Arrival of the “Aurora”—“Oriental”—“Duke of Roxburgh”—‘Bengal Merchant’—Landing at Pito-one.
“Steer, faithful helmsman, steer,
By stars beyond the line.
You go to found a realm one day,
Like England's self to shine.
Cheer up! Cheer up! Your course then keep,
With dauntless heart and hand;
And when you've ploughed a stormy deep,
Then plough a smiling land.
Thos. Campbell, 1839.
The first four ships, (the “Aurora,” “Oriental,” “Duke of Roxburgh” and “Bengal Merchant”), with their wearied, but expectant passengers, arrived at Pitoone shortly after one another (between 22nd January and 28th February, 1840). Quarters were assigned to them in hastily constructed huts, and the Company's Emigration Barracks; while some were domiciled with friends until their arrangements were completed. The population of Pito-one was now increased by about six hundred European inhabitants, including a number of women and children.
A brief description of the ships and passenger lists is recorded in the order of the ships' arrival.
The “Aurora,” a barque of 550 tons, commanded by Captain Theophilus Heale, left Gravesend on the 18th September, 1839. She had 148 emigrants, and 21 cabin passengers, on board, some of the former coming out under engagement to Messrs. E. Catchpool, W. Deans, Geo. Duppa, Eaton, Hughes, and H. Moreing.
There were 25 married couples, 36 single persons and 40 children. Following is the passenger list:—
|Name||Age||Wife's Age||No. of Children|
|Baker, Major R.||—||—||—|
|* Barnett, David||20||20||1|
|Barrow, Jas. (jun.)||23||—||—|
|Brown, Andrew (widower)||41||—||—|
|Child, J. W.||—||—||—|
|* Crowther, Ann||15||—||—|
|* Davis, Rowland||30||31||3|
|Drake, T.J., lady and child||—||—||—|
|Draper, Martha||30||—||—page 24|
|* Farrar, Alf||29||—||—|
|Friend, Rich (widower)||33||—||1|
|Langford, John A.||23||20||—|
|* Meech, Henry||28||25||—|
|Miles, John Clemt.||21||—||—|
|* Packwood, Edward||22||—||—|
|Palmer, G. T., ju., and lady||—||—||—|
|†Parke, Mr. R.||—||—||—|
|Parker, Samuel and lady||—||—||—|
|‡ Petherick, James||33||30||5|
|‡ Petherick, George||19||—||—|
|* Smith, Benjamin||25||24||1|
|Stokes, J. M., Surgeon||—||—||—|
|Wallace, John Howard||23||—||—|
|Wallace, Wm. Ellerslie||25||—||—|
|* Walton, Ann||27||—||1|
|* Webb, William||33||—||—|
|Wilkinson, John H.||23||—||—|
The names of the passengers who arrived in the Company's vessels were obtained from the N.Z., copies of the ship's registers, by courtesy of the Internal Affairs Department.
The equator was crossed on the 5th of November, when Neptune paid the vessel his customary visit. The voyage was uneventful. The South Island of New Zealand was sighted at 6 p.m. on the 16th of January, and on the following day the anchor was dropped in Port Hardy. There was great excitement among the passengers as they were doubtful what kind of reception they would meet with at the hands of the natives, and every preparation was made to guard against surprise. The Maoris came off in canoes to the vessel and delivered a letter from Colonel Wakefield addressed to the captain of the “Aurora.” Some alarm was felt among the immigrants in consequence of not meeting with the “Tory,” which vessel had arrived some time previously from London. The anchor was weighed, and the vessel, with a fine breeze, passed through Cook Straits, arriving off Port Nicholson Heads on the evening of the 21st. On the following day the vessel beat up the heads against a north-west wind, accompanied by a trading barque called the “Helena,” from Sydney, commanded by Captain W. B. Rhodes, and owned by Messrs. Cooper and Holt. Both vessels came to an anchor under Somes Island on the 22nd.
† Early Settlers' Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1.
‡ Present at the Jubilee of 1890.
During the next week, the work of disembarking was carried on. A small jetty had been run out by the surveyors, locations were allotted near the beach for the pitching of tents and temporary huts, in the erection of which the natives assisted, and some wooden houses in frame sent out by the Company for the reception of the labouring emigrants were also set up. The following Sunday (on the 26th) the Rev. J. Buller, a Wesleyan missionary, visited the place and performed divine service on board the “Aurora.”
Captain Heale gave a farewell dinner on board the “Aurora” to the principal settlers on the 26th February, 1840.
The barque “Oriental,” 506 tons, commanded by Captain Wm. Wilson, with Dr. J. Fitzgerald as surgeon superintendent, sailed from London on the 15th September, 1839, and arrived at Port Nicholson on the 31st January, 1840. There were on the Register (the New Zealand copy) 66 married couples, 29 single men, 3 single women, 17 children between nine and fourteen, and 9 between one and nine. There were 8 births and 2 deaths on the voyage. The names of the passengers were:—
|Name||Age||Wife's Age||No. of Children|
|Anderson, Jas. (widower)||40||—||—|
|*Bannister, Wm. (See “Bolton”)||—||—||—|
|*Bryant, Uriah, 22, John||17||—||—|
|‡Burgess, W. B.||—||—||—|
|‡Catchpool, Ed., and lady||—||—||—|
|* Crump, James||34||—||—|
|* Detheridge, Henry||25||24||—|
|‡ Duppa, George||—||—||—|
|* Dyer, Joseph||28||25||1|
|Eaton, R. A. (widower)||53||—||2|
|* Esdale, Andrew||37||29||—|
|Fitzgerald, Dr. J.||—||—||—|
|* Grigg, George||28||29||1|
|Grimm, Mary Ann||15||—||—|
|Hodges, Mary Ann||28||—||—|
|‡Hopper, E. Betts||—||—||—|
|‡ Hort, Abraham||—||—||—|
|Kettle, Chas. Henry||18||—||—|
|Ladd, John||25||—||—page 26|
|‡Lewis, J., and Miss||—||—||—|
|‡ Mantell, W. B. D.||—||—||—|
|*Mason, Edward Thos.||21||19||1|
|‡ Molesworth, F. A.||—||—||—|
|*Packwood, Laborne H.||20||20||—|
|‡Petre, Hon. H.||—||—||—|
|* Richardson, James||30||—||—|
|Sayer, Richd. Burgess||21||—||—|
|‡Shand, A. W. and lady||—||—||—|
|‡ Sinclair, Dudley||—||—||—|
|* Webb, Sarah A.||24||—||—|
Some of the above were especially recommended by G. T. Palmer (Junr.), J. Phipson, Lord Petre, E. B. Hopper, H. Hughlings, Lord Sandys, Mr. Wakefield, F. A. Molesworth, Sir R. Harland, Jas. B. Gordon, R. Hughes, G. Greenwood and the Hon. H. Petre. Some came out under engagement to Messrs. R. Barton, H. Moreing, J. Palfrey, J. Jackson, Eaton, A. Hodges, D. Sinclair, Dr. Evans, A. Hort, G. Duppa, Dr. Swan, Lieutenant Smith and others.
Some extracts from the log book, received by the owners (Messrs. Barry), and published in the “New Zealand Journal,” p. 176 (1840), are here given:—
“Thurs., Jan. 30. 1840. At 1 p.m.—light breeze—ship steering in towards an opening in the land that appeared to be Port Nicholson.
“Jan. 31st. Col. Wakefield visited the ship at 7th hour—Anchored in 7 fathoms water—From this time to 6 p.m., light variable winds—At 6h. 15m. anchored in 8 fathoms—The ‘Aurora’ and ‘Cuba’ saluted us with eleven guns each.
“Tues. 4th. Feb.—John Horst, Peter Crow, Ed. Lawrence and Chas. Hammond deserted from the boat.
“Wed. 5. Horst returned about 8 a.m.
Frid. 7th and Sat. Discharging the cargo and landing it at the settlement on the banks of the river distant from 4 to 5 miles from where the ship is anchored and set to work on the erection of tents and houses.
“Mon. Feb. 10th. Strong breeze from Southward—no cargo discharged—principal part of the emigrants are confined on board from same cause—issued a day's allowance of Pork.
“Sat. 15 Feb., 1840. Landing cargo and pasengers' luggage on the beach. The whole of the cabin passengers left the ship this morning.
“Sat. March 7th. The “Adelaide” and “Glenbervie” anchored during the night—Received Mr. Barry's letter per “Glenbervie,” dated London, 5/10/39.”
A testimony in favour of Captain Wilson dated 19th March was signed by the cabin passengers on board the “Oriental,” and presented to the captain.
The following is an extract from a letter written by George Duppa to his father, Baldwin Duppa Duppa Esq., of Kent, and dated 26th February, 1840:—
page 27“Port Nicholson.
“Some of the natives are very good looking, tall, strong looking fellows. They are most of them tattooed, but as they see the Pachias (Pakehas), as they call the whites, never adopt that practice, it is beginning to go out of fashion. I sent a maury (native), as they call themselves, out with my gun today to shoot pigeons, and gave him four charges of powder and shot. About three o'clock in the afternoon he returned with two pigeons and a large parrot, and one barrel charged.… .
“I call my tent ‘Oriental Tent’ because I made it myself in my cabin (ship ‘Oriental’), on my way out. The Council is called together today for the first time. We are to meet at 11 o'clock this morning, 2nd of March. It is now ten o'clock and I have to dress and walk about three miles.”—(“N.Z. Journal,” 12th September, 1840, p. 221.)
‡ Early Settlers' Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, p. 9.
Arrival of the Barque “Duke of Roxburgh.”
The barque, “Duke of Roxburgh,” 417 tons, commanded by Capt. James Thomson, with Dr. Francis Healy as surgeon superintendent, sailed from Plymouth on the 5th October, 1839, and arrived at the Port on the 8th February, 1840. There were 25 married couples, 12 single men, 16 single women, 10 children between nine and fourteen, 29 between one and nine and 9 under one year. Following is the passenger list:—
Name Age Wife's Age No. of Children Baker, Henry 24 19 — Bassett, William 28 26 1 *Bell — — — Bryant, James 27 24 — Clark, Emma 23 — — Connor, Kitty 30 — — Cunday, Chas. 23 23 — *Davis, —— — — — *Farrar, —— — — — Fowler, John 30 29 1 Gilbert, Wm. 35 26 2 Gomm, and Lady — — — Goswell, John 20 — — Greenwood, J. — — — Hartley, Stephen 47 45 — Hartley, Jane, 16; Mary 15 — — Hawke, William 32 36 2 Healy, and Lady — — 5 Hebden, M. Jane 20 — — Hight, and Lady — — — *Hunter, George (6 daughters and 4 sons.) — — 10 Hunter, Barbara 42 — — *Jackson, and Lady — — — Jeffery, Joseph 25 29 1 Knight, Wm. 33 32 5 Lloyd, Fred A. 19 — — * Lyon, William — — — May, James 29 20 — *Monteith, A. — — — *Parnell, and Lady — — — *Pierce, and Lady — — — Poad, Thos. 28 29 2 Prouse, R. 42 44 3 Prouse, May, 20; Sarah 18 — — Prouse, William 15 — — Reading, J. Brown 26 27 2 Reynolds, Jane 22 — — Roberts, Phillip 36 34 3 Rule, James 27 22 1 *Scott, and Lady — — — Smith, Frdk. 49 50 1 Smith, Dan Thos. 25 — — Smith, Thos, 19; Sam 17 — — Smith, Mary 15 — — Stephen, Wm. 50 — — Thomas, Wm. 33 28 4 Tucker, Josiah 36 38 4 Turtley, Arthur 26 30 3 Udy, Hart 31 27 4 Uren, Thomas. — — — Williams, Jas. 42 40 4 Williams, Isabella 22 — — Williams, Richard 20 — — Williams, Mary Ann 18 — — Williams, Elizabeth 15 — — Woodward, S. (Junr.) 27 17 —
Some of the passengers were recommended by Sir Wm. Molesworth, Jas. Furneaux, and John S. Savery.(Signed)
Francis Healy, Surgeon, and
Robert St. John, Commander.
On the 7th February, Colonel Wakefield went out to the heads in the “Cuba,” and brought in the “Duke of Roxburgh,” the third ship, whose captain had been lost overboard accidentally in a gale of wind off Stephen's Island.
* Early Settlers' Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, p. 9.
Arrival of the “Bengal Merchant.”
The “Bengal Merchant” was chartered by the New Zealand Company, and left Glasgow on the 30th October, 1839, weighing anchor on the Clyde on the 31st under the auspices of the Company. The departure of this ship was viewed in Scotland as an historical occasion; shortly before she left, the Lord Provost of Glasgow, with a large party, went on board and addressed the passengers. The Rev. John Macfarlane, the minister to the colonists, began his duties on board, and every Sabbath Day the passengers and crew assembled for worship. After the first service, he distributed copies of a pastoral address.
Mr. Alexander Marjoribank of Marjoribank, was the historian of the voyage, and Dr. Logan was the naturalist. After a tedious voyage of 113 days the ship touched at D'Urville Island on the 10th February, 1840, after a four months diet without fresh meat or vegetables. Mr. Macfarlane offered a prize for the best poem composed on board ship, but mention is not made of the successful poet.
In Mr. Marjoribank's “New Zealand” will be found one of the poems, written by him, “On board the Bengal Merchant, at ten o'clock at night, off D'Urville Island, Cook's Straits, N.Z., 11/2/1840;” it commences:
“The bell tolls four, the knell of parting day—
The night watch sings, ‘Let lights extinguished be’ “—
In another verse he refers to Mr. R. R. Strang, late solicitor in Glasgow, who used to drill the passengers, to be ready for battle in case of being attacked by the New Zealanders:—
“Once more the gallant lawyer mounts his guard,
Prepared for fight in yonder savage land.”
There were 30 married couples, 23 single men, 6 single women, 16 children under nine, 4 between nine and fifteen, and 13 under one year. One birth and one death occurred on the voyage.
A certificate of correct list of all those on board, when off the Clock lighthouse, dated 31st October, 1839, at one o'clock was signed by Dr. F. Logan, surgeon superintendent, and T. Hemery, commander. Following are the names of the passengers who arrived at Port Nicholson on the 20th February, 1840:—
|Name||Age||Wife's Age||No. of Children|
|* Branks, John||31||27||—|
|Buchanan, W. T.||—||—||—|
|Dick, David and Robt.||22||24||3|
|†Dorrain, Peter (senr.)||49||49||—|
|Dorrain, Peter (Junr.)||24||19||—|
|Dorsey, Dr., and wife||—||—||2|
|Duncan, A. (Junr.), and wife||—||—||2|
|Garuth [sic], John and Rebt.||—||—||—|
|Hay, Mr., and wife||—||—||—|
|Johnson, David and Jas.||—||—||—|
|Logan, Dr. Francis, wife and F. H.||—||—||1|
|Macfarlane, Rev. John||—||—||—|
|Marjoribanks, Alexander||—||—||—page 29|
|McBeth, Daughter, born on Board, 29/12/'39||—||—||—|
|McDowall, Wife and children||—||—||2|
|Millar, Mrs. (widow)||57||—||—|
|Murray, Job A.||25||—||—|
|Reid, Mr., Wife and Daughter||—||—||—|
|Strang, Robt. Rog., and Lady||—||—||—|
|Todd, Arch, and G.||—||—||—|
On the 10th March, 1840, in the midst of the bustle attendant on the disembarkation from these three vessels, some alarm was produced among the newcomers by the report of a native attack. A smart firing of muskets was heard in the evening on the ridge of hills east of the valley, near the native village at the mouth of the Hutt, occupied by Puakawa (Te Pu-wha-kaawe) and his people.
Colonel Wakefield started along the beach for the scene of action. Natives and white men came running to him, with arms in their hands, seeking guidance from him, and the women and children screamed in chorus. On arriving at Waiwhetu, or “Star-river,” as the village was called, after the stream which flows under the eastern hills, he heard that the firing proceeded from our own natives up among the hills in search of Puakawa, whose protracted absence at night had raised the fears of his sons, who, upon searching for him, had found only a pool of blood. They had returned for the other men of the Pa, and these, firing their muskets at random in their usual way when excited, as they went up the hill, caused the alarm.
Colonel Wakefield returned to the Pa at Pito-one, issued forty stands of arms to the men on the beach, and appointed a rendezvous in case of need. Late in the evening, armed boats landed from the ships, ready to assist, and anxious to hear the news. At daylight, Colonel Wakefield returned to Waiwhetu with Te Puni and Wharepouri, and a large party of natives started up the hill to renew the search. About a mile from the Pa, Puakawa's body was found in the potato ground. His head had been cut off and his heart taken out. The woman and slave boy who had accompanied him were not to be seen, and were supposed to be captives. They wrapped the mutilated corpse in his red blanket, and bore it, lashed to a tree, in procession to the village, where the usual Tangi took place, after it had been deposited in the Wahitapu, or “sacred ground.” Colonel Wakefield tried to console the widow and children, and then returned to Pito-one with the chiefs. They seemed inclined to believe that the murderers came from the neighbourhood of Kapiti.
No sooner had the settlers disembarked than the want of authority for the preservation of order amongst them began to be felt. Ignorant of the difficulties of the enterprise in which they had hastily page 30 engaged, the New Zealand Company had made it their boast that they had undertaken the colonization of New Zealand in direct defiance of the authority of the Crown, but their first body of colonists soon found that, whatever may be its form, some governing power is the first necessity of the social state. Before leaving England the emigrants had entered into a formal compact amongst themselves that, when they reached their adopted country, every offender should be punished in the same manner as if the offence had been committed against the law and within the realm of England; that certain members of the colonizing body should constitute a Council of Government; and that in all criminal proceedings, an umpire, assisted by assessors, should decide on the guilt or innocence of the party accused.
* The age of some not shown on the Register.
† Spelt Doreen in Bretts, p. XII.
‡ Did not embark.
A Committee was formed, comprising the following:—Colonel Wakefield; Geo. Samuel Evans; Hon. W. H. Petre; Dudley Sinclair, Esq.; F. A. Molesworth, Esq.; Capt. Edward Daniell; Lieut. W. M. Smith, the Company's Surveyor General; Messrs. R. D. Hanson, E. B. Hopper; Geo. Duppa; George Hunter; H. Moreing; H. St. Hill; Thos. Partridge; and Major Durie. Colonel Wakefield was first President. Dr. Evans, first Umpire, was to state the punishment if a party should be declared guilty. The Committee and Umpire were authorised to make rules, and the former were to direct the calling out of the armed inhabitants. Colonel Wakefield was to have the highest authority in directing the armed inhabitants when called out, with assistance from such persons as were chosen by the Committee. The Committee were to have power to make regulations for preserving the peace of the settlement, levy rates and duties necessary to defray all expenses attending the management of the affairs of the Colony and the administration of justice.
This constitution was taken on board the fleet of emigrant ships, when preparing to sail from the Thames, by some of the Directors of the Company; and the adhesion of the whole Colony was obtained to its enforcement.
It was in accordance with this agreement that the first meeting of the Committee took place on the 2nd March, 1840, in a wooden frame house belonging to Captain Smith, which was then situated in the sand-hummocks about half a mile east of Pito-one. Nothing was done beyond preparatory measures for obtaining the sanction of the chiefs, many members of the Committee being yet absent.
On the 2nd of March, 1840, at dusk, a report was brought to Pito-one that the Hutt River was overflowing its banks in many places. An attempt to ascend the river, in order to give assistance, proved ineffectual, owing to the force of the current swollen by the rains.
Colonel Wakefield went up the valley next morning and found as much as eight inches of water in some of the houses on the river-bank.
That afternoon the “Cuba” arrived from Kawhia, and anchored in Lambton Harbour, conveying Mr. Richard Davies Hanson, who was appointed agent of the New Zealand Land Company, for the purchase of lands.
On the 4th at noon the gale ceased, the weather cleared up, and the sun shone out bright and warm. The people at the Hutt joked about the fright which the flood had caused them and appeared to treat it as a picnic casualty, and no colds were complained of.page 31
About thirty or forty people, chiefly followers of Mr. Molesworth from Cornwall, erected a long row of reed and flax cottages on an elevated shingly ridge to seaward of the small creek at the south end of the bivouac, and christened it Cornish Row.
On the 5th the boiler of a steam engine was towed up the river, the different vents having been first plugged so as to make it float. On the beach a speculator from Sydney attempted to sell some goods by auction in the open air, and collected a goodly throng of gaping emigrants; but he wanted an advance of 50 per cent, on Sydney prices for bad things and could find no buyers.
Colonel Wakefield's room in the storehouse built by Te Puni, in the pa at Pito-one and which faced the south-east, was anything but warm during a heavy south-east gale, which threw a heavy surf on to the beach and tried the strength of several of the tent-ropes.
The only window to the room was a piece of canvas, and the door a rickety and badly fitted one from a ship-cabin. A large dresser along one side of this room, which was about eight feet broad and twenty long, served for table and writing desk. At the end furthest from the door, a “bunk,” or wooden shelf, supported the Colonel's bed. His nephew's (Edward JerninghaMcs), cot was placed on the top of a pile of musket cases and soap boxes against the partition.
The floor consisted of the natural grey shingle which formed the beach; and the roof, which was luckily water-proof, bent and yielded to every puff of wind. The plan of tying everything together with flax made these Maori houses so elastic that no wind could blow them down. The thatched walls were highly airy, and a copious ventilation circulated through them in every direction. They had plenty of thick blankets and slept well. A sea bath was close to the door, and wonders were done in the cooking by Saturday, a Rotuma man, who officiated as Jack-of-all-trades until the return of the Colonel's servant in the “Tory.”
Mr. Henry Moreing's tent was close by. This was a double tent, perfect as to order and comfort.
Next to Mr. Moreing's tents was the camp of Mr. J. C. Crawford, who had been one of the first overlanders from New South Wales and was dwelling in a hut. About this time he bought, for 1300 guineas, five land orders from Mr. Dudley Sinclair. These land-orders were each an authority from the Company to their agent to allow the owner to select one town acre and one hundred country acres according to the number which he had obtained in the lottery.
A brig arrived from Sydney with thirty head of cattle, said to have been chartered by a Company formed in Sydney with a large capital to buy land and occupy it. The agent on board laid claim to a large tract of land nearly opposite the island of Mana, bought from some former purchaser; but the operations of the agent had been stopped by a proclamation made at Sydney on the 14th of January, against any further purchasing of land in New Zealand.
The agent asked from £30 to £40 per head for his cows, but found no purchasers.