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The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions: Horo-Uta or Taki-Tumu Migration. [Vol. I]

Chapter II

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Chapter II.

Depart! farewell, ye autumn moons.
The gods give signs by lightnings in the sky.
The active hosts of Ta-whaki, with myriad hands,
Resort with sea-birds on the ocean coast.
Each feathered tribe, and those who skim the wind-tossed sea
Their parentage from him derive.
He climbed and gained the highest peak of heaven:
From first sky to tenth did he ascend,
And found the offspring of the Lizard-shark,
Residing in the home of Tane's-sacred-root,
Where Hine-a-te-kawa lived.
Still on ascended he, and on,
And came to Tama-i-waho's sky.
And thence the evening star he brought,
And flashes now its rays
On Pu-ki-hikurangi's highest peak.
He led the morning star below,
And threw the Lizard-shark into the sea.
Follow on, ye dead, the autumn moon:
There is that one, that distant land.
The gods come only from above,
And pain engulfs us all.
The flood subsided; land—an island—then stood forth.
That island was Hawaiki then,
And resting on its mountain-peak
The bark of Para-whenua-mea.

Mythology of Creation.

When the truth (Christianity) came we forsook all those things which had been taught by our ancestors. There are many matters which cannot now be collected. We uphold the truth of our history (korero). Our priests do not agree in all points. There are several versions of parts of our mythology, but our belief was treasured in our hearts. Very much truly has been lost through the death of our most learned priests, and through page 18 our indifference to their rehearsals of our history. The new pursuits presented to us caused us to look on these as (hara) matters of less importance. Much has therefore now been lost for ever.

This is the belief (karakia) rehearsed by the people of Te-wai-pounamu (South Island), which has only of late been abandoned by us.

The Atua (god) began his chant of creation at Te Po (darkness), and sang: Po begat Te-ao (light), who begat Ao-marama (daylight), who begat Ao-tu-roa (long-standing light), who begat Kore-te-whiwhia (did not possess), who begat Kore-te-rawea (was not pleased with), who begat Kore-te-tamaua (was not held), who begat Kore-te-matua (without parent), who begat Maku (damp). Maku took to wife Mahora-nui-a-tea (great spreading-out of light) (d), and begat Raki (Rangi) (raki, dry; rangi, to dry by evaporation, to hold before a fire to dry). Raki took Poko-harua-te-po as his wife (poko, extinguished; harua or wharua, valley; te-po, the darkness), and begat Ha-nui-o-raki (ha, breath; nui, great; o-raki, of Raki). He begat Tawhiri-ma-tea (tawhiri, wave to, beckon; ma-tea, to light), who begat Tiu (tiu, to swoop as a bird in flight), who begat Hine-i-te-papa-uta (hine, young woman; i-te-papa, at the side; uta, on dry land), who begat Hine-i-te-tu-whenua (young woman of the earth) and Hakoua-te-pu (hakoua or hakua, to find fault, to murmur; tepu, the root, the foundation). Hakoua begat Te-pua-i-taha (tepua, the boisterous; i-taha, eluded), who begat Tu-mai-roko (rongo) (tu-mai, stand; rongo, to hear), who begat Te-ope-ruariki (te-ope, the troop; rua, pit; riki, diminutive), who begat Raro-toka (tonga) (raro, north, below; toka or tonga, south), who begat Te-kohu (the fog), who begat Karua (Ngarue) (tremble, dread), who begat Te-mau-po (caught in the night), who begat Te-Pu-nui-o-tonga (the great origin of Tonga), who begat Raka(Ranga)-maomao (ranga, shoal; maomao, a kind of fish—the mackerel), who begat Awhiowhio (whirlwind), who begat Te-pu-mara-kai (pu, the great, the climax; mara-kai, plot of cultivated kumara), who begat Te-oko-oko-rau (oko-oko, page 19 nursed; rau, many—the many nursed with care), who begat Tewawahi-whare (the housebreaker), who rushed out to Rara-tau-karere (crying or calling messenger), of Mati-te-raki (mati, dry; raki, heaven), to the Uhi-a-kama (uhi, a covering; kama, quick—the covering of Kama), and to Hukahuka-te-raki (hukahuka, fringe—the shreds of Rangi), where Makaka-i-waho (makaka or manganga, twisted, crooked; i-waho, out-side) was residing. Te-wawahi-whare took Makaka-i-waho to wife, and begat Apa-ara-ki-ihi-ra (apa, body of workmen; ara, rise, to commence; ki-ihi-ra, with the sun's rays), who begat Te-apa-raki-rarapa (te-apa, the body of workmen; raki-rarapa, glistening, or flashing, heaven), who begat Tapu-tapu-atea (tapu-tapu, feet; atea, unhindered), and Ma-here-tu-ki-te-raki (propitiation standing in the heaven). Tapu-tapu-atea and Ma-here-tu-ki-te-raki are the offspring of Raki's first wife Poko-harua-te-po, and they came into this world, and are the lords of Raki's offspring.

Other offspring of Raki are his kahui-tahu (kahui, assembly; tahu, helper)—namely, Ka-tu (ka, will; tu, stand), Werohia (pierce), Whakairia (suspend, hang up), Tao-kai-maiki (tao, cook; kai, food; maiki, migrate), Taoitia-pae-kohu (taoitia, to cover with mist; pae, range of hills; kohu, fog), Tahua-tu (tahua, heap of food or property), Tahua-roa, Te Karanga-tu-hea (te karanga, the call; tuhea, scrub) Te-aka-rimu (te aka, the roots; rimu, moss or sea-weed), Te-whakatu-koroua (te whakatu, make to stand up; koroua, old man), Tahu (set on fire), Kokiri (dart out), Te-kopu-nui (te-kopu, stomach). These are the only children of Raki, who dragged mankind down to death, and are the first of the offspring of Raki who persisted in evil. They brought confusion into the world of Hine-a-te-uira (hine, maiden; a-te-uira, of the lightning).

By another wife, called Hekeheke-i-papa (hekeheke, descend; i-papa, at the world), Raki had Tama-i-waho (the son outside), Tama-rau-tu (tama, son; rau, girdle of the apron of a female; tu, to stand, be substantial), Tama-i-a-raki (son who was with heaven), Tama-nui-a-raki (great son of heaven), Tama-he-raki page 20 (mistaken son of heaven), Te-rangi-whaka-ipuipu (the sky of pools and hollows), Raki-whangaka (wananga) (sky of the holy altar). These of the issue of Raki and Hekeheke-i-papa remained up above. There are other five lines of Raki's offspring; but of those Tama-i-waho and his younger brothers were spirits, and remained up in the fourteen heavens, and the descendants of Tama-nui-a-raki came into this world, in this wise: Tama-nui-a-raki begat Haumia (the god of the fern root), Manu-ika (manu, bird; ika, fish), Manu-nui-a-ka-(nga)-hoe (power or shelter of the rowers), Hua-waiwai (pulpy fruit), Tahito-kuru (ancient blow), Kohu-rere (flying mist), Te-ao-hiawe (gloom-day), Haere (go, proceed), Ue-nuku-pokaia (ue, trembling; nuku, earth; pokaia, go all round, to encircle), Ue-nuku-horea (ue, trembling; nuku, earth; horea, bald) Raki-whitikina (the heaven encircled with a belt), Te Pu-ki-tonga (the fountain or origin at the south), and so on to the generation of men now living.

By another wife, called Hotu-papa (hotu, to sob; papa, earth), Raki had Tu (to stand, the god of war), Roko (or Rongo) (to hear, god of kumara), Kanapu (glare, flash), Haere-mai-tua (come from the back or behind), Haere-mai-whano (come from a distance), Haere-aroaro-uri (go with a youthful face), Haere-i-te-ao-pouri (go in the dark world), Haere-i-te-ao-potako (potango) (go in the very dark world), Te Kitea (not seen), Te Whaia (not followed), Te Ao-mataki (the world gazed at), Turumeha (waning moon), Kai-hi (the fisherman), Te U-ki-mate-hoata (arrived at the spear wound), Rei (dash forward), Pou (post), Pou a-takataka (shaking post), Pou-raka(ranga)-hua (post to act as lever), Tu-huku-tira (allow the company of travellers to pass), Tama-taku-ariki (son to follow slowly his lord), Wai-tu-raki (rangi) (water standing in the heavens), Tu-kau-moana (Tu swimming the ocean), Kiri-rua (two skins), Hotu-ma-moe (sob in sleep), Tu-mai-o-nuku (standing on the earth), Tu-mai-o-raki (rangi) (standing on the heavens), Hika-ara-roa (long in making a fire), Ue-nuku-pokai-whenua (Ue-nuku who travelled all around the land), Ue-nuku-horea (Ue-nuku the bald head).

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These are the children of Raki, and are the progenitors of the race now living on the earth.

By another wife, called Ma-uku-uku (white clay), Raki had Taku-u-nuku (ceremony performed over the earth), who begat Te-mata-i (the beggar).

By another wife, called Tau-hare (whare)-kiokio (leaning over in the shade), Raki had Taku-aka(waka)-hara (ceremony to avert evil), who begat Taku-raki (ceremony to heaven), who begat Kahika (the ancient).

These also are the offspring of Raki by another of his wives, named Papa-tu-a-nuku (papa, flat; tu, stand; a, of; nuku, earth): Rehua and his sister Ha-kina. Rehua begat Tama-i-te-oko-tahi (tama, son; i-te, of the; oko-tahi, being carried in the arms or, oko bowl, tahi one), who begat Te-whai-tu-tahi-a-iwa (te-whai, the following, or a game; tu-tahi, standing together; a iwa, of iwa—nine), who begat Te-tihika (tihinga) (the pinnacle), who begat Te Rakeka (Rakenga) (the bald), who begat Raki-makawe-kawe (heaven of the locks of hair), who begat Raki-whaka-upoko (heaven the supreme head). These offspring of Raki were spirits, and stayed in all the heavens. This is what our ancestors stated, and what we believe.

Raki and Papa-tu-a-nuku begat Tane (male), who was born next after Rehua; and next after Tane were Paia (closed up), Wehi-nui-a-mamao (wehi-nui, great fear; a mamao, of the distant), Tu-taka-hinahina (Tu of the grey hairs), Te-aki (to dash), Whati-ua (run from the rain), Tu (stand), Roko (Rongo) (to hear), Ru (earthquake), U-ako (u, steadfast; ako, teach), Hua (fruit), Puna (fountain-head), Whe-rei (whe, dwarf; rei, flee), Uru (red, or west), Kakana (Ngangana) (glow of red), Wai-o-nuku (water of earth), Wai-o-raki (water of heaven), Ai (Wai)-o-hou-taketake (ai (wai), water; o, of; hou, go down; taketake, foundation), Ka-mau-ki-waho (be taken outside), Ka-mau-ki-tahito (tawhito)-o-te-raki (ka, will; mau, hold; ki, to; tahito or page 22 tawhito, ancient; o, of; te, the; raki or rangi, heaven), Kai (Ngai) (menace), Kai-roa (Ngairoa) (long menace), Kai-pehu (kai, menace; pehu, bluster, arrogant), Kai-aki-akina (menace and dash, or slap again and again), Tapatapa-i-waho (tapatapa, call a name as a curse; i-waho, outside), Manu-aero(waero)-rua (manu, bird; aero, dwindle, become less and less; or, bird with two tails), Toi (summit, peak, pinnacle), Rauru (hair of the head, god of the head), Kitenga (seen), Wha-tonga (wha, revealed, disclosed; tonga, south; whatonga, cherish revenge, but not show it), Apa (body of work-men), Roko(Rongo)-mai (rongo, to hear; mai, towards, this way; god of the whale), Taha-titi (taha, side; titi, to whisper, to make a noise like a rat or young birds), Rua-tapu (rua, pit; tapu, sacred), Pipi (to ooze, to bathe with liquid), Te-ara-tu-ma-heni (hengi) (the road or path of the gentle breeze), Raki-roa (long heaven), Roko(Rongo)-mai (god of whales; rongo, to hear; mai, towards), Pou-pa (pou, a stake, a post; pa, to obstruct), Te-ra-ki-whakamaru (the sun of the calm), Hou-nuku (hou, to dig down, to descend as a worm in the earth, a plume, a feather; nuku the earth, the world), Hou-raki (descend in the heavens, plume of the sky), Hou-a-tea (the plume of Tea, or the plume not reserved), Tu-nuku (trembling earth), Ka-hutia-te-raki (the heaven pulled up), Rua-tapu (rua, pit; tapu, sacred), Pa-ikea (god of sea-monsters; pa, to obstruct; ikea, a blow, to strike); and from Pa-ikea only came those of us (Maori people) now here (in New Zealand); but there are other and great ancestors (putake) (d), from whom came those now in other parts of the world.

Now, Raki had no right to Papa-tu-a-nuku—she was the wife of Taka-(Tanga)-roa. She went to live with Raki when Taka-roa had gone away with the placenta of his child. On his return, he found she had been living with Raki for some time, and had given birth to Rehua, and Tane, and the other children we have mentioned. Raki and Taka-roa proceeded to the sea-beach, where they fought with spears. Raki was pierced by Taka-roa page 23 with a huata (a barbed spear) through both thighs, but he was not killed. The offspring he had by Papa-tu-a-nuku after this were a weak or sickly family. The names of these were Whanau-tu-oi (born lean), Wha-nau-takoto (born lying down), Tane-kupapa-eo (Tane who lies flat on the flat rocks), Tane-tuturi (Tane who kneels), Tane-pepeke (Tane who draws his legs up), Te-oi (the shaker, or trembler), Upoko-nui (big head), Upoko-roa (long head), Upoko-whaka-ahu (the large head), Tane-i-te wai-ora (Tane at the living water, or water of life).

Another Reading—Rangi, Papa, and Tanga-Roa.

Taka-roa took Papa-tu-a-nuku to wife, and then he took a journey far out to the distant Kahui-pu-aki-aki (the flock of the sea-gull), to obtain some of the property of Whaki-tau (abundant year). On his return from that journey his wife had become the wife of Rangi. Taka-roa went for his barbed spear; Rangi also went for his barbed spear, and Rangi thrust his spear at Taka-roa, but did not pierce him. Taka-roa thrust his spear at his nephew Rangi, and pierced him through both thighs. Having wounded him, he allowed him to keep Papa-tu a-nuku as his wife.

Another Reading of Tanga-Roa.

Taka-roa had come from a distance, even from Kara (flint-stone); but he gave his wife to Raki, and left his home, and went far away. The name of his son was Tini-rau (many hundreds); and the sisters of Tini-rau were called Rua-te-pupuke (cave on the hill), Rua-te-hihiko (cave of random strides), Rua-te-mahara (cave of meditation), Rua-te(ta)-mahina (cave of the dim light), Rua-te-korero (cave of the council), and Rua-te-waihanga(whai-hanga) (cave of the builders). Tini-rau had nine sisters in all.

Taka-roa was of the Kahui (tribe) of Ihu-poro (chub-nose), and of Ihu-ku (nipped in nose), and of Ihu-take (substantial nose), and of Ure-kohatu (stone axe).

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Taka-roa was also of the following tribes, whose names he added to his: namely, Taka-roa-te-ihu-pu (Taka-roa of the exact nose), Taka-roa-o-te-ihu-toka (Taka-roa of the perfect nose), Taka-roa-te-ihu-mouta (Taka-roa of the non-snoring nose), and Taka-roa-hau-papa (Taka-roa the cold). He was also progenitor of Tama-nui-a-raki (great son of heaven); and Tama-nui-a-raki was descended from all these tribes. From Taka-roa-te-ihu-pu came the Maori people, and from Taka-roa-hau-papa came the Europeans. This is what our ancient men said when they saw the first Europeans.

Tanga-Roa (Taka-Roa). (Another Reading—Nga-ti-Hau.)

Te-more-tu (erect bald head) was father of Taka-roa, the elder brother of Poko-harua-te-po, who was first wife of Raki. Then Te-more-tu took Wawau-nuku-hua-tahi (stupid from a distance; hua tahi, only child) to wife, and begat Te-po, Te-ao, Te-ao-tu-roa, Te-ao-marama, Ha-nui-o-raki, Tawhiri-ma-tea, Tiu, and Ma-uru (the west), who were males; also Hine-i-tapapa-uta and Hine-i-tu-whenua, who were females. All these offspring of More-tu and Wawau-nuku-hua-tahi were gods who controlled the winds and the sea—that is, lulled the winds and calmed the sea; but Tawhiri-ma-tea and Tiu governed Te-pua-i-taha—that is, the violent south-west gales—and the Ha-koua-tipu-(tupu) (the breath which has grown into a gale), so that they should sweep with fury or be lulled to silence.

The first family begotten by Raki, by his first wife, were all winds.

Another Reading of Creation. (Nga-I-Tahu.)

Papa was the wife of Taka-roa (Tanga-roa). When he was absent, occupied in his work, she went to live with Raki (Rangi). Raki was attacked by Taka-roa with a spear, wounded, and laid prostrate.

Tane and his friends came to see Raki. They made an attempt page 25 to lift him up, but they did not know how to elevate him; but by the power and knowledge of Tane Raki was lifted up as high as the mountains. At the same time Tane and his companions continued their ascent with Raki, carrying the trees and other things by which Papa had been covered: thus she was left naked. Tane then descended with Paia, and went to the east, where the trees had been, and again covered Papa over with trees. Tane then saw that his father Raki was naked. He took kura (red) and spread it to cover him, but it did not suit. He then went to Te Wehi-nui-a-mamau (the fear of wrestling) for the stars, to make Raki look beautiful. Te Wehi-nui a-mamau said, “Let the stars which you take be the largest: the lesser stars can be placed on the less sacred parts of Raki.” Tane now swept the kura off Raki that he might place the stars there; but he kept the kura and the clouds to cover him with afterwards. When Tane had placed the stars he was delighted with the grand appearance of Raki.

Though Raki and Papa had been separated they still loved each other. The mist and dew are the tears of Papa for Raki, and are the messengers, in the form of clouds, to carry the damp air and steam up to Raki; and when the west wind blows it is Raki tickling the ears of Papa.

Another Reading of Creation. (Nga-I-Tahu.)

Tane-nui-a-raki (great procreation of Raki) was of the senior family, but younger brother of Rehua. They were the offspring of Raki and his wife Whatu-papa; but Raki went and took Papa-tu-a-nuku to be his wife. She was the wife of Taka-roa, but because she lived with Raki her husband fought with Raki, speared him, and so severely wounded him that he lay flat. Then Tane-ko-peru (Tane of the swollen eyes), and Tane-mini-whare (Tane wet in the house), and Tane-tuturi (the kneeling Tane), and Tane-tuoi (lean Tane), and Tahu-kumea (the company page 26 who drag away), and Paia (the closed-up) said, “Our father Raki should be lifted up.” Having taken him up as far as the lower clouds, they thoughtlessly rested him on the pinnacles of the mountains. Tane joined them, and, by his authority, power, and knowledge, Raki was lifted still higher. It was Paia and his companions who separated Raki and Papa, and when they took him up also carried the trees, herbage, and edible roots with them, leaving Papa to lie naked. On looking down and seeing how bare Papa was, Tane and Paia descended, and Tane went out towards the sun (east-ward), to other settlements, to bring herbage and trees and other vegetation. He obtained some of each and every variety that grows, and from every district on the earth, and distributed them over every part of Papa, even to Ao-tea-roa (long light day), and Ta-ranga (repeating incantation), and Wai-roa-maire-he (long cadence of the evil song). He classified the trees: some he ordained for the maipi (a wooden weapon, synonymous with hani or tai-aha—see plate 1), some for the pa-neke-neke (a stone axe with a handle—see plate 2), and some for the paoi-aruhe (fern-root pestles—see plate 3); some for the tao (spear) and timata (see plate 4), and some for the waha-ika or waha-ngohi (fish-mouth) (see plate 5).

Tane went far out, and brought the cod-fish (hapuku) from Te-ao-o-wai-raki-a-ira (the clear calm water of Ira; ira, spot on the skin, pimple, wart) as food to be in constant supply; and from the same place Raki and Taka-roa brought the baracouta (mangaa)—it came in summer and went back in winter. All fish of the sea came from the same place.

Tane also obtained the tio (oyster), the pipi (cockle), the paua (haliotis), the kakahi (unio), the pupu (periwinkle), the karuru, the kareko (edible sea-weed that grows on the stones in water in the third Maori month), the kapiti, the kauru (tii-root).

When Tane had done this, and clothed Papa, he disappeared by going up to heaven.

Te-Rara-tau-karere-o-mati-te-raki is the name of the place whence Tane brought trees, and took them to Huka-huka-te-raki page break page 27 (fringe of heaven), to Hu-matao (rather cold), to Tu-kou-a-hao-a-iki (nakedly standing, the gatherer-together and consumer), and to Ao-tea-mua (sacred light cloud).

When Tane planted trees at Ao-tea-mua, he set the feet and legs in the earth—trees at first were like men—and retired a little distance to survey them; but they did not please him. He then planted the head downwards and the legs upwards, which he pronounced good: thus the hair of the head became the roots. Raki had little to do with them, though they were his children.

Te-ku-whaka-hara (the great coo of the bird) was the mother of the totara tree, and Te Kui-u-uku (old woman of the wiped breasts) of the matai tree, Ku-raki (coo of the bird to the north) of the kahika (koroi, or white pine), Huri-mai-te-ata (the dawn turning back) the kahika-toa (manuka, or tea-tree). The following trees are used by the warriors to make weapons of war, namely: the Ake to make Tiki-kura (red image); Ake-rau-tangi (ever-weeping leaf), to make Takahia-pu-poka (how many cuts made); and of the Ko-whai (to follow) were made Mahutu (quite healed), Mahu-raki (clear sky), Mahu-taki-taki (revenge stayed), and Timu (peak).

Mae-awha (wander) placed the Kai-kawa-kae and Ku-raki trees, both of which are good for a Kau-ati (sticks which would procure fire by means of friction), on the mountains.

Another Reading of Creation. (Nga-I-Tahu.)

Rangi was a great progenitor of gods. His progeny are numerous. Many live in the heavens, and some in the lower worlds: these, for their disobedience, were thrown down there.

These are the wives of Rangi: The first in order is Poko-ha-rua-te-po (pit of the breath of night), the second is Papa-tu-a-nuku (flat resembling the earth), the third is Heke-heke-i-papa (come down to the earth), the fourth is Hotu-papa (sobbing earth), the fifth is Ma-uku-uku (white clay), the sixth is Tau-karere-kiokio page 28 (the messenger of the twenty-fifth night of the moon).

The first of the offspring of Poko-ha-rua-te-po was Ha-nui-o-rangi (great breath of heaven), from whom sprang all the winds of the heavens and earth. The second was Ta-whiri-matea (beckoned to, and desired), the strong north-west wind. From Ta-whiri-matea sprang Tiu (skim as a bird flies without flapping its wings), the north-west wind, who begat Hine-i-tapapa-uta (daughter lying flat inland), from whom sprang Hine-i-tu-whenua (daughter of the inland). These two last are females—west winds, which blow softly, and subdue the boisterous winds and quell the rough sea. The offspring of Hine-i-tu-whenua was Ha-koua(kua)-tipu(tupu) (the breath that has increased), from whom sprang Pua-i-taha (the foaming wave that passed on one side), the strong south and south-west gales. His offspring was Tu-mai-rongo (fame made known), from whom sprang Te-ope-rua-rangi (the company of the pit of heaven), from whom came Raro-tonga (lower south), who produced the Kohu (mist) and Karue (Ngarue) (shaking), who was father of Mao-po (rain cleared at night), whose offspring, Pu-nui-o-tonga (great origin of the south), produced Raka(Ranga)-mao-mao (shoal of mackerel), the father of Awhiowhio (whirlwind), who begat Pu-maara-kai (great plantation of food), who begat Oko-oko-rau (fondling the multitude), who begat Wawahi-whare (housebreaker), who made his appearance at the Rara-tau-karere-o-mati-te-rangi (screaming messengers of the dry branch from heaven), at Te Uhi-a-kama (the quick covering), and at Huka-huka-te-rangi (thrums or shreds of heaven), where Maka-kai(kei)-waho (cast outside) and Apa-ara-ki-ihi-ra (company rising to the rays of the sun) were living. Apa-ara-ki-ihi-ra was father of Tapu-tapu-atea (unencumbered feet) and Mahere-tu-ki-te-rangi (conciliating offspring standing in heaven). These last two are great lords of the heavens. Ta-whiri-ma-tea and Tiu also are great in authority over the winds of the heavens and the earth.

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The second family of Rangi by Poko-harua-te-po were the multitude of the Tahu (rites and incantations of offerings and propitiations), and were Ka-tu (stood up), Werohia (the piercing), Whakairia (hung up), Tao-kai-maiki (cooked food and departed), Tao-iti-a-pae-kohu (cooked on the misty hilltop), Tahua-tu (sacred rites performed), Tahua-roa (long sacred rites), Karanga-a-tuhea (call in the scrub), Ika-rimu (fish of the sea weed), Whakatu-koroua (set the aged up), Tahu-ka-kokiri (sacred rites performed and power resulting), and Kopu-nui (large stomach). Immediately connected with these are the multitude of the Anu (space) and Tao (descending mist): Rangi begat Ka-mau-ki-waho (caught outside), who begat Pari-nui (great cliff), who begat Pari-mate (cliff of death), who was father of Moe-waho (sleep outside), who begat Anu-matao (cold space), who begat Anu-whakarere (space of extreme cold), who begat Anu-whaka-toro (cold space creeping on), who begat Anu-mate (space of cold death), who was the source of death. To these must be added also many of the deformed generation, the offspring of Tane and Hine-ti-tama (daughter of the evil son). These were disobedient to Rangi, and would not obey his commands, but persisted in evil, and were swept by Rangi down to the Po; and by them mankind are drawn into the lower worlds. They are constantly employed in tempting mankind to do evil, and combine with Hine-a-te-uira (daughter of lightning), the Ti-tama (evil child) of Tane, to corrupt and destroy the race of man.

Rangi and Papa-tu-a-nuku begat another family, of whom Rehua was first-born. His coming was as the flashing of light, and from him sprang Tama-i-te-oko-tahi (son of the one bowl), who begat Te-whai-tu-tahi-a-iwa (the joint-following of the nine), from whom descended the Tihinga (pinnacle of the hill), who was father of Rakeka (Rakenga) (bare), who was father of Rangi-ma-kawe-kawe (locks of hair of heaven), who begat Rangi-whaka-upoko (head of heaven). The sister of Rehua was called Ha-kina (breath of the sea-urchin). These were all spirits, page 30 and, with the innumerable hosts of Rehua, inhabited the upper heavens: they did not appear in this world.

The next offspring of Rangi and Papa, and intimately associated with Rehua, was Tane the great artificer. Then followed Paia (shut), Wehi-nui-a-mamao (great fear of the distance), Tu-taka-hinahina (Tu of the grey hairs), Te-aki (the one who gives blows), Whati-ua (run from the rain), Tu (stand), Rongo (fame), Ru (earthquake), U-ako (taught at the breast), Hua (fruit), Puna (spring of water), Whe-rei (extruded), Uru (enter), Kakana (Ngangana) (red), Wai-o-nuku (water of the earth), Wai-o-rangi (water of the heaven), Aio-hou-take-take (long-continued calm), Ka-mau-ki-waho (caught outside), Ka-mau-ki-tahito(tawhito)-o-te-raki-(rangi) (caught with the ancient of heaven), Kai (Ngai) (heel), Kai-roa (long heel), Kai-pehu (angry heel), Kai-aki-akina (heel beaten again and again), Tapa-tapa-i waho (curse by calling names outside), Te Manu-aero(waero)-rua (bird with two tails), Toi (summit), Rauru (hair of the head), Ritenga (policy), Wha-tonga (south-ward), Apa (body of workmen), Rongo-mai (whale), Taha-titi (nailed side), Rua-tapu (sacred pit), Pipi (ooze out), Ara-tu-ma-heni (hengi) (path of the gentle breeze), Rangi-roa (long day), Rongo-mai (whale), Pou-pa (post of the fortification), Rangi-whaka-maru (day of shade), Hou-nuku (delving into the earth), Hou-rangi (ascend to heaven), Hou-a-tea (ascending into open space), Ue-nuku (trembling earth), Ka-hutia-te-rangi (the heaven drawn up), Ru-tapu (sacred trembling), and Paikea (sea-god).

After Rangi recovered from the severe wounds he had received in his conflict with Taka-roa (long in taking action), he begat by Papa the generations of the deformed. Their names imply inferiority to the former offspring he had with this wife. These deformed were called the Whanau-tuoi (lean offspring), and were named Whanau-takoto (off-spring lying down), Tane-kupapa-eo (Tane lying on the rocks), Tane-tuturi (kneeling Tane), Tane-pepeke (Tane with his legs drawn up), Te-oi (the shudderer), Upoko-nui (great head), Upoko-whaka-ahu (head page 31 that grows), and Tane-i-te-wai-ora (Tane at the living water).

Rangi's union with Heke-heke-i-papa (coming down flat) (d) produced some of the great lords of the heavens: Tama-i-waho (the son outside), the first-born, who occupied the highest heaven; then followed Tama-rau-tu (son that gathers as he stands), Tama-nui-a-rangi (great son of heaven), Tama-he-rangi (son of the heaven), Rangi-whaka-ipuipu (bowl of the heavens), and Rangi-whaka-ka (kindled heaven).

The offspring of Tama-nui-a-rangi were Hau-mia (add to), Manu-i-aka(anga) (the bird that went forward), Maru-nui-a-ka (nga)-hoe (great shade whilst voyaging), Hua-wai-wai (returning health), Tahito-kura (kuru) (ancient red; kuru, blow), Kohu-rere (flying fog), Te-ao-hi-awe (dawn of day with dark streaks), Haere (proceeding), Ue-nuku-pokaia (trembling of the earth doubled up), Ue-nuku-horea (trembling bald earth), Rangi-whitiki-ora (day of life putting the belt on), and Pu-ki-tonga (stability at the south). Some of these inhabited this earth.

Another family of Rangi was by Hotu-papa: these were Tu (stand erect), Rongo (fame), Kanapu (brightness), Haere-mai-tua (come from beyond), Haere-mai-whano (come on and proceed onwards), Haere-aro-aro-uri (go with a black front), Haere-i-te-ao-pouri (go on in the dark world), Haere-i-te-ao-potako(potango) (go in the black world), Te-kitea (cannot be seen), Te-whaia (cannot be followed), Ao-mataki (world gazed at), Turu-meha (pleasant fifteenth day of the moon), Ko-ka(nga)-ihi (the rays of the sun), U-ki-mate-ho-ata (landing on the third day of the moon's age), Rei (sailing), Pou (all consumed), Pou-a-taka-taka (consumed and staggering), Pou-raka(ranga)-hua (consumed, but fruit bursting forth), Tuhuku(Tuhunga)-tira (birds caught on their perch), Tama-taka-ariki (son slowly following the supreme chief), Wai-tu-rangi (water standing in heaven), Tu-kau-moana (Tu who swam the sea), Kiri-rua (two skins), Hotu-ma-moe (sob in the sleep), Tu-mai-o-nuku (rainbow page 32 standing), Tu-mai-o-rangi (heaven stood forth), Tu-te-pewa (new moon seen), Tu-ma-koha (expanded), Utu-poraki(porangi) (payment for the insane), Hika-ara-roa (long in obtaining fire), Ue-nuku-pokai-whenua (rainbow spanning the land), Ue-nuku-horea (dim rainbow). Some of these also visited this earth.

Another Reading of Creation. (Nga-I-Tahu.)

Io (power, god) begat Io-nuku (god of the world), who begat Io-rangi (god of the heavens), who begat Tahito-te-raki (ancient of the heavens), who begat Tahito-te-rea (ancient abundant one), who begat Wai-o (water sufficient), who begat Wai-o-whaka-tangata (sufficient water for man), who begat Te-anu-mahana (the world become warm), who begat Te-anu-mato (budding world), and Wero (pierce), and Wero-kohua (pierce the mist), and Te-anu-ka-wewero (the nipping cold). Te-anu-mahana (the warm earth) begat Tura (in open day); Te-anuku-ka-wewera (warm breath of the world) begat Heke-heke-u-nuku (descend on the breast of the world), Heke-heke-i-raki (descend from heaven), Heke-heke-i-papa (descend from the earth), and Whatu-rewa (the sacred stone); (d). These four were all females; Whatu-rewa was also granddaughter of Taka-roa.

Anu-ka-wewera also begat Rau-mati (summer); and Rau-mati, who was also descended from Anu-mahana, begat Tura-te-waru-tu-aha (clear day of the eighth moon). Tura-te-waru-tu-aha took to wife Rau-kura-matua (parent with the red plume), and begat Ira-tu-roto (marked deeply on the skin). Ira-tu-roto took Waha-mata-reka (beautiful face and sweet voice) to wife. She was daughter of Ahu-kuma-wiria (inclined to tend fondly), and begat Iwi (bone), a daughter, and Ui-roa (long inquiry), a son, and Poraka-(Poranga)-hau (invoke the winds at night), a daughter.

Ui-roa went on a journey. He arrived at the settlement of Te Tue (yelping), or Te-We (yelp). He took Te-We as his wife. Now, Pakura-tauranga (unsettled red one) was the elder brother of Te-We. He led Ui-roa to the grounds where they cultivated page 33 the kumara, where Ui-roa observed that Te-We ate the kumara raw, which made him think she would soon be a mother.

Pakura-tauranga made thirty ko (d) (wooden staves to cultivate with), and stuck them up on the ridges which divided the cultivations into beds or plots, and left them there, and then he performed ceremonies and chanted incantations, that his deified ancestors might come and use these staves, and turn up the soil of the beds preparatory to the planting of the kumara crop. Those ancestors came, and in two days they had set a large space of ground with the kumara.

Ui-roa, his wife, and her brother left their home and went to Te-aka-matua (the parent climbing-plant), the settlement of Ira-tu-roto. As they approached it the father of Ui-roa dreamt his son had come back to his home, and in his sleep the father called out. Ui-roa answered the call of his father. The reply awoke the old man. Ui-roa began to work in the land cultivated, by his father; but, not having sufficient kumara bulbs to set the whole field, he planted the karaka, tawa, whinau (hinau), pokaka, poporo, and karamu trees. Also he planted the kauru (tii) root (d), and toitoi (toetoe) grass, harakeke (korari) (flax, or Phormium tenax), and the ngaio, matai, and kahika-tea trees. At harvest-time he gathered in the kumara crop; but the trees, and roots, and grass became permanent. The fruit only of the trees was eaten, and the root of the kauru or tii was cooked for the saccharine matter it contained. The wife of Ui-roa brought forth a son, who was called Tahito-ta-rero (Tahi-to-ta-rere) (ancient flying one). The people of Te-we presented warm water to her: hence this is provided by the relatives of a mother in all similar cases. Another child, a son, was born to them, who was called Ra-kai-nui (great consuming sun), who took a wife and begat Te-ao-mata-rahi (cloud not dense), who, when he had become a man, followed a party which was proceeding to war. He was taken prisoner by a marauding party of the enemy, and killed. On the return home of the party with whom he was page 34 connected, he was missed. Those who had killed him cut his head off and buried his body. The head was taken by them to the settlements of Ra-kai-paka (day of eating scraps), Ra-kai-waka-iri (day on which food was hung up), Ra-kai-mako (day on which shark was eaten), and Ra-kai-kou-nuku (day on which the good things of the earth were eaten). Tahi-to-ta-rere then became chief leader of the many tribes.

Now, from Te Anu-i-waho (cold outside) came Te pounamu (greenstone); and from Te-anu-matao (dense cold), Wiro (Whiro) (second day of the moon) and Hua (bloom); and from Te-anu-mahana came Tura; and from Te-anu-ka-wewera the four women called Heke-heke-u-nuku, Heke-heke-i-raki, Heke-heke-i-papa, and Whatu-rewa. Thus the origin of Te-Anu (cold) and of Te Kahui (flocks or tribes) is one with that of the offspring of Taka-roa.

Now, the work on the left side of the Kahui-anu, and the omens observed there, relate to death, evil, and the lower worlds; but the work on the right side, and the omens observed there, relate to good, life, and prosperity in this world.

The Kahui (company) of Rehua, Te Waka-ha (cause breath), Naku-roa (long scratch), Te-matea (the longed for), Wati-hua (Whati-hua) (pluck the fruit), Hou-nuku (descend in the earth), Hou-raki (enter the heaven), and Hou-tea (enter the light), were originally below, but they fled above.

Te-Rangi-popoki (the sky with the concave side downwards) was father of Tane and of Hine-mata-ora (daughter of the healthy face), who begat Hine-kai-taki (tangi) (weeping daughter), who was the supreme of the Nga-i-tahu people.

These are the leaders of the senior family tribe: Rongo-u-matu (fame of the corpulent), Kahu-kura (red garment), Maui (on the left hand), Te Haerenga-taha (going on the side), Rongo-i-tua (news from outside), and Ra-kai-ora (day of plenty).

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And these are the divisions of the Tahu (opulent in all that sustains life; adequate to the necessities of all creatures): Tahu the food-seeker, Tahu the cultivator of food, Tahu the gatherer-together of food, Tahu the fructifier of food, and Tahu of peace and plenty.