The Stocks in Mulgrave Street
The Stocks in Mulgrave Street.
Fig. 128.—The Courts of Justice, 1843. Upon the old Court in Lambton Quay being destroyed by fire, when Judge Halswell presided over them, this building was adapted for Courthouse and Church. Mr. Justice H. S. Chapman presided here, and sentenced “Maroro” to death for the murder of the Branks family. The Thistle Inn, then kept by Mr. Cooper, is on the corner. The whare below in the foreground, the thatched roof of which admitted the rain, was the late Mr. Isaac Lovelock's birthplace. A portion of the Pipitea Pa and a canoe in the water, which marks the site of the present Lambton Railway Station, are seen on the left.
A full sized page picture by N. Chevalier of a Maori in the stocks at Wellington, probably 1841, accompanies the poem.
The author of the book, in an explanatory note, says: “The anecdote was told to me by Edmund Halswell, Esq., to whom the circumstance occurred during his residence as a Magistrate in New Zealand.”
Among many lines of verse bearing on the incident, are the following:—
Fig. 129.—The Stocks, Mulgrave Street. From a full-sized picture drawn by N. Chevalier, depicting a Maori in the Stocks at Wellington, 1841, and published in a book entitled “The Trial of Sir Jasper,” in the possession of Mr. Charles J. Freeman, Wellington. The locality was near Major Richmond's house (about where St. Paul's Church stands).
As Mr. Halswell was Magistrate in Wellington, during the early forties, the author's note fixes the place and approximately the year. The imposing figure in the picture dressed in frock coat and tall hat, is probably the learned judge (Mr. Halswell).
The book is in the possession of Mr. Charles Freeman, of Wellington.
The Almanac for 1852 mentions that the Thistle Inn was kept by C. Brown; while Carkeek's plan, 1861, shows on it the names of H. St. Hill and S. Mason (Section 537) and some scattered buildings along Thorndon beach. Residents in 1863 were: S. Cooper, Thistle Inn; C. Brown (publican), W. Freeman, Miss Cockran, A. Matthews, A. T. Thorpe, G. H. Wilson (mesmerist), Mrs. Wills, W. Oakley, J. Francis, W. Humphries, F. J. Pagon, R. Lyall, Mrs. Phelps, J. Hall, W. J. Hall, T. Cooper (ginger beer maker), on the west side; and Miss Burbridge, the Bishop of Wellington, M. Saunders, T. Lockyer, and J. Vaughan, on the east. The Diocesan Office and Bishop Sprott's residence is next to St. Paul's, on Sections 541 and 542.
Fig. 131.—The Residence of Major Richmond, Mulgrave Street. Hornbrook's store about opposite, and the “Corner Store” in the distance.
Fig. 132.—The junction of Mulgrave Street and Lambton Quay, 1866 (approx.). Warcup's Corner is on the left. The Thistle Inn (Brown's) and Hornbrook's store in the centre of the picture. St. Paul's Church is on the right. The “Grange,” then occupied by Mr. W. B. Rhodes, and later by Sir Harold Beauchamp, may be seen on the Wadestown Hills, to the left of St. Paul's.
On one occasion he flourished his dirk and danced and “hocked” until the rafters rang; to the delight of the boys, except one timid youth, who was so alarmed at this exhibition of his master in his wild Celtic mood, that he was deterred from further attendance.
Residents in 1863 were: W. Wyall, G. Roe, Mrs. Key, C. Stent, Mrs. Florance and P. Kingdon (solicitor).
The Thorndon School and Swimming Baths are on Section 586, and the Fire Brigade Station near Pipitea Street. The British Pavements Ltd., under arrangements with the City Council, started work at the northern end to do surface sealing, on the 24th January, 1927 (“Dominion” report).
Museum Street, Thorndon, off Bowen and Sydney Streets and Wellington Terrace, receives its name from its proximity to the Dominion Museum. The Government House plan of 5th October, 1855, does not show this street. Access to the Church of England then was by Kumutoto, now Bowen Street, opposite the Terrace. Brees refers to the church thus: “Dr. Selwyn, the Bishop of New Zealand, landed in Wellington on the 12th August, 1842, and introduced the Rev. Robert Cole, M.A., to the settlers as their future minister.… . After due preparation, a church was built, something after the style of the Christian model at Home, and of the early English era. The back of Colonel Wakefield's house is seen on the right of the church.” This church was dismantled and portions of it have been used for the erection of the Bolton Street Mortuary Chapel, in the Cemetery.
A map, dated 1869, shows a street formed out of the section adjoining the Government Reserve (504), and named Lawrence Street. It was close to the Museum, but closed, and the present street formed during the alterations to the Parliamentary grounds in 1912. The Museum, called the Colonial Museum until recent years, was established in connection with the N.Z. Geological Society, in September, 1865. Dr. Hector, in his report to the Colonial Government concerning it, dated 11th September, 1866, explained its objects. Amongst the rare collections of exhibits, mention must be made of Mr. Gordon's collection of Maori war veterans, old identities, Maori pas, fortifications, and battlefields. There are pictures of early Wellington, and the lecture room upstairs contains a number of oil paintings of officers, as well as sketches incidental of the war, 1914–18.
Nairne Street, Te Aro, off Willis and Hankey Streets. Named after Alderman Alexander Nairne, a director of the N.Z. Company. This street is wrongly spelt on the early maps, and the mistake perpetuated up to the present (1928). Dense bush covered this area in the early days, and a fine pohutukawa is growing at the present time in the valley between Nairne and Thompson Streets. Residents in 1863, on the west side, were: The Rev. H. W. Scott, S. Moore, and W. Mansell; on the east were G. Smith and J. Hayes. The names recorded in the Almanac of 1866 were J. Bamford, G. Billman, J. Corner, and W. Fitchett.
Fig. 133.—Old St. Paul's Church, Government Reserve, showing the addition, and portion of the Provincial Buildings. (See Fig. 152.)
Fig. 134.—Old St. Paul's Church, in Bolton Street Cemetery, renovated in 1928 by the Early Settlers' Association and friends. The Spicer monument is in the foreground.
Newtown Avenue, off Daniel Street and Riddiford Streets, was formed through Sec. 821 and 822.
Newtown Park is approached by Mansfield and Manchester Streets and Russell Terrace. From Newtown Park to Clyde Quay a deep boggy stream wound its sluggish way through a morass of flax, raupo and tussock grass. A swamp impassable in winter, where horses and cattle sometimes perished miserably, and where the first surveyors, jumping from tussock to tussock, occasionally slipped, plunging into mud sometimes to their armpits.
An illustration of the Park in 1895 is shown in the Cyclopaedia N.Z., Vol. I., p. 224. The writer has also in his possession a bird's-eye view of the Park, showing the Second and Fifth New Zealand Contingents in camp preparatory to leaving New Zealand for the South African War, in 1900. Recent views of the Park were shown in the “Dominion,” 7th and 8th March, 1927, where the children from the schools are seen in a living Union Jack formation on the occasion of the Duke and Duchess of York's visit to the city.
Ngaio (a tree, myoporum), the first railway station, about three miles from Wellington, is about 307ft above sea level, and situated in the Crofton Downs. The Cyclopaedia N.Z., Vol. I., p. 1062, shows a view of Ngaio, or Crofton, 1895. There was no Post Office then, and the nearest school was at Khandallah. Amongst the early residents in Crofton were J. Chew, sawmiller, about 1859, and C. Aplin 1865.
Nga-uranga (the landing place), is three miles from Wellington on the Petone-Hutt Road, described by Mr. Elsdon Best as a landing place for canoes. A small Ngati-Awa village was situated here, where Te Wharepouri lived.
Fig. 136.—Nga-Uranga, 1842, showing the Chief “Wharepouri's” monument (a third portion of a canoe). Mr. Brees relates that this fighting chief, being capsized in his canoe in a heavy sea not far from Somes Island, he swam to Nga-Uranga, a distance of two miles. This picture depicts a Maori carrying a lady passenger across the stream. They usually charged sixpence each way.
This monument stood for years on the east side of the stream, just above Wallace's, then Futter's Inn, about 1848, and was erected by Rawiri Te Motutere, grandfather of Meri Ngamai. When the road was widened some years ago, the canoe memorial slipped down on to the road and fell in two pieces. These pieces lay behind a house at Nga-uranga until Mr. Hapi Love carted them to Pito-one and deposited them by the northern fence of the Native Cemetery in Te Puni Street, in 1928.
Fig. 137.—This house stood on sub-division 29–31 of the Levin Estate, bounded by the Kaiwharawhara Stream and the Creswick Road (now Creswick Terrace), and surveyed by Mr. George Beere in 1878 (Deeds plan 108.) Its first owner was Mr. Samuel Waters, and his successor was Colonel W. B. Messenger. The owner of the property is now Mr. H. P. Jones, who, owing to the City Council's land subdivisional requirements, has had the old hous pulled down (1929). The timber, heart of totara and kauri, was as sound as the day the house was built. The last tree to the right marks the site of the old Government farm house, now No. 2 Seaview Terrace, corner of Military Road.
During the old coaching days Nga-uranga was of some importance, from its being at the junction of the Porirua and Hutt Roads.
Fort Kelburn, largely constructed of masonry and having two 5-ton ordnance, stands right opposite to the entrance to the harbour. Bombardier Withers was in charge in 1889. A view of Nga-uranga in 1895 is shown on page 815 N.Z. Cyclopaedia, Vol. I.
Northland. Approached by Northland Road or Glenmore Road, or Orangi-Kaupapa Road, near the south end of Botanical Gardens. Named after a son of Lord Ranfurly. (See Fig. 137.)
Business places referred to in the Almanac for 1863 were:—On the north side: H. Meech, shipwright; J. Dransfield, merchant; T. W. Pilcher, ship agent; I.C.R.M. Co's. office; G. S. O'Halloran, merchant; J. F. Wills, lighterman. On the south side were: C. Seager, engineer (afterwards Robertson's); E. Thirkell, shipwright; Duncan and Vennell, auctioneers; Stuart and Co., merchants; the Custom House; Bethune and Hunters; Hickson and Co., merchants; Rhodes and Co., merchants; J. and T. Kebbell, millers; Thompson Bros., shipwrights.
A long shed used by Mr. Talbut as a shoeing forge up to the year 1928, and behind which were reposing the remnants of gigs and expresses, is standing on the north side, and Mr. Holmes' boat-building shed, which adjoined Seager's Phoenix Foundry, stands on the south side of the road, which has been widened recently.
Fig. 139.—Wellington's oldest (existing) business quarters, Bethune and Hunter's Offices, in Old Customhouse Street and corner of Cornhill Street.
Fig. 140.—The corner of Cornhill and Old Customhouse Streets, showing a side view of Bethune and Hunter's, and the cannon embedded in the ground. The cannon was used in connection with the sports. The New Zealander Hotel is in the background to the left, and Ellis and Manton's to the right.
Old Kaiwharawhara Road, Ngaio, extends from the city subway, near the Public Hall, to Perth Street.
Old Karori Road, off Chaytor Street, extends to the junction of Wilton Road, and crosses the Devil's Bridge over the Kaiwharawhara Stream before the junction is reached. This road is used chiefly as an exit from the cemetery.
Old Porirua Road, Ngaio and Khandallah. See Porirua Road. On page 87, Early Rangitikei, Sir James Wilson mentions that two brothers, Richard and Mathew Hammond, from Yorkshire, came out with the Fox family, and settled on the Old Porirua Road in the early days, near where Sir William Fox had a house. They followed Sir William to Rangitikei, and bought a property from Dr. Dorset, and called it York Farm. Old Porirua Road extends from the Kaiwharawhara Post Office, past Kaiwharawhara Hill (721ft.), Nairnville Park, and Boxhill.
Oriental Bay was called Duppa, on account of Mr. George Duppa being the only resident in 1840, but was named by Mr. Duppa Oriental Bay, after the ship “Oriental.”
In a book entitled “Twelve Months in Wellington, Port Nicholson,” by Lieut. John Wood, published in 1843, reference is made to Oriental Bay thus:—
“Mr. Duppa found cattle-dealing and pig-jobbing more profitable than waging war in cutting down the forest. His house, or ‘Castle Doleful,’ stands upon the beach, with less than two acres of land about it. Immediately behind the house rise steep hills, in front of the house lie rocks and the sea. This dreary-looking spot is dignified with the name of ‘Oriental Bay.’” Mr. Duppa's house was situated on the site of Wilkinson's Gardens, by Grass and Wilkinson Street. Mr. Duppa left for Nelson in 1842.
About 1840, the bay was sufficiently remote from human habitations to warrant its locality being used for quarantine purposes. The patient who was sent ashore from a ship from England was removed here, where a comfortable tent had been provided for his accommodation. A physician and nurse were detailed to attend the patient, and the company of three were carefully quarantined. The patient made a good recovery, and when risk of contagion was at an end everything used was burned. This was the first small pox patient treated in the settlement.
The third Anniversary Day (1843) was celebrated by the “Tee-totallers” (of whom Messrs. “Rechabite” Harding and Francis Bradey appear to have been staunch adherents) at Wilkinson's Gardens, Oriental Bay, or, as it was termed, “The Rocks.”
Oriental Parade, extends from Courtenay Place to Point Jerningham. It absorbed Clyde and Oriental Quays, shown on map, 1841. The beach road from the Canal Reserve (Kent Terrace) to Fitzgerald Point, was named Clyde Quay, after the ship “Clyde,” which struck a rock on her way from Whanganui to Wellington, and was beached at Kaiwharawhara. The continuation of the beach to the last section (430) was called Oriental Quay. The residents here in 1866 were Mrs. Greer, Standard and Downes (bathing establishment), and Messrs. J. Harris and O'Loughlin. The houses may be seen in the background of the Te Aro foreshore illustration taken before the reclamation. (Fig. 160.) Mr. and Mrs. H. Meech were closely identified with this locality. They arrived in the “Oriental” on the 1st February, 1840. Mr. Meech assisted in building the first surf boats and lighters used in the harbour; is credited with having reared the first fowls page 282 in the settlement, in December, 1840. He was proprietor of the Te Aro Swimming Baths for many years. The hours for ladies were from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m., and for gentlemen, daily, before 9 a.m. and after 2 p.m. During the hours for gentlemen a red flag was hoisted, and a blue flag for the ladies. This was not the age of mixed bathing. A story was in circulation at the time that a clerical gentleman was roving with a powerful telescope from an elevated position, and “spotted” a lady in the baths, bathing after hours, with the caretaker and a friend. An indignant letter appeared in the newspaper, which elicited a reply to the effect that what was seen was evidently the “Transit of Venus.”
The Almanac for 1883 states: “The slip on Clyde Quay, near the baths, will take on vessels up to 130 tons, the paddle steamer ‘Manawatu’ being the largest vessel accommodated. The slip is 320ft long. 120ft of which is above high water mark and the other 200ft below.… . About 17 hands are kept constantly employed, under the direction of Mr. Paul Coffey. There were 259 vessels, with a total of 15.291 tons, repaired between the years 1872 and 1881 inclusive.”
Fig. 141.—The Hon. W. B. D. Mantell's seaside residence, Oriental Bay, in the seventies. About the first house to be built in the locality. It was formerly Mr. W. Bannister's property, and is now owned by the occupier, Mr. W. J. Helyer.
The Hon. John Martin presented a drinking fountain to the city in 1875, which was erected at the corner of Hunter Street and Lambton Quay — (Fig. 82) — about the spot where the Sam Brown lighting memorial pole stands. Evidently some trouble was experienced with regard to its lighting, for the “N.Z. Times,” 26th July, 1876, states: “We learn with much pleasure that the third attempt to import lamps for the Martin drinking fountain has proved successful. This time the lamps have arrived from Melbourne without injury, and in excellent condition in every respect.” This fountain now stands in the little reserve at the corner of the Parade and Terrace, opposite the Band Rotunda, in Oriental Bay.
The representation Commission map of 1917 shows that portion of the Parade from Fitzgerald Point to Oriental Terrace under the name of Dewsbury (probably meant for Didsbury, the Government Printer) Terrace.
Oriental Terrace, extends from Hawker Street, by St. Gerard's R.C. Church, to the little reserve quoted above. In 1841 it extended to Grass Street. The residents in 1866 were Mr. W. Bannister and Mrs. Whebby. The Hon. W. D. B. Mantell bought Mr. Bannister's house for a seaside residence. This house, very little altered, is Mr. W. J. Helyer's property and residence. The paling fence and post and rail fence shown in the photograph taken by Mrs. Helyer many years ago are still in use.
Owhariu, nine miles by road from Johnsonville, via Old Porirua Road, etc. Some of the residents in 1866 were: G. Beech, E. Best, W. Booth, J. Fawcett, Mrs. Monk, W. Simpson, T. Brown, W. Catt, D. Corkery, W. France, W. R. Barnes (1867).
Owhiro (O-whiro, possibly named after a man called Whiro) Bay, approached by Island Bay Esplanade or Ohiro (Owhiro) Road via Aro Street, through the Town Belt, by the Central Park. The road follows Owhiro stream to the bay. Another route is by Upper Willis Street tram to Brooklyn, to the junction of Cleveland and Todman Streets.
A letter to the editor of the “N.Z. Journal,” dated 23rd October, 1842. from Mr. W. Bridges, was published in that newspaper, and reads thus:—
“No. 10 Section, Ohiro (Owhiro, Wellington.
“Dear Sir,—I take the opportunity, through the kindness of Colonel Wakefield, to thank you for the N.Z. Almanac you sent me, also one for Dr. Kemball, who not being here, I sold his within half-an-hour for 5/-, and I think I could have sold a dozen or two if I had them. We have great trouble with the natives, who say they never sold this part of Port Nicholson to the Company. I have had many rows with them… I have a spot of 20 acres which commands a view of the whole of Port Nicholson and Petone and the Straits; very beautifully timbered, worth £30 an acre, which has all been burnt by the natives. I have applied to Mr. Murphy, the Police Magistrate, Messrs. Halswell, Spain and Clarke, etc., and can get no redress. The Acting-Governor is expected, when I hope it will be settled.”
Fig. 143.—Judge Halswell's house, Owhiro, afterwards Mr. James Symonds'. This house stood on section 28, Ohiro (Owhiro), on the approximate site of the Brooklyn School, Washington Avenue.
Mr. Fitchett's dairy farm, “Ohiro Farm,” was established by Mr. A. B. Fitchett's father, in 1852. Mr. A. B. Fitchett resides in the old house, which has been added to from time to time. Messrs. Stockbridge and R. Edwards also resided in the locality at this period.
Residents of Owhiro in 1866 were: Messrs. J. D. Fitchett, dairyman; S. Hutching, — Liddie, J. Lowrey, J. Short, J. Symmonds, — Stockbridge, J. F. E. Wright, and R. Walton, sheep farmer.
Looking up records, the writer finds that Mr. A. B. Fitchett was highly successful in his operations with ensilage after the hills had been cleared of the forest and a sawmill erected (see Brooklyn also).
Owen Street, is named after Professor Owen, who was greatly interested in Moa bones.
Panama Street, City, off Lambton Quay and Customhouse Quay, gives access to the north entrance to G.P.O., and the south entrance to the Government Life Insurance, and is named to commemorate the days when the fastest mail from Home came by the Panama Route. In 1857–63, reclamation to Panama Street was 7 acres odd, and in 1866 Mr. W. Tonks secured the contract to reclaim 13 acres from Panama Street to the north of Waring Taylor Street, including the construction of a sea wall, which was completed in June, 1867 (Baillie's “Reclamations,” p. 713).
The Panama Street fire, of the 27th Feb., 1887, made a great clearance of business places and offices on the reclaimed land, leaving more than two-thirds of the area a mass of ruins. A temporary break in the Wainui main reduced the supply of water to such as could be obtained from the Polhill Gully Reservoir. The H.M.S. “Nelson” was in port at the time, and the ship's brigade gallantly seconded the efforts of the city firemen.
Para Street, Miramar (origin of name unknown—the name has many meanings), extends from Miramar Avenue to Rotherham Terrace. The name commemorates the lagoon, afterwards called Burnham Water, drained by Mr. J. Coutts Crawford in 1847 (see Miramar).
Patanga Crescent, Thorndon, is off Tinakori Road. From Grant Road a track leads to the wireless telegraph station on Mt. Wakefield.
Pencarrow Head, Wellington Heads, is named after the place of residence of Sir Wm. Molesworth in Cornwall.
The New Zealand Company, on the 5th November, 1841, offered to erect a light-house on Pencarrow Head, at a cost of £1500, provided that such sum should be a charge against future dues. In 1842, a page 285 three-sided wooden pyramid, with open sides, about 70ft high, on Pencarrow Head, was blown down by a gale of wind soon after. On June 20th, 1844, a beacon was erected and inscribed thus:—“This beacon is not distinguishable at the distance of five miles, except in very clear weather.” On the 17th February, 1854, it was considered unsafe, and while the permanent lighthouse was being erected in 1858, it was found necessary to remove the beacon. The lighthouse was painted white, and thus became a beacon by day as well as by night. On page 704 of Mr. Baillie's “Reclamations,” from which the above was extracted, there is a representation of the first lighthouse at Pencarrow, from the original sketch in possession of Mr. F. J. Halse. The “Post,” February 7th, 1925, p. 34, has a descriptive article about the lighthouse. The light was exhibited on the 1st January, 1859. The first keeper was Mrs. Bennett, widow of the first keeper of the temporary light. Mr. W. Lyell was her assistant. A new set of lamps was installed in 1869, and new dwellings for the keepers in 1870. The new fog-signal was installed in 1927. vide “Post,” 5/5/27.