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The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions: Horo-Uta or Taki-Tumu Migration. [Vol. I]

Chapter XII

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Chapter XII.

My work is unavailing now.
The child of stern confusion
Came with flood, and swept it all away.
Oh, hand of mine! I cannot blame myself.
Twas not of me, but from the ancients
Came the myth: I but repeat it now,
And tell it to the world—to man.
Oh! hearken then. I now will speak,
Though oft it has been heard before:
That echo, sending back our voice,
Exulting, mimicking word by word,
Is child of keen inquisitiveness.
And ebbing Nature took to wife
The lower germ of things;
And hence came fern
The weed that covered Rangi's back.
And when Tane lifted Rangi up
It fell, and covered all this world,
And bold unauthorized assumption
Took and hid it. Then A-torn
Made it grow a branch of fern (hau-mai),
And Pi-tau thus sprang up
And all mankind now saw
The mocking child of food,
That should be, but is not.

The Deluge.
Priests and Chiefs before the Flood. (Nga-I-Tahu.)

Tiki-Au-Ha (likeness spring forth) was the first man, and was made by Tane at Hawaiki. Io-wahine (godwoman) was the first woman. She also was made at Hawaiki by Tane, and to be the wife of Tiki-au-ha. Their offspring were: Aio-te-ki (gentle godlike words), first-born son of Tiki-au-ha; Aio-te-rea (god-like gentle growing), second son of Tiki-au-ha; Aio-whaka-tangata (gentle god-like man), first son of Aio-te-rea.

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Raki-rao (long sky).—The most learned priest in regard to all the ceremonies and incantations to be performed to Raki.

Tipu-tupu-nuia-a-uta (great king of the land) was he whose prayer obtained the power of Tane when the heavens let the rain down and filled all the land with water, and destroyed all the people; but he and his children were saved. They were: Para-whenua-mea (scum of the flood), Tiu (skim like a bird without flapping its wings), and Reta (distant). The power of God followed Tiu and Tupu-nui-a-uta when they and their children went in a covered canoe on the face of the waters, as if it were dry land, for the space of eight moons.

Taka-ra (Ro) (playful), the man of the greatest designing and constructive knowledge, was the son of Para-whenua mea.

Tu-tawake (great repairer) was formed by God from the loins of Hou-mea; and when the time drew near that he should be born he sent his messengers before him. His elder brothers wished to kill the messengers, but were not brave enough to attempt the deed. On this account Tu-tawake began to repeat his incantations, on the completion of which he came forth, with a hani (d) in his hand; and when seen by the people of Tai-rea (growing tide) they wondered. He addressed the great nations of the world, and said, “Hearken to my words;” but they would not listen: hence he destroyed the thousands of Tai-rea, and drove multitudes of them into the forests. This was called the battle of Tai-pari-pari (flowing tide).

Rua-tai-ao (pit of the world stream) was the most learned in all matters relating to life. He preached the words of life to Rua-tai-po (pit of the night stream) and the greater portion of his people. Rua-tai-ao called to those disobedient people, and said, “Hearken. I am possessed of the power to make peace and give life to this world. I possess the knowledge of true worship. I also have the knowledge of eating temperately. I have the power to keep man from looking aside. I have also page 167 the power to make fire burn for sacrifice and for the service of man. I have the power to teach man not to eat whilst walking. I have all power over life in this world.” He laid before Rua-tai-po the whole of this knowledge; but that proud disobedient evil-doer would not heed the words of Rua-tai-ao; but persisted in doing evil. This caused Rua-tai-ao to draw out his left hand over Rua-tai-po and all his people, and send them by thousands to destruction.

Marohi (power) succeeded Rua-tai-ao, and preached the doctrines taught by Rua-tai-ao.

Whena (like as).—He who first preached to Ha-rutu (panting) and his people; but they did not hearken to the teaching of Whena, nor would Ha-rutu listen to his words. Whena therefore called, and said, “I will soon bring confusion on you.” He drew aside the power that restrained evil falling on them. Death came on that obstinate people, and God killed all that unbelieving race.

Ka-tahua (Nga-tahua) (the mounds).—He who spoke strictly in accordance with what his parents taught him.

Tu-raki (Rangi) (standing in heaven).—He who strictly fulfilled all the laws laid down by Tane.

Wi (ironstone nodules).—He who had great power to expound all the laws promulgated by Tane, and for this derived the wisdom and power from God to conduct Tipu-nui-a-uta and his children on the face of the waters when they went in a covered raft. Wi spoke to Wa (space), and Miru (threads), and all the tribes, and said, “O friends! hearken to the words by which we may be saved: Live peaceably, do not work evil, do not be disobedient, do not be intemperate, do not offer false, lying worship, but let worship be true.” But these people and their leaders resisted. Wi spoke privately to Wa and Miru, and said, “O young people! you two hearken to my word which I now utter: When you eat give thanks. Educate and build up the soul that it may go correctly to the world of spirits. Believe what I now tell you, as this is the truth of the world.” They did not hearken. Wi thus preached for two years to that unbelieving page 168 people. He then called to them, and said, “Friends, hearken. Soon on the morrow (a time not far distant) the land will be overturned by God.” And when the days were fulfilled he prayed to God; and the pa of Wa and the pa of Miru were overturned, and thousands of their people were killed in the overturning.

Hua (fruit).—The man who practised the evil deeds of Tu(-mata-uenga) and Roko (-ma-rae-roa).

Aio-riri (calm after strife).—The great man who upheld the doctrines of Rua-tai-ao.

Puta (through).—The man who was commissioned to call on all the people of the world to believe in God. He built a temple in which to teach men how to become noble. The tribes were rebellious, and called to Puta, and said, “O son! can your worship save you? or will the sacredness of your temple save you?” Puta replied, “Friends, hearken to the words which tell of the works of Raki—the words which were given to Tane—the words I now disclose to you; or soon the hosts above will make an accusation.” That proud people answered Puta, and said, “Friend, your words are lies.” Puta was grieved with Mataeho, as he was the most obstinate unbeliever, and wished to be the sovereign of all the world. Puta, addressing him, said, “O young man! you are an evil man. You are attempting to ignore the doctrine of Tane. You have all heard my word, which I utter to each and every pa. To-morrow an accusation will be made by Raki against the world.” Soon after this the child of Puta died. The child was his first-born, and lord of all his family. Puta cut the big toe off the child's foot and cooked it in an oven, and with incantations and ceremonies took the sanctity off the toe; he then put it into his mouth and spat the slaver produced by it over all the houses. Then he took into his hand a calabash containing the sacred offerings of life, and, having arrived on the bank of a stream, he opened the calabash, and then closed it again; and saw a cloud standing in the heaven, bright as the brightness of a fire burning on the earth. He called to Raki to overturn the earth, and he struck the earth with his knife page 169 (maipi), and the earth turned upside down, and all the people of the world perished. Puta and his people alone were saved. Thenceforth this has been rehearsed as the overturning of Mataeho by Puta.

Te-Morina (remove the tapu from the crops).—He who was learned in the ceremonies and thank-offerings for food.

Raka (Ranga) -Were-Were (collector of small things).—A noble man whose appearance had never changed. Other men changed and grew old, but he kept his youthful countenance even unto death.

Tu-Te-Raki-Noa (stand in the common heaven), or Tu-te-raki-paoa (stand in the smoky heaven).—He whose face was like that of God.

Hui-Aua (Awa) (confluence of water).—He who worshipped on the breast of Raki.

Rua-Tipua (Tupua) (goblin-pit).—The man who was ignorant, and perplexed himself with his dream. He could not understand his dream, and was entirely absorbed in the thought of it.

Te-Whai-Po (incantations chanted at night).—He who was baptised in the water by his grandparents, and smitten with leprosy. His skin was not like that of other men, but all white and leprous.

Kae-Ho (pouting).—He who was complete in all the knowledge pertaining to Raki.

Karu (Ngaru)-Ai-Papa (rippling on the earth). He who taught all the ceremonies and worship of the gods.

Tu-Ake (stand up) was most learned in all the laws of Tane.

Tuki-Tuki-Papa (beating the earth)—He who worshipped at the loins of God.

Take-Take (foundation).—He who knew how to build a beautiful house for himself, and with whom originated the customs and incantations performed over new houses.

Roko (Rongo)-Nui (far famed) was his own enemy, and was driven into the forest by a war-party.

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Tu-raki (rangi) (standing in heaven).—He who was as fierce as Tu (-mata-uenga) and Roko (-ma-rae-roa) to wage war. He was very powerful.

Tu-Te-Hou-Nuku (Tu who burrows into the earth).—He who exalted the incantations and ceremonies of Tu (-mata- uenga) and Roko (-ma-rae-roa).

Pu-mate-aio (origin of calms).—He whose virtuous life procured the constant presence and the blessing of Tane.

Tu-hoto-ariki (sobbing lord as he stands).—The most empty, vain, and self-complacent of men in the world.

Waiho-nuku (leave the world).—A great teacher of all the various ceremonies and incantations.

Rupe-tu (shake violently whilst standing).—He who studied and practised the doctrines of Rua-tai-ao.

Raki-nuia (heaven made great).—He who exceeded all men in selfishness and vanity.

Tahau-ri (front of the thigh screened).—He who was bold to teach all the rites, ceremonies, and incantations.

Tau-tini (long space of time).—He who was good and kind, and diligently taught the customs and ceremonies of worship when it became known that the world was to be drowned.

Tari (carry).—He who guarded those things which God gave into his charge. To him was given power over all things. He discovered and taught the art of making fish-hooks from wood.

Ra-kuru (boxing day).—He it was who first committed theft, by stealing the fishing-hook belonging to Tari. The wood of which the hook was made was dedicated to God. Ra-kuru saw that the hook always caught fish, and therefore stole it. Tari was grieved at his loss, because the hook had the power of God on it. Tari called an assembly of all the aged men of the Tribe of Rei-hi (chest held forward), and inquired of them where his hook was. They were not able to inform him. Tari prayed to God that the thief might be discovered, and then the people saw the hook exposed in the scrotum of Ra-kuru. Tari called to page 171 the assembly, and said, “Friends, we have seen the matter revealed, and Ra-kuru has my fishing-hook.” Ra-kuru was ashamed, and went to commit suicide. Tari said to his sister, Hine-i-taitai (daughter of the sea-coast), “Go and counsel your husband; and if he confess and show where the fish-hook is, I will forgive him, and so evil will be averted from you all.” Rakuru was in the act of committing suicide, and, when nearly dead, she said to him, “O friend! have you the fishing-hook of your brother-in-law?” “Yes,” he said; “here it is with me.” She asked for and obtained it. She put it into her mouth, and went two days on the sea of Wai-rapua (the sought water), and was seen by Kumi-kumi-maro (stiff beard), who took her as his wife. They lived by faith. They had neither garments, nor food, nor house, nor water; but they prayed to God to give them those things. God gave them what they asked, and built a house for them. Hine i-taitai conceived and brought forth a son, who was called Tau-tini (many years). He was the man whose knowledge of God was the most perfect. Ti-tipa (skim away) asked and obtained his canoe from him. Tau-tini was afterwards sorry for the loss of his canoe; but God said to him, “Make a canoe of wood, and let it be the size of a paka (kumete—oval bowl), and let it be painted outside with reperepe (a red colour obtained from certain sea-shells).” Tau-tini did so. The water could not get into the canoe. He went on a voyage in it. God guided him. After two months spent on the sea he arrived at Rewa-nui (great elevation), the home of Ti-tipa, and there saw his own canoe out on the sea, with men in her, fishing. They saw the canoe, or bowl, of Tau-tini floating on the sea, and wondered at its fine appearance. They lifted it up and took it into their canoe, and patted and rubbed it with their hands. They went on shore, and all the people were rejoiced at the beauty of the new canoe. It was at that time very light, and they carried it on shore; but shortly afterwards they found it was heavy as a hill of earth, and they were not able to lift it. Then they left it on the sea- page 172 shore, and on the morrow all the people saw that a house had been erected, and a stage had been put up on which to keep food, and there were many garments there and much food collected. Tau-tini was lonely in his house by himself; but two women, Ti-mua (first tii—edible root) and Ti-roto (inside tii), came and saw him and his property, and desired him as their husband. He stayed there two years, and recovered the fishhook of his uncle Tari; and his heart was rejoiced, as he had obtained that for which he had voyaged so far, and travelled through so many lands [islands]. But he stayed in that land for many years. The food he wanted and the garments he required he prayed to God for, in accordance with the teaching of Tane. When the time was fulfilled he went home.

Rewa-Rewa (float) was a good man, and believed and taught all the ceremonies and incantations of Raki and Tane.

Taka-Roa (take a long time to do anything) was a just and most learned man in the doctrine and teachings of Tane.

Taki-Rau (A-Taki-Rau) (led the hundred).—He who boldly taught all the laws of Tane.

Raki-Nui (great heaven) was learned in and practised the doctrines taught by Tane.

Peke-I-Tua (jump behind).—A good and upright man, to whom God gave power to carry out all his projects.

The Deluge. (Nga-I-Tahu.)

Men had become very numerous on the earth. There were many great tribes. Evil prevailed everywhere. The tribes quarrelled, and wars were frequent. The worship of Tane was neglected, and his doctrines openly denied. The teachings of Para-whenua-mea (débris of the flood) and Tupu-nui-a-uta (the king of the interior) respecting the separation of Rangi (heaven), and Papa (earth) were disputed, and men obstinately opposed their doctrines, and declared them to be false teachers, and asserted that Rangi and Papa were now as they were when the page 173 world was made, and that Tane had not done any of the things he was said to have done. But Para-whenua-mea and Tupu-nui-a-uta continued to preach until the tribes cursed them by saying, “You two can eat the words of your history as food for you, and you can eat the heads of the words of that history.” Then these two teachers were very much grieved because of the words “Eat the heads,” and they became angry. Then they commanded the people to build a house in which to teach the ancient legends and history, and the knowledge of the doctrines of Tane, and also the incantations and ceremonies for all occasions. Then were the people filled with sorrow, and turned aside, and uttered the curse of “Eating the heads.”

Tupu-nui-a-uta and Para-whenua-mea then got their stone axes and cut down totara (Podocarpus), and kahika-tea (Podocarpus dacrydioides), and other light-timber trees, which they dragged together to the source of the River Tohinga (the baptism). They bound the timber together with vines of the pirita (Rhipogonum scandens) and ropes, and made a very wide raft (moki). When the raft had been built, the incantations of Whaka-pio (to cause to be adequate) were repeated to heaven (Rangi). Then Tupu-nui-a-uta and Para-whenua-mea repeated together an incantation-prayer, and put some water into a pauashell (haliotis), and used the water in the ceremonies, and repeated the incantation, and built a house on the raft, and put much food into it—fern-root, kumara, and dogs.

Para-whenua-mea and Tupu-nui-a-uta then repeated incantations, and prayed that rain might descend in such abundance as would convince men of the power of Tane, and prove the truth of his existence and the necessity of the ceremonies of worship for life and for peace, and to avert evil and death.

Then these teachers, with Tiu (fly as a bird without flapping its wings), Reti (snare), and a female named Wai-puna-hau (source of the wind), got on the raft; but there were other women on the raft besides.

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Tiu prayed and repeated incantations for rain. Now, Tiu was the priest on the raft. The staff representing rain had been set up. He prayed that rain might descend in great torrents; and when it had so rained for four or five days and nights, he repeated incantations that it might cease, and it ceased.

On the next day the flood had reached the settlement, and on the following day the raft began to be lifted by the waters, and floated down the River Tohinga. The water was now great, like an ocean, and the raft began to move about hither and thither. All men and women and children were drowned of those who denied the truth of the doctrines preached by Tane.

The raft now floated away; and these are the nights and moons, and the matters relating to the days, and also to the works which were performed by those on the raft whilst they floated about, even to the day it again touched the land:—

It floated on down the river Tohinga, and came to the Au-whiwhi (entangled stream), Au-matara (stream a short distance away), Au-kuha (rugged stream), Au-puha (stream blurting out), Au-mahora (stream spread out). The raft here was unimpeded, and descended, going straight on in the stream. It came to the Au-titi (descending stream), Au-kokomo (stream going into), Au-huri (turning stream), Au-take (origin of the stream), Au-whawhao (stream fining in), Au-kawha (ngawha) (stream broken up), Au-mate (dead stream). The stream now ceased to be, and the current went right on, and down, and heaved, and went forward, and sighed, and came to Ha-wai-ki (water of breath filled), Hawa-i-ki (chipped and filled), Ha-wai-ki (iti) (water of small breath), Hawa-iki (iti) (broken small).

The raft was now quite out on the sea, and arrived at To (pulled), Tapa-tapa (give a name to), Nga-rimu (the sea-weed), Te Tukunga (the allowing to depart).

When they got to Tapa-tapa those on the raft repeated incantations and performed ceremonies and called aloud the names of the gods; and when they arrived at Nga-rimu they page 175 repeated the ceremonies and offered sacrifice to the gods.

When they arrived at Te Tukunga, they repaired the raft with great energy, and by friction procured sacred fire. Parawhenua-mea took grass, and held it over the sacred fire and took it away again; again he held it over the sacred fire. This he did so that they might cook food for themselves on that fire. (From this ceremony is derived the custom of our people in regard to the sacred ceremonies and incantations performed and repeated over canoes.) He took the grass from the fire and divided it into small bundles. One for the gods was the first laid aside, one for the males of mankind, one for the females, and one for the aged females; and then one, with some fern-root, was offered in recognition of their being preserved whilst being carried hither and thither by the flood, and as an offering from those who at harvest-time take the first fruits from the crops. This was for the male line only; another like it was also offered for the female line.

When these presentations and thank-offerings had been made to the gods, they took some fern-root, and with it touched the lips of all—first of the men, then of the women, and then of the children. Then, for the first time, they partook of cooked food.

They lived on this one meal for two days, and did not eat of any other food from the time they had performed the thank-offering to the gods.

They now saw goddesses wandering on the face of the ocean. They were Hine-ahua (maiden of the altar), Hine raka (ranga)-tai (maiden arranging the sea), Hine-apo-hia (maiden that gathers together), Kare-nuku (agitated world), Kare-rangi (agitated heaven). These came to make a commotion in the sea, that the raft might be destroyed and those on it might perish. The sea was boisterous, but the raft and its occupants were not overwhelmed.

The raft floated on, and came to Te-wiwini (the tumbling), Te-wehi (the dread), Te-wana (bud forth), Te-pa (the touched), Kare-tua-tahi (first ripple), and on to the second, and to the page 176 third, and to the tenth ripple, and they arrived at Te-tarawa (suspended). At this time expired the sixth moon of their living on the raft and of their drifting on the ocean.

The raft still drifted on, and came to Te-hiwi (path), Te-whana (put forth power), Te-riaki (strain), Te-hapai (lift up), Te-tiketike (the high up), Te-rahi-rahi (the thin). At this time Tiu had a desire to land on the shore. They went on till they came to Te-kapunga (caught at), Te-whatinga (the broken), Te-horonga (the falling down in pieces), Te-whaka-huka (making foam), Te-whati-tata (broken near), Pou-hoatu (the staff given), Tuturi (kneeling), Ekenga (got on), Uta (on shore), Mae-ra-uta (coming from inland), Tira (company of people), Moana-nui (great sea).

When they had been floating about on the raft for seven moons, Tiu spoke to his companions and said, “We shall not die; we shall land on the earth;” and on the eighth month he added to his words, and said, “The sea has become thin; the flood has begun to subside.” Para-whenua-mea and Tupu-nui-a-uta asked him, “By what do you know?” He answered, “By the signs of my staff.” He had kept his wananga, or altar, on one side of the deck, where he performed his ceremonies and repeated his incantations, and observed his staff, which he also kept there; and by his knowledge and constant devotion to his ceremonies he understood the signs of his staff. Hence he again said to his companions, “The blustering winds of the past moons have become less strong. The great winds of the past moons have become weaker now, and the winds of this month have died away, and the sea has become calm.”

On the eighth moon the rolling motion of the raft had changed: it now pitched up and down and rolled. Hence Tiu thought they were near to land, and that the sea had become shallow. He said to his companions, “This is the moon on which we shall land on dry earth, as the signs of my staff indicate that the sea is becoming less deep.”

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All the time they were floating about they repeated the incantations and performed the ceremonies to Tane.

They landed on dry earth at Ha-wai-ki. They thought that some of the people of the world might perhaps still be alive, and that the earth might have the same appearance as it had before the flood came; but on landing they saw that there was not one human being left alive, and the land had materially changed: it had cracked in parts, had been turned upside down, and had been confused by the power of the flood; and they found that they were the only survivors of all the tribes of all the earth, and that the earth had completely changed in appearance.

When they landed on the earth their first act was to perform ceremonies and repeat incantations. They performed these to Tane, to Rangi, and to Rehua, and all the gods. Seaweed was the sacred offering given in place of slain sacrifice. The ceremonies and incantations, with the offering, were first performed to Te-po, then to Te-ao, then to Te-kore, then to Te-maku, then to Rangi, then to Rehua, and lastly to Tane. In offering this sacrifice they held the sea-weed in their hands, and repeated the incantation to each god in succession. As they addressed each god consecutively, a portion of the seaweed of the length of the two thumbs of the priest was broken off the main piece. Each god was addressed at a different spot. The altar to each god, on which each offering was left, and before which the incantations were repeated, was a root of grass, a shrub, or tree, or flax-bush. These were the altars of the gods at that time; and now, if any of the people of the tribes go near to such altars the food they have eaten will swell in their stomachs and kill them. The chief priest alone may go to such places. If the people go to such sacred spots, and afterwards cook food at their settlement, that food would kill those who ate it. It would be cursed by the sinful act of desecrating the sanctity of the altar; and the punishment on the eaters would be death.

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When all the ceremonies and customary acts had been performed for the removal of the tapu, fire was obtained at one of the sacred places by friction. Some sea-weed was scorched, and the chief priest took a bundle of grass in his hand, into which he put some of the fire. Whilst it blazed he divided the bundle of blazing grass into as many portions as there were pieces of sea-weed on the separate altars for the gods. Thus each piece of sea-weed had a piece of burning grass near to it. The priests then placed a piece of rimu (sea-weed) on each fire, and these were presented as an offering to the gods for their rescue from the flood, and for their delivery from the goddesses who attacked them whilst on the raft, and for their lives being preserved to land at Ha-wai-ki.

The ceremony and incantations of thanks were also offered for the females, when the names of all the goddesses were repeated. These were the female gods of Te-po, of Te-ao, of Te-kore, Kore-te-whiwhia, and the goddesses of all the Kore, and even the female Papa, with whom the offerings ceased. This having been done, the high priest went to a little distance and pulled at a bunch of grass, but not sufficiently strong to pull it altogether out of the ground; beneath it he deposited a piece of the sea-weed which had been offered to the gods. Each piece of sea-weed was deposited under a separate root of grass, on the conclusion of which the incantation Moana-uri (dark sea) was repeated.

Another ceremony and its incantations were now performed—namely, the incantation of Huri-taka-pau (turning of that on which we rest). The high priest, with a branch of a tree in his hand, went to the edge of the water, and, dipping the branch into it, he then turned and faced the people, who were the while sitting a short distance from the spot on which the sea-weed was laid. Standing there, he waved his hand towards them, and threw the water in their direction. This he did three times. Then, returning to the people, he sat down by a fire produced by friction, in which to cook some fern-root as an page 179 offering for the company rescued. The people now for themselves produced a fire by friction, and on it roasted some pieces of fern-root. Then one of them took the piece which had first been roasted, and stood aside from the fire, and, going near to the sitting high priest, he strode four paces in front of him whilst the priest chanted an incantation. He then commanded the man to hold the fern-root up in one of his hands. The priest chanted another incantation, and commanded the fern-root to be let down again and to lift up the other hand with another piece of fern-root in it. The fern-root was held up in the right hand first, as in the right hand was held the offering to the senior gods, and because the right hand and the right side of all men are sacred to Tu, the god of war. The priest chanted another incantation, and stood up, and went and took the first piece of fern-root out of the hand of the man, and gave it to the most sacred woman, who took it and passed it under her thigh and ate it. But in some instances she only ate part of it. Taking a root of grass, she offered it and the uneaten portion of the fern-root to all the people, who ate the fern-root and threw the root of grass to where the sacred fire had been burning. The other piece of fern-root was taken out of the other hand and given to another aged person, who passed it under her thigh and ate it. Staying where they were, they sat until the sacred fires all went out, and the sun had set on the first day of their restoration to dry land. In joy they procured a fire by friction, and cooked food, ate, and slept.

On the morrow, when they awoke, they produced fire by friction, and heated the umu Huri-hanga-taka-pau (oven of the turning of that on which we rest). Food was put into it, and when cooked it was placed in front of the high priest, as he sat retired from the rest; and when he had partaken of it others of the sacred men and women of the people consumed the remainder; and then, looking up, they beheld the rainbow (Kahu-kura-red garment) and Rongo-nui-a-tau (great news of the page 180 whole year) in the sky; to which Tiu at once offered sacrifices; and then they discovered that Te-kani-uhi (absorbed by friction) and her female attendants were the deities who, in answer to the prayers of Tiu and Para-whenua-mea, had caused the rain to descend, and had vomited up the great swelling of the water which had destroyed all the rest of mankind, and who thenceforth dwelt below the end of the sky, whence they drive the water to produce the ebb and flow of the tides we now see.

Another Reading of the Flood. (Nga-I-Tahu.)

In ancient history we are told that Tupu-tupu-nui-a-uta was the cause of the flood. He was the son of Para-whenua-mea. He asked for rain, and such torrents descended as produced a flood, which continued to rise until the plains, and hills, and the highest peaks of the mountains were covered by it; and all mankind, except those who had prepared a raft, and had taken refuge on it, perished in the water. In those days Tu-nuku held the sun as his vassal, and Tu-rangi held the moon as his vassal, and Kiwa held the sea.

Now, when Tane had completed the adornment of his father Rangi by fixing the stars in their places and spreading out the clouds in the heavens, it was commanded that there should be a sea; but it should be only a little sea when compared with the flood of Para-whenua-mea, which had produced the great ocean of the world.

That flood came when our ancestors were at Tohinga, in the days of Te-awa, Tupu-nui-a-uta, and Para-whenua-mea; and caused Te-au-whiwhi, Te-au-matua, Te-au-kuha, Te-au-puha, Te-au-mahora, Ka-uro (shout of triumph), Ka-heke (descending), Ka-maro-te-au, Te-au-titi, Te-au-kokomo, Te-au-huri, Te-au-taki, Te-au-wawao (whawhao), Te-au-huri, Te-au-tangi, Te-au-kawha (ngawha), Te-au-mate (sub-siding flood); then it began to subside, but it was still great, and, sweeping on to Ka-titi-te-au, Tatu-te-au, Maro-te-au, Hotu-te-au, and on to Hawa-i-ki, came on to To, Tapa-tapa, Nga-rimu (sea-weed offerings made). page 181 Then were seen the goddesses Hine-ahua, Hine-raka (ranga)-tai, Hine-apohia, Kare-nuku, Kare-raki (rangi), Te-wiwini, Te-wehi, Te-wana, Te-pa, the first Kore, and even to the tenth Kore, and the first Ta-rewa, even to the tenth Ta-rewa, and the Hiwi, Te-whana, Te-riaki, Te-hapai, Tiketike, Te-rahirahi, Te-kapunga, Te-whatinga, Te-horinga, Te-whaka-huka, Wati (Whati)-tata, Pou-ata, Tuturi, Ekenga, and Uta (landed on shore), the Mae-ra-uta, Te-tira; and on the dark sea were seen the lights of Taka (Tanga)-roa, and the ceremony of Huri-hanga (turning the mat on which they rested), which enabled them to revive and spread out again, even to Taka-roa-haere-roa (the long-wandering god of the sea) and Nuku-tama-manawa-roa (the delivery of the delighted son), or Haku-tama-manawa-reka (complaint of the delighted son), until they came near to the outstanding Hawa-i-ki.

Earth Upheaved. (Nga-I-Tahu.)

Puta was the cause of the land being turned upside down in the days of Mata-iho (face bowed down), or Mata-aho (shining face), when trees and vegetation, and also the greater part of men, were destroyed.

The second upsetting of the land was in the days of Wi (dread), or I (was), and A (am). This was of the same destructive character as the first. Then Hapopo (decay) folded up the sun, and caused the death of a vast multitude.

To Ui (ask) belonged the fire of destruction, and Puta caused the commotion which overthrew the earth, so that the animals of this world, and the birds, and the moa, and others of the same kind, were destroyed.