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The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions: Horo-Uta or Taki-Tumu Migration. [Vol. I]

Chapter XI

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Chapter XI.

My soul is weary of all the cares of home,
Confused with him, the son of Pu-whaka-horo.
My wonder is, why all the crowd
So occupy their days beneath the shady trees.
But now I know—the tempting
Fern-root and the sweet kauru-stem
Entice them there…………

* * * * * * *

Ye thousand stars above, who twinkle
O'er the highest bough of forest-tree,
Pierce into darkest shade of
Forest gloom at O-tu-whaia,
And startle all the souls
Who traverse o'er the paths
So intersecting all the land,
And show with blaze of light
The coveted new roots of fern—
The staff of life for man on earth—
And let the new creation come,
With hands where now their feet should be,
And feet where now the hands are seen;
And call such being heaven's own child.
Then I shall be so charmed, and follow
Those of skin of dusky hue,
And follow e'en the progeny
Of him they now call “Punga's child” (the lizard).

Creation of Man and Woman..
Tiki (Another Reading—Nga-ti-Hau.)

Papa (the earth) and Rangi (the sky) were lying together, and all between them were nga-toro (vines and creepers), korito (tender plants), tutu (Coriaria ruscifolia), and red water. Man was not in the world at that time; then all was dark.

Tiki was the first man, and his wife, Ma-riko-riko (glimmer), was the first woman, in this world.

Arohi-rohi (mirage) formed Ma-riko-riko from the warmth page 152 of the sun and Pa-oro (echo); therefore she was of this world—not of Divine origin.

Tiki and Ma-riko-riko begat a daughter named Hine-kau-ata-ata (daughter floating in shadow). When the child of Hine-kau-ata-ata was born, clouds began to skim over the sky. The clouds stood; they flew. They were dark clouds—black clouds—very black clouds. Water began to flow, and the banks of rivers were seen, and dry land was preserved from floods. Then was the earth seen in the dawn of day. There was lightning, rivulets were, and streams flowed on to the rivers of water; and then came the full light of day, and Tane propped the heavens up, and great Rangi was seen above—then light and day were complete.

Tane, who propped the sky up, begat Ai-potiki (begotten one), and Maui (the weary one), and Maui-i-mua (the first one), and Maui-i-roto (the one on the inside), and Maui-i-taha (the one at the side), and Maui-i-tikitiki (the one supreme), and Ko-ata-te-rangi (the shadow of heaven), and Ko-tahi (the great first in power), and Rauru (the sacred hair of the head, or god of the head).

Mythological Chant of the Creation of Man.

To Tane belongs the tapu (everything sacred), as he sought for and found it in “the forest of Tane.”

This is the chant relating to his discovery of man:—

Seeking, earnestly seeking in the gloom.
Searching—yes, on the coast-line—
On the bounds of light of day.
Looking into night.
Night had conceived
The seed of night.
The heart, the foundation of night,
Had stood forth self-existing
Even in the gloom.
It grows in gloom—
The sap and succulent parts,
The life pulsating,
And the cup of life.
page 153 The shadows screen
The faintest gleam of light.
The procreating power,
The ecstacy of life first known,
And joy of issuing forth
From silence into sound.
Thus the progeny
Of the Great-extending
Filled the heavens' expanse;
The chorus of life
Rose and swelled
Into ecstacy,
Then rested in
Bliss of calm and quiet.

Another Reading of Tiki. (Nga-ti-Hau.)

The first man who was born in Te-po (darkness) was Rena-u-matua (expanded progenitor). At that time there was no water. He was born of Ao-marama. When Miru-tau was killed Miru-tau was sent to Te Reinga (lower worlds), and after that came into existence Pupuke (thought began to be), Mahara (thought was), Hiringa-te-nuku (earth was energetic), Hirihiringa-te-rangi (Rangi was energetic), Hiringa (laborious), Hiringa-te-manu-mea (energy of the one that can float in the air), Te-whaka-ae-ipipu (ipuipu) (the valleys or hollows), Te-whaka-rahirahi (made thin), Tiwha-i-wahaa (the marked one carried), Te rerenga-apa-i-waho (the fleeing-away of the company), Te whakatutu (the fluid passed through a funnel), Te-ata-i-au (the certain or steadfast dawn), Rua-tipua (goblin pit), Rua-tahito (tawhito) (ancient pit), Rua-hehe (pit of consternation), Rua-whakakino-rangi (pit that disfigured the heaven), Rua-i-te-ata (pit of the dawn), Rua-timo (the pit which was pricked, or pecked), Timo-timo-i-te-rangi (the heaven pecked at), Rangi-nui-e-tu-nei (the great heaven now seen), Rongo-ta-rangi-nui (great fame, and breath of heaven), Tane (male), Tu (stand erect), Tanga-roa (long assembly), Ru (tremble, or earthquake), Ku-oko (nursed in silence), Tahu (husband or wife), Are (space not occupied), Motu-hari-ke (portion isolated), Tiki (the fetched one), Tane-rua-nuku (man of the earth-pit), Rangi-whaka-ahua page 154 (heaven swelled out), Rangi-pou-tu (steep heaven), Pou-tu-te-rangi (heaven erect), Rangi-a-niwa-niwa (heaven of great god), Rangi-a-hehei (heaven of doubt), Rangi-marama (heaven of light), Aio-rangi (calm heaven), Te-waki (whaaki)-ariki (undivulging lord), Tangata-katoa (all men), Taura-kaha (strong rope), Aki-aki-te-rangi (strike the heaven), Rakau-te-rangi (tree of heaven), Kai-tangata (man-eater), Karihi (sinker), Hema (pudendum), Tawhaki-piki-a-te-rangi (Tawhaki climbed up to heaven), Wewe- nuku (dwarf of the earth), U-wewe-rangi (small breast of heaven), Tapu-whaka-ihi (dreaded sacredness), Tapu-whaka-mana (sacredness acknowledged), Tu-tara (speak evil of), Ngai-ariki (great shell), Ngai-tauira (shell for a pattern), Toi-te-hua-tahi (peak of the first fruit), Rua-rangi (pit of heaven), Rauru (hair of the head), Ha-tonga (breath of the south), Rakau-maui (left-handed spear), Puru-ora (stopper of life), Pou-matua (prop of the parent), Rongo-te-aha (what news), Ture (law), Tu-ranga (standing), Te mate-eke-piri (disease close by), Tuhu-kuao (perch for the youngest bird), Hai-matua (for the parent), Mau-huki (pierced and caught), Haere-au (go in the current), Ihi (dread), Te-mana-o-rongo (the power of news), Uru (west), Rangi-whaka-rongona (listen to the heavens), Tama-rapa (son of the web-foot), Tu-rau-kawa (son of the bitter leaf), Tu-mata-rau (stand with the eel-spear), Rangi-tu-ehu (day of mist), Tu-mai-kuku (stand in silence), Kahu-kura (red garment), Raki-whaka-ware (day of confusion), Whiti-au (cross the stream), Whare-matangi (house of the wind), Mania-o-rongo (disagreeable news; or, who was baptized), Hare Rakina (Charles Darknell), who was alive in 1872.

Another Reading of Tiki. (Nga-Ti-Awa.)

An aquatic plant (the ma-kaka or pare-tao) growing in swamps was the male procreating power which engendered the red clay seen in landslips, whence came the first man. This man was discovered by one of the gods before light had dawned on this world. It was the grandson of this man who separated earth page 155 and heaven, and caused light to be, and divided the world of light from the world of darkness.

Another Reading. (Nga-Ti-Awa.)

Tiki made man by mixing his own blood with clay, and forming it into a figure like himself; and by breathing into it he gave it life.

Another Reading. (Tu-Whare-Toa.)

Tiki was made of red clay and the centre shoot of rau-po (Typha angustifolia). He was made in the resemblance of the god who made him.

Another Reading. (Tu-Whare-Toa.)

Tiki-ahua (likeness made) made the first man—of red clay. He also lifted and propped up the heaven from the earth; and light came on to the world we live in. The heaven lay on the earth and caused night until it was thus lifted up.

Woman Made. (Nga-I-Tahu.)

Tane meditated how he could make a woman, who should be a companion for Tiki-au-a-ha. Taking his former figure as a mould, he again moulded the soil of Hawaiki, and prayed. These were the words of his prayer:-

Here stands the originating power, the power dreaded,
Inspired and stretched out. Dawn, thou day on high;
Dawn, thou day beneath; dawn on the mountain-peak;
Dawn, thou uplifted; dawn within, younger brother of glowing heaven.

It is stretched out, stretched out.
To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your head?
That is where the hairs have their storehouse.
That's not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your forehead, then?
That is where the blood has its storehouse.
That's not it.

page 156

To what shall I place my procreating power-
To what—to your nose, then?
That is where the nose has its store of mucus.
That's not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your eye?
That is where the eye has its storehouse of tears.
That's not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your ear?
That is where the ear has its storehouse.
That's not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your mouth, then?
That is where food has its storehouse.
That's not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your neck?
That's not it,
This is where groans and moans have their storehouse.
That is not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To your arm-pit?
That is where perspiration has its storehouse.
That is not, that is not the place.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your breast?
That is where the breast has its storehouse.
That's not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your stomach, then?
That is not it.
That is where the stomach has its storehouse.
That's not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your side?
That is not the place.
That is where the side has its storehouse.
That's not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your back?
That is not the place.
That is where the back has its storehouse.
That's not the place.

page 157

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your navel?
That's not it.
That is where the navel has its storehouse.
That is not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your waist, then?
That is not the place.
That is where the waist has its storehouse.
That's not the place.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your thigh?
That is not the place.
That is where the thighs have their storehouse.
That is not the place.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your anus?
That's not the place.
That is where the excrement has its storehouse.
That's not the place.

To what shall I place my procreatiug power—
To what—to your body?
That is not it.
That is where the body has its storehouse.
That's not the place.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your flesh?
That is not it.
That is whore [sic] the flesh and muscle have their storehouse:
That's not it.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your joints?
That is not the place.
That is where the joints have their storehouse.
That's not the place.

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your feet?
That is not the place.
That is where the feet have their storehouse.
That's not the place.

page 158

To what shall I place my procreating power—
To what—to your power of producing?
It is good—to your producing power.
That is where the procreating power has its storehouse,
Fully abundant, fully engendered,
Procreation complete, unlimited, and final.

Thus was Io-wahine (female godly power) produced, and she walked forth a woman. Tane then knew his prayer was allpowerful. He had made man, and now he had made woman, and she ran forth and was called Io-wahine. Tane then determined that Io-wahine should be the wife of Tiki-au-a-ha; so they lived together.

They had six children. A-io-te-ki (am power that spoke) and A-io-te-rea (am power that grew) were brothers. These two brothers had four sisters, two of whom were taken by each of them to wife. A-io-te-rea took Wehe-wehea (separated) and Whaka-tara (the annoyed), by whom he had Te-a-io-whaka-tangata (the am became man). This was his only child. Te-a-io-whaka-tangata took to wife the daughter of Te-a-io-te-ki, called To-wheta-mai (writhing power), by whom he had many children, even twenty and three. These peopled the world, and Tane went up and remained in the heaven.

Another Version of the Creation of Woman.

Tane-nui-a-rangi took a tree as his wife, and his offspring were trees, and not men. He therefore went and obtained soppy mud, and took it to the sandy beach at Tapa-tai-roa (long sea-coast) of Hawa-i-ki, and mixed it with sand. The mud he made into the shape of a woman for himself. He made her, and laid her down, and covered her up with garments, and he breathed into her mouth and left her, and went to his settlement. After some time he went to look at her: he found her moving and shaking, and looking on this side and on that, observing all she could see. When she looked behind she saw Tane, and laughed. He put out his hand and took her to his settlement, where she was fed. She cohabited with him. He put his generating power page 159 to her eye and created the eye-hall; to her nose, and created the kea (mucus); to her mouth, and created the mare (phlegm); to her side, and created the riko-werawera (perspiration); to her tara (clitoris)—then was born the first child of Tane, named Hine-hau-one (the daughter of earth-aroma), and also called Hine-mana-hiri (daughter of the stranger).

Another Version of the Creation of Woman.

Tane-nui-a-rangi was disconsolate for want of a wife, and went to Hawa-i-ki, where he met female gods, of whom he inquired, “Where is the female?” He went to search for her; but, failing in his object, returned to the goddesses, and again asked. They answered, “She is outside” (or far away). Again he went in search, but failed. He then asked Rua (the pit), and said, “O daughter! where is the female?” who pointed directly to the river of Hawa-i-ki, and answered, “There is the female, that is she. The water which is flowing there, the child comes out of that.” Tane went to the bank of the river, and with the mud of it he formed a woman, repeating this incantation the while:—

Shape the children at Hawa-i-ki
Shake with delight.
O, Tiki the father,
Tiki the seeker,
Shake with delight.

He made the face, arms, hands, legs, and feet, and the mahi-kino (pudendum muliebre); then he caused his procreative power to put itself into action, and repeated this incantation:—

Grow up; my procreating power;
Grow down, my procreating power;
Grow, my procreating power, on the mons veneris;
Grow, my procreating power, on the labia minora;
Go and grow; go, O breath (of life)!

He put his procreating power on the head, and begat the bald (or skull); on the forehead, and begat blood; on the eye, and begat the eye-ball; on the mouth, and begat the phlegm; on page 160 the side, and begat perspiration; on the thigh, and begat the side (or Io, muscle-power); and when he put the procreating power on the clitoris of his earth-wife Tane asked, “What night of the month is this?” Tama-i-waho answered, “It is a turu-ea” (turu, the fifteenth day of the moon). Tane said, “My procreating power is turu now” (turu, apposite, delightful); and he recited this incantation:-

Ah! see it rush forward.
It is the coming dawn,
It is morning light.
From dawn came this disciple.
Then was the great drawing-together at Hawa-i-ki,
The making of the hand at Hawa-i-ki.
Kneeling inside;
The knees drawn inside.
O, Tiki, the parent!
Hands are possessed inside.
O, Tiki, parent! kneeling,
Knees drawn up, crying for food.
The prostrate body, legs stretched out.
Tiki—ecstasy of Tiki;
Tiki—delight of Tiki.
Dripping is the red water of Rangi,
Open the great door of Papa.
Come forth: it is Hine-mana-hiri (the stranger daughter).

Rangi and Kewa and the Creation of Woman.
(Ngati Kahu-Ngunu, or Ngati-Kakahu Unuunu.)

Rangi-nui-a-tama-ku was the husband of Kewa. They begat Rangi (the heaven). Rangi took Papa, the daughter of Matua-te-kore (parentless), to wife, and begat Ro-iho (few), Ro-aka (abundant), Hae-puru (the stopper split in two), Tane-tuturi (Tane the kneeling), Tane-pepeke (Tane the legs drawn up), Tane-ue-tika (Tane standing erect), Tane-ue-ha (Tane lifted up), Tane-nui-a-rangi (great male power of Rangi), Uru (west), Ngangana (bright), Tane-te wai-ora (Tane the living water), Paia (closed), Mau-hi (first glimmer of dawn), Tai-epa (altar of sacrifice), Moko-nui (great lizard), Tonga-tonga (blemish on the skin), Ika-nui (great fish), Ti-whaia (indistinctly seen), Ika-roa (long fish), Tiki (effigy), Raka-maomao (shoal of herring), Haku-manu page 161 (murmur of the birds), Tiki-nui (great effigy), Puna-weko (fountain dried up), Tiki-roa (long effigy), Manu-rewa (bird floating high in the air), Tu-mata-uenga (Tu of the inciting face), Rongo-marae-roa (Rongo of the great courtyard), Tu-rama-rama-a-nuku (Tu the light of the world), Tu-rama-rama-a-rangi (Ta the light of heaven), Rua (pit) (d), Rehua (the splinterer), Rua-i-te-pukenga (the pit of the high priest), Rua-i-te-wananga (pit of the medium), and Taputu-rangi (heaven closed in). These were all males.

Now, the offspring of Tane and Papa were born in the darkness, and lay in that region; but, having seen a glimmer of light in the armpit of Rangi, they determined to separate Rangi and Papa. Some said they would follow their father Rangi; others said they would stay with their mother Papa.

Having collected all materials—namely, stars for Rangi and vegetables for Papa—for the heaven and the earth, Tane-tuturi and his younger brothers sought the toko (poles) with which to prop up Rangi. The names of these poles were Toko-huru-nuku (pole of the warm world), Toko-huru-rangi (pole of the warm heaven), and Rakau-tuke (pole bent at right angles). Then they went for the axes to cut these poles. The names of these axes were Awhio-rangi (around the heaven), Pare-arai-marama (diverting the light), and Motu-whariki (the cut weeds to sleep on); and the lashing of these axes was called Kawe-kai-rangi (carried food of heaven).

Now, Tane and his younger brothers rose to lift Rangi up; but they could not move him in the slightest degree. Then Tane-tuturi called with a loud voice,—

Paia, prop the heaven up;

but Paia did not obey the command. Tane again called and said,—

Paia, O Paia! part them.
Lift the sky upward.

Then Paia—he who was so sacred, and had the gods in charge, and knew all the forms of incantations and the ceremonies— page 162 rose and laid the ropes by which he meant to carry Rangi; and then repeated this incantation:—

Lift, lift up the south land.
Upward, upward lift the south sky.
Put each in its own position,
There to rest for ever.
Lift, lift up Rangi;
And, with offering made to thee, O Rangi!
We lift thee up.

Paia now bowed his great back towards Rangi, and got him placed on it; and Rangi, in loud cries of woe, gave expression to his sorrow in being parted from his wife Papa. Some of his children adhered to Rangi, and went up with him. They were Ro-iho, Ro-aka, Hae-puru, Taputu-rangi, Koreke-rangi (quail of heaven), Haku-wai (night eagle), Rehua, Peke-hawani (star of the eighth month of the Maori year), and Tu-mai-te-rangi (Tu of the heaven). These all went with Rangi when he was separated from his wife Papa.

Now, the offspring of Rangi who remained with their mother Papa devised a plan to obtain wives. They made the female power on the pubes of their mother Papa. They formed it by kneading the soft and damp soil of the land at Kura-waka (red medium). Then they formed the body and the feet. The labia majora were formed by Mau-hi, Tai-epa, Moko-nui, and Te-whaia. Now, when these had been put together, they formed the pudendum. Mau-hi made the labia majora, and Tai-epa elongated them. Having looked at this, Moko-nui said to Ti-whaia, “Give the pupil of your eye to place in the labia majora.” He complied. Now, the vulvæ is the guardian of all these parts; but there are other guardians placed each beyond the other inwards. They are labia minora, the vagina, next uterus, next clitoris, next meatus urinarius, next ovarium, and the last and inmost guardians are the Fallopian tubes. The lungs and the heart, the spirit, the kidneys, and the blood were obtained by prayer from the god. The lungs were taken from the clouds of page 163 the sky: this is that in man which engenders the desire to partake of water. The blood and fat, which are in every part of his body, are the life of man. The heart distributes these into every part of the body, and is the seat of the spirit. If the blood and fat were consumed, the heart would be closed up, and the spirit would depart. This is the death of man.

But there are other phases of death in man. Instant death is caused by the sudden shutting of the doors of the heart.

The eyes and ears of man govern the muscles and head. If the eyes sleep, the ears are closed also; but if the ears hear a voice or sound, the eyes open. They are thus the guardians of the body, and see or hear things nigh or distant by which the body may be injured. The tongue decides what should be taken into the body as food, and protects life through the stomach.

Now, when Tane had made a female form he chanted an incantation, and he put his procreating power to Hine-pupuke-maunga (daughter of the producing mountain), and produced Taniwha (god-like feared being); then he put it to Hine-rau-kiokio (daughter of the leaf in the shade), and produced Horu (sacred red); then he put it to Tu-pari-maunga (standing on the cliff of the mountain), and produced Te-pu-toto (source or blood, or life, or soul) and Para-whenua-mea. Then his elder brothers, who were living up in heaven (Rangi)—namely, Ro-aka, Ro-iho, and Hae-puru—looked down, and, having seen what Tane had done, called to him and said, “Tane, you do not act rightly: you have not dealt with the fountain of life, from which your offspring can come forth.” Then Tane put his producing power to Hine-hau-one; and this is the genealogy of the offspring of Tane: He took Tu-pari-maunga to wife, and had Pu-toto and Para-whenua-mea; Para-whenua mea had Pu-toto, Raka-hore (the bald crowd), Whatu (core), Tanga-roa (long breath), Te-pou-namu (obsidian), and Timu (ebbing); Timu had Tanga-roa and Hine (daughter); Hine took as her husband Tu-huru-huru (Tu the hairy), and had Tahu-wairangi (foolish husband), Tau- page 164 tunu-kereru (the year of roasting pigeons), Tu-tawhi-rangi (Tu who went all round the heaven), Ngana-ngana-te-hau (conflict with the wind), Ipu-ipu-te-rangi (hollows in heaven), Whare-pa-tari (house of amusement), Kari-moi (mori) (isolated, bald trees) or “Kari-moi” (dig up the fermenting), and Takoto (lying down).