-rokai (Tama-tea of same sentiment) came in the Rangi-ua-mutu (day when rain ceased) canoe, with the ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui. She landed at Te-ranga-tapu (sacred company), where her crew saw the bones of the moa, and stones called Te-tutae-a-te-moa (excrement of the moa).

The chief Mawake-roa (long sea-breeze) and the ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui came in the Waka-ringaringa (canoe of hands) canoe, and landed at Kau-poko-nui (lost in swimming) and Nga-teko (the boulders).

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The Tradition of the Nga-Ti-Rua-Nui.

The canoe which discovered these islands was called Mata-hou-rua (face of the two plumes), and Kupe was her navigator. This canoe returned to Hawa-iki.

Then the Ao-tea canoe came, navigated by Turi.

The Tai-nui canoe came next. Hotu-roa was her navigator. Next came Te-arawa canoe, navigated by Nga-toro-i-rangi.

Then the Kurua-te-po (beaten with the fist at night) (Kura-hau-po) canoe came. Rua-tea (white pit) was her navigator.

The Horo-Uta canoe came next. Uenga-pu-anaki was her navigator.

Next came the Taki-tumu canoe, under the chiefs Tama-tea, Hua-tahi, and Nuku-roa.

Mata-atua (or Mata-tua) came next. Rua-auru was her navigator.

Then came Panga-toru, navigated by Rake-wananga-ora (bald, medium of life).

Next came Toko-maru, with Rakei-ora as her navigator. Motu-motu (or Motu-motu-ahi) came next, and Pua-tau-tahi (bloom one year) was her navigator.

Then Waka-ringaringa came, navigated by Mawake-roa (long sea-breeze).

Uaki-rere (open and flee) was the next canoe that left Hawa-iki; but she went to Mata-te-ra (face of the sun) to obtain the taro-root, and she returned thence to Hawa-iki, and did not land at Ao-tea-roa (New Zealand).

The Nga-Ti-Apa Account of the Arrival of the Several Migrations.

Of the Mata-hou-rua canoe the chief was Kupe. She landed at Whanga-nui-a-tara (Port Nicholson). The ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui people came in her.

Turi was the chief of the Ao-tea (or Ao-tea-roa) canoe. He brought the karaka, and set it at Ao-tea. He also brought the kumara called Kakau, and the para-tawhiti, perei (or hupere, a page 183 plant not unlike the kumara), pukeko (Porphyrio melanotus), kiore (rat), kaka-riki (Platycercus novse-zelandise), and the birds that scratch the plantations. The ancestors of Nga-rauru, Nga-ti-rua-nui, Nga-ti-Hau, and Nga-ti-maru (sons of Maru—shade, or bruised) came in her.

The chief Hotu-roa, and the ancestors of the Nga-ti-mahuta, Nga-ti-rau-kawa, Nga-puhi, and Nga-ti-awa tribes came in the Tai-nui canoe. They brought the kumara called anu-rangi.

Nga-toro-i-rangi and Tama-te-kapua were the chiefs of Te-arawa, which was a double canoe. The ancestors of Nga-ti-whakaue and Nga-ti-porou came in her. Kapu (hollow of the hand) was also one of the leading chiefs in this canoe.

Of the Kura-au(hau)-po canoe the chief was Rua-tea. The ancestors of Nga-ti-apa, Nga-ti-awa, Nga-ti-rua-nui, Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu, and Nga-ti-Hau came in her.

The chief of the Horo-Uta was Uenga-pu-anaki (pua-ariki). This canoe was also called Taki-tumu. The ancestors of Nga-ti-rua-nui came in her. But some of our priests say she was commanded by the chiefs Tama-tea, Hua-tahi, and Nuku-roa.

Of the Mata-tua canoe the chief was Rua-auru. The ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui and Nga-ti-kahu-ngunu tribes came in her, and brought the taro-root with them.

Of the Panga-toru (or Papa-ka-toru) canoe the chief was Rake-wananga or Rakei-wananga-ora. It is said the people in New Zealand would not allow this canoe to land on these islands, and she returned to Hawa-iki.

The chief of the Toko-maru (or Tonga-maru) was Rake-ora (or Rakei-ora). The ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui, Nga-ti-tama, Nga-ti-mutunga, and Nga-ti-awa came in her.

Pua-tau-tahi was the chief of the Motu-motu (or Motu-motu-ahi) canoe. The ancestors of the Nga-rauru and Nga-ti-rua-nui came in her.

The chief Tama-tea-ro-kai (Tama-tea the glutton), with the ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui tribe, came in the Rangi-ua-mutu (or Tai-rea) canoe; when she landed at Ranga-tapu the page 184 crew saw heaps of moa-bones, and stones from the excrement of the moa, in that district.

The chief of the Waka-ringa-ringa canoe was Mawake-roa. The ancestors of the Nga-ti-rua-nui came in her, and landed at Kau-poko-nui and Nga-teko.

Tradition says that Toto was the first man who built a canoe, and he called it Mata-hou-rua. He also made the Ao-tea canoe from the other half of the same tree. The tree, when felled, split in two from end to end of itself, and of the halves he made those two canoes.

Ngahue. (Arawa.)

Now, listen. This is the origin of the quarrel of Pou-tini (many stakes) and Whai-apu (the assembly settled), and the cause of Pou-tini (many times conquered) migrating. They lived in peace at their home; but a time came when Hine-tu-a-hoanga (daughter of the whetstone) became very much enraged with Ngahue (swarm) and his fish called Pou-tini, and drove them from their home to another country; but Hine-tu-a-hoanga followed them. Ngahue and his fish landed on the island Tuhua (obsidian); but they had scarcely landed before they were overtaken by Hine-tu-a-hoanga, who expelled them from that island also, and Ngahue was compelled to seek some other place where he could rest and his fish Pou-tini could have sufficient water in which to swim. They went over the ocean and discovered the land called Ao-tea-roa, where Ngahue had a desire to land, but feared to stay so near his enemy. Nga-hue said, “Perhaps I and my fish ought to go far away.” He therefore went on, and landed at Ara-hura, and took up his abode there. He pinched a piece off the fish (or knocked a piece of greenstone off a block), and returned to Te-wai-rere (the running water), where he killed a moa, and went on to Tau-ranga and Whanga-paraoa, and returned to Hawa-iki. On his arrival there he informed the people of his discovery of a new land, and the food of that land was the bird moa, and the greenstone was found there.

The piece of the fish (or greenstone) which he had obtained page 185 he split in pieces and ground into shape, and made two axes: one he called Tu-ta-uru (combat the west), the other Hauhau-te-rangi (shelter of heaven). Of some of the pieces he made a hei-tiki (effigy of Tiki) and a kuru-pounamu (ear-drop) called Kaukau-matua (anoint the parent). This last-named was in 1852 in the possession of Te Heu-heu (brushwood), of Tau-po. One of the axes was in the possession of the descendants of Tama-ihu-toroa (son of the albatross-nose) and Rere-tai (flee on the sea) to a very recent date.

Ngahue stayed in Hawa-iki, and when war was waged between the tribes of that land, some of those tribes, who had heard of the land discovered by Ngahue and the direction in which it lay, determined to migrate to that country, where they could live in peace.

Ngahue. (Nga-Ti-Awa.)

Ngahue (swarm) came from Hawa-iki to witness and see the result of the battle between the mata (obsidian) and the pounamu (greenstone), which originated in Hawa-iki and was continued in these islands. He landed near the East Cape, at Whanga-paraoa (harbour of the whale), and went on to Tauranga-o-te-arawa (harbour of the shark), where the Arawa lay at anchor, and from thence to Wai-rere (flowing water), thence on to Tau-po (wait in the night, loadstone), and on to Kapiti (chasm), and crossed to Ara-pawa (road of soot) and Ara-hura (road opened), near to Waka-tupa (shell canoe), where he found the pounamu in a lifeless state, and took two pieces, out of which he made the axes Kaukau-matua (anoint the parent) and Tuku-rangi (heaven settled down). From thence he returned to Te Aroha (love mountain), and there found the bird moa near the Wai-rere (rushing water) waterfall. He killed one and put it into a taha (calabash), and went back to Hawa-iki, and told the people of that land, some of whom were Tama-te-kapua (son of the clouds), Nga-toro-i-rangi (sky stretched out), and also Hotu-roa (long sob); and said, “Yonder is the fine large country named Ao-tea-roa.” They asked, “How shall we page 186 cross to that place?” He answered, “By making large canoes.” They made canoes. These were Te Arawa (shark), Tainui (great tide), Ao-tea-roa (long white cloud), Taki-tumu (lift the king), Kura-haupo (red sky—omen of wind), and Tonga (toko) maru (staff of Maru). They left Hawa-iki; but when they were putting the haumi (or the part which is joined to the main body of the canoe) on to one of these canoes they accidentally killed the son of Manaia (noble, handsome) called Tu-te-nana (ngana) -hau (Tu of the boisterous wind), which made the builders anxious to get away before the boy should be missed by his parents. The child had been in the habit of going from home and being many days at a time with his friends, and therefore might not be missed till the canoe had gone far on the voyage.

The canoes were finished and sailed from Hawa-iki. The corpse of the child had been concealed in the chips where the canoe had been made.

The Arawa was the first canoe to depart; her navigator, Tama-te-kapua, called to the head chief of Tai-nui called Nga-toro-i-rangi, and to his wife Kea-roa (eyes long sore), and said, “Come with me in Te Arawa, and perform the sacred ceremonies to take the tapu off our canoe, so that my crew may eat of cooked food at sea.” Nga-toro and Kea-roa went on board of Te Arawa. Nga-toro did not live in the hold of the canoe, but in a house on the deck. Nga-toro tied the tiki (hair of the head tied up in a knot) of his wife with a rope to prevent her being insulted by Tama-te-kapua: however, Tama-te-kapua did insult her. Te Arawa landed at Whanga-paraoa, and went on to Whaka-tane (like a man) (d) and Maketu (bridge of the nose), and there the canoe and her stone anchor were left. Tai-nui, with Hotu-roa (long sob) and her commander, went to Kawhia (the embracing). Ao-tea-roa remained for a time at Hau-raki (calm wind) (the Thames), and from thence they sailed to O-tahuhu (ridge-pole) in company with Tonga-maru, where they dragged the canoes across the O-tahuhu portage into the page 187 Manuka (regret) waters. Ao-tea-roa remained at Ao-tea, Tai-nui at Kawhia, and Tonga-maru (or Toko-maru) at Nga-ti-awa (Tara-naki). When the people of this last-named canoe had been on shore some time they missed the son of Manaia called Tu-te nana(ngana) -hau, who had been killed and buried at Hawa-iki, whose body was discovered by an ancient god who assumed the appearance of a large fly called Tu-parau-nui (shed power in vain), who made a low murmuring sound over the grave of the child, and showed where the corpse was.

Nga-Hue. (Nga-Ti-Awa.)

Nga-hue (the calabashes) was the first man who came to these islands (New Zealand), who at Te-wai-rere (the waterfall) saw the bird moa, and killed one, and went back to Hawa-iki, and told the inhabitants of that land that he had discovered a country without human inhabitants, but where there was greenstone (pounamu) to be found.

Nga-Hue. (Nga-ti-Hau.)

Nga-hue left Hawa-iki on account of a quarrel. His enemy followed him to Ao-tea-roa (New Zealand). He landed at Whanga-paraoa (the harbour of the whale), and went to Tauranga (lying at anchor), Wai-rere (waterfall), and Tau-po (resting at night), and journeyed on to Kapiti (chasm), and crossed over to Ara-pawa (road to a trap) and Ara-hura (the road opened), near to Whaka-tipu (tupu) (cause to grow), where he obtained the pounamu (greenstone) in a lifeless state (unworked). He took Kau-kau-matua (the bathed parent) and Tuku-rangi (the heaven let loose). From thence he returned to Ara-hura, where he found the bird moa near the Wai-rere waterfall, and killed one, and carried it in a taha or ipu (calabash), and went back to Hawa-iki, and informed the people of that land- namely, Tama-te-kapua (son of the clouds), Nga-toro-i-rangi (stretch out the hand towards heaven), and Hotu-roa (long sob)-of a fine land called Ao-tea-roa, which he had discovered.

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Raka-Taura. (Nga-Ti-Apa.)

The canoe of Raka-taura (entangled with a rope) was called Pau-iri-ra-ira (day of pimples on the skin). Raka-taura landed at Tuhua (Flat Island, in the Bay of Plenty), and was the first man who came to Ao-tea-roa. He looked for the fires of its inhabitants, but could not see any; he went on to Moe-hau (winds sleeping, calm), but still saw no fires; thence he went on to Te-upoko-ta-marimari (the head which shows a boastful pride), and thence to Manu-kau (all birds), Hiku-rangi (end of heaven), and Whanga-paraoa, and back again to Wai-kato (nipping water), Whainga-roa (long battle), Kawhia, Maro-kopa (crumpled waistband), Awa-kino (bad creek), Mokau (not tattooed), Nga-motu (the islands), Patea, Whanga-nui (great harbour), Whanga-ehu (harbour of spray), Turakina (throw it down), Rangi-tikei (day of walking with long strides), Manawa-tu (startled heart), Kapiti (gorge, narrow pass), Whanganui-a-tara; but still he did not see any man or fire. Thence he crossed over to Kai-koura (eat crayfish); still he did not see any one. There he left a man and woman, and went back again by the East Coast to Tuhua (Flat Island) (inland, up the country), without seeing either fire or man. Not finding any one, he returned to Hawa-i-ki: there he found several canoes preparing to leave that land. Then he said to Mata-kere (blind-eye), or Toa (warrior), “Make haste, lest other canoes get before you. I have been to explore a land where no man lives nor fire is seen.” Raka-taura (tripped up with a rope) remained in Hawa-i-ki (gills that were choked up), but he sent Kupe to explore the land. Kupe likewise reached Tuhua and went on shore. He also explored the country, but did not see any man. He visited Kai-koura, and returned to Hawa-i-ki. He found some of the people preparing to leave that land: one chief, called Takere-to (dragged on the keel), was ready to leave Hawa-i-ki. Kupe advised him, “Make haste, before others go”.

The canoes Toko-maru, Kura-haupo, Te-Arawa, and Takere-aotea page 189 were the first to leave. Kupe said, “Make haste. I will go on before you.” Takere-to left in the canoe Takere-aotea, and landed in New Zealand.

Manga-Rara. (Nga-i-Porou.)

This is the account of the canoe Manga-rara (dry twig), in which reptiles and insects were brought to these islands (New Zealand); and the names of the chiefs who navigated her across the ocean were Wheke-toro (extending octopus), Te-wai-o-po-tango (the water taken at night), Te-rau-a-riki-ao (the leaf of the little dawn), and Tara-whata (anger concealed), and others.

In this exceedingly large canoe was brought the tua-tara (iguana), the tere-tere, kumu-kumu, moko-parae, and moko-kaka-riki. These were all of the lizard kind. The chief or most noted of all the lizard kind is called tu-a-keke. These insects were also brought in that canoe: the weri (centipede), the whee (caterpillar), weta, kekere-ngu, and other kinds which crawl on the ground. Birds were also brought in her. These were the torea (Hæmatopus picatus) and whai-o-io (or whi-oi), a sacred bird given as an offering to the gods. Dogs also came in her, of the Moho-rangi (untamed of heaven) breed.

This canoe left Hawa-i-ki, and came to the Whanga-o-keno (home of the sea-lion) Island, at which place Wheke-toro (crawling octopus) put most of the reptiles on shore, where their progeny at this day are innumerable. He performed the ceremonies and chanted the incantations, and made the island sacred, to save his reptiles from the plundering propensity of man. He also lit a sacred fire on the beach, which fire he called by the name of Taku-ahi (fire of recitation).

Whanga-o-keno Island was surrounded by steep cliffs; there was only one spot up which man could ascend to the interior. Wheke-toro took a stone from his sacred fire and threw it at this spot, and caused it to become steep like the other parts of the island. This spot he called Te-horo-roa (the long landslip).

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He took another stone from the fire, and struck the rocks on the beach, and caused a spring to flow, the water of which he used in his sacred ceremonies. This spring he called Whaka-au-ranga (offerings made). This is seen there to this day.

Te-rau-a-riki-ao (the company at dawn of day), having seen the spring produced by Wheke-toro, took a stone and beat it on the beach of the island and caused water to flow. This spring he called Te-muri-wai (the water of the sea-coast). He also obtained a tuft of pare-nako (or para-tawhiti) (Marratia salinica—an edible fern), and took it to Hau-re-miti (blustering wind on the sea), in which Tu-a-keke (somewhat obstinate) could dwell. The torea and whai-o-io birds were left in charge of the island.

Te-wehiwehi (the feared one) was the name of the male torea, and Hine-ki-torea (daughter of the torea) that of the hen. Tu-whaka (distribute) was the name of the male whai-o-io bird, and Tonga-whiti (god who causes the head to ache from a distance) that of the female.

When Wheke-toro had left most of his reptiles on Whanga-o-keno, he and his friends sailed towards the mainland. When they got near to Toka-roa (long rock) Tara-whata (spike of the stage) and his dog Moho-rangi were thrown overboard. The dog struggled and made the sea rough, and the canoe upset, and drifted on shore at Pare-whero (red plume), where the canoe turned into stone, and is to be seen to this day. The reptiles got to land, and Te-rau-a-riki-ao commanded them to drag the canoe on shore. He stood on the beach and chanted a song, in which they joined as they dragged the canoe. They sang,—

Drag the canoe
Towards him, towards him.
Drag the canoe
Towards him, towards him.
She holds; but drag her
Towards him, towards him.
She holds; but drag her
Towards him, towards him.
Turn and look—she is held behind,
page 191 She is held before; but take her bow
Towards him, towards him.
She holds; but drag her
Towards him, towards him.

They dragged in vain, for they could not take her to where Te-rau-a-riki-ao wished to have her. The dawn of day was near, streaks of light were in the east: the reptiles left the canoe, and fled into cracks and crevices of the earth, into caves, and under the roots of grass, and there hid themselves.

Wheke-toro, Te-rau-a-riki-ao, and their followers took up their abode in that district, and their descendants, the Nga-i-Porou, hold it to this day.

Kiwa. (Nga-i-Porou.)

Kiwa (keep the eyes closed) and his party came from Hawaiki in the canoe Hira-uta (multitude on shore) about the time that Wheke-toro came in the canoe Manga-rara from the same land.

Kiwa landed at Turanga and settled in that district, where his descendants lived till the time of Kai-awa (he who eats in the river). Kai-awa heard of the fame of the kaha-wai fish taken in the rivers Rua-waipu (pit of the obsidian) and Whare-kahika (house of the ancestors), and determined to go and by personal inspection prove the truth of what he had heard. He went to Awa-tere (swift river), Karaka-tu-whero (red karaka-tree), and Whare-kahika, where Tahinga-roa-hau (oft swept by the wind) was living on the peak of a hill at O-pure (spotted), in his stockade called O-tara-korero (oft speaking), at which place Kai-awa was invited to stay. Tahinga-roa-hau made him welcome, and when Kai-awa had partaken of food he was asked by his host where he was going. Kai-awa answered, “I have come to prove the truth of the fame of the fish of the river Rua-waipu.” Tahinga-roa-hau said, “Remain here with me. There are plenty of fish where you are going; there are also many fish here. Look at the rock yonder: there is plenty of fish there. It is Whanga-o-keno Island, which Wheke-toro made page 192 sacred for his reptiles to live on.”

Kai-awa stayed with Tahinga-roa-hau, and took Te whatu-mori (the sacred stone rubbed), the daughter of Tahinga-roa-hau, to wife, and begat two daughters, called Po-nui-a-hine (great night of the daughter) and Rere-puhi-tai (flying of the crest of the wave).

Kai-awa resolved to remove the tapu which Wheke-toro had put on the Whanga-o-keno Island, and his purpose was approved by all the people.

He and his daughter Po-nui-a-hine went to the island. His daughter accompanied him in order that she might stand on and hold steady the wood which her father would use to procure fire by friction, and perform her part of the ceremony and represent the female gods. They saw the dog of Tara-whata, the Moho-rangi, standing near to the mouth of the Tau-mata-o-tu-whaka (peak of the cause of the creek). They had not taken the precaution to veil the eyes of Po-nui-a-hine, as is the custom when strangers or females are near sacred places. The dog stared at her with a fixed gaze. They landed, and Kai-awa (eat at the creek) took some sea-weed and gave it as an offering to the bird Tu-haka (stand lame). Kai-awa took some wood, and, whilst his daughter pressed one end firmly on the ground, he by friction produced fire from it. When smoke was first seen he called it Pinoi-nuku (hot stone of the earth). When he made the fire blaze he called it Pinoi-a-rangi (hot stone of heaven). He put his daughter to sleep, and went to light the sacred fires—one for the gods of men, the other for the gods of females. He lighted these fires at Ha-ure-miti (boisterous wind of the ocean), Te Horo roa (long landslip), Taku-ahi (pit, with stones around the sides as a fender, for fire), Whaka-u-ranga (sacred cere-monies performed over), and Te Muri-wai (near the sea- coast), and by them the spell of Wheke-toro was broken.

He went and caused smoke to fill the nostrils of the birds Tu-haka and Tonga-whiti till they sneezed, which made them quite tame. He also went to perform the same operation on page 193 the other birds which Wheke-toro had left there; but these flew away and alighted on a rock in the sea. These birds, Wehi-wehi and Hine-ki-torea and their offspring, have been wild and shy of man to this day.

He returned to where he had left his daughter asleep. She had disappeared. He sought, but could not find her. He called, “O Po-nui-a-hine! where are you?” Looking down, he saw a grasshopper hopping on the ground before him. Raising his eyes, he looked out on the sea: he saw his daughter, turned into a rock, standing in the ocean. He wept for her, but all in vain. To this day women will not go to that island, for fear the fate of Po-nui-a-hine should be theirs, or stones fall from the cliffs and kill them. Strangers going there never neglect to cover their eyes, to prevent them seeing the dog of Tara-whata, called Moho-rangi.

Migration of Taki-Tumu to New Zealand.

This is to show why our ancestors left Hawa-iki. Family disputes arose on account of the cultivations called Tawa-rua-a-raro (ridge on earth) and Tawa-rua-a-rangi (ridge in heaven), and a battle ensued, and, caused our ancestors to come here to this (North) Island of New Zealand.

Another reason was, the news had reached them that the fish (New Zealand) of our ancestor Maui (powerful) had come up to the surface of the sea, and they desired to migrate and see it.

So the people went to build canoes. Each sub-tribe built a canoe. The offspring of Tato (thoughtless, giddy) and Nga-toro-i-rangi (seek for the heaven)-namely, Tanga-roa (long assembly), Te-whatu (the sacred stone) (d), Maire (song), Maika (quiet), Uira (lightning), Tato, Rongo-kako (idle or trifling news) (whose footprints are to be seen in these islands to this day), and Tama-tea (white son)—–rose and built the canoe called Taki-tumu.

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Just as the Taki-tumu was about to leave Hawa-iki Nga-toro-i-rangi was persuaded by Tama-te-kapua to go on board of Te Arawa canoe, and he and his wife were thus carried away in the canoe of Tama-te-kapua. When they had got far out to sea Tama-te-kapua seduced the wife of Nga-toro-i-rangi, and for this wrong act the Arawa canoe would have been swallowed up by the sea; but Nga-toro-i-rangi had pity on them, and thus the life of Tama-nane (son of the dog) was saved.