The Pioneer Prince
The Pioneer Prince.
A supplement to the “Dominion,” dated March 7th, 1927, contains a descriptive account of the Duke of Edinburgh's visit to Wellington, arriving on Sunday, April 11th, 1869. The reproduction of a photo of the Duke accompanies the article. A few extracts are given as under, being taken from the “Independent,” April 12th, 1869:—“The scene was exceedingly gay and picturesque in the space adjoining the wharf and stretching up Featherston Street. The windows and roofs of houses were crowded with spectators; the streets and a portion of the reclaimed land were occupied by the volunteers, cavalry and rifle companies: the two stands erected were crowded with gaily dressed ladies, while all around and far along the beach, banners and flags fluttered in the breeze.… At the landing were His Excellency Sir George Bowen, the Hons. E. Stafford, John Hall, T. M. Haultain, His Honour Dr. Featherston, Mr. J. C. Crawford (R.M.), H. D. Pitt (Major, R.A., A.D.C. to His Excellency), Lieut.-Colonel Reader, Commodore Lambert R.N., Archdeacon Hadfield, and a host of others.
“We are all standing in suspense, when suddenly the boom of the “Galatea's” gun is heard, as the salute is given when the Duke leaves the Royal vessel. The Maori band, who face the edge of the wharf, begin to move their arms and limbs; the rest of us press forward to get good places. Captain McBarnet slips between the lines of troops and calls for cheers when His Royal Highness lands. Only a few moments elapse and then the galley rounds the outer top of the wharf. Nearer and nearer comes the boat bearing the Sailor Prince. The excitement of the Maoris becomes uncontrollable. They gesticulate; they dance; they throw their arms and weapons wildly in the air, while they yell like fiends let loose from pandemonium. They are bidding the Duke welcome. ‘Haeri mai! Haeri mai!’ they yell—much to the puzzlement of the boat's crew. Dr. Featherston presented an address of welcome from the Province and the Maoris, then His Royal Highness entered a handsome barouche and four. Rapidly the procession passed from the wharf, and proceeded along the beach; past the Oddfellows Hall; past the hotels with their prominent transparencies; past Mr. Owen's establishment, whose large show windows, instead of being filled with temptation to extravagance in the form of bariges, silks and muslins, were filled with infinitely more dangerous temptation by the presence of a bevy of pretty girls; past Brandon's Corner, up Molesworth Street, and Government House is reached at last.…”
“Fifteen hundred children were assembled in the Domain (Government lawn), and it was pleasant to hear their silvery voices pealing forth in the beautiful ‘National Anthem.’
“The city all day was lively in the extreme. The display of bunting made by Mr. E. W. Mills across Lambton Quay was especially noticeable for its beautiful and picturesque effect. At night the streets were crowded with people who had come out to see the illuminations. The six bonfires on the hills lighted up the surrounding scenery and gave a thousand picturesque lights and shades such as a painter would have loved to see. There was a splendid display of fireworks, rockets, Roman candles, blue lights and squibs. Dazzling displays of tiers of candles were to be seen in a number of places along the beach.
Fig. 120.—Lambton Quay, showing Woodward Street to the left, Edward Gibbon Wakefield's house (gabled roof) on The Terrace, next to the Club; Mr. G. Moore's house, with long verandah; Mr. Hay's, Bolton Street; Mr. Wallace's, on the hill to the extreme right.
Fig. 121.—Lambton Quay, 1866 (approx.), showing Mason's right-of-way on the left; The Vicarage, on the hill above; Wallace's, in Bolton Street; Cemetery and Golders Hill on the extreme right. The Star Boating Club's shed is on the water front, and the buildings demolished in March, 1929 (at Brandon's Corner), are shown. The latter marks the site of the War Memorial. The Foundation Stone was laid by His Excellency the Governor-General, Sir Charles Fergusson, Anzac Day, 25/4/29.
The principal buildings in Lambton Quay are the Government Printing Office and Buildings, Parliamentary Buildings, Magistrates Court, Public Trust, State Fire, Union Bank, and Banks of New South Wales and New Zealand. There are not many vacant lots on Lambton Quay, but a crop of blackberries and an elder tree are flourishing on a vacant section by the Union Bank. The ubiquitous blackberry forces its way, at times, through a crack in the hoarding. At the corner of this Bank and Hunter Street may be seen the long memorial pole presented by Mr. Samuel Brown, Mayor, in 1888, to commemorate the lighting of the town by electricity.
The old buildings are being rapidly and ruthlessly destroyed to clear the way for modern structures. The Bristol (the old Dresden) was pulled down at the time of writing this (January 1928) and nothing is left of it but the floor, covered with debris. An old building still stands between Berman's and the second Barrett's Hotel, whose license was transferred from the old Barrett's about 1850.
Brandon's office, once the Provincial Solicitors office, and a few buildings adjacent, are probably the oldest buildings in the vicinity.
A well known character who traversed the beach or Quay in the eighties was called the “whiffler.” The whiffler sometimes looked a fearsome object, garbed in the costume of a Red Indian, carpet slippers on his feet, a string of sausages round his neck, and a sheep's pluck whirling in the air, as he whooped along in vain pursuit of the youngsters. The writer recalls seeing him dressed with a forage cap on his head, a red jacket, black trousers, carpet slippers, and a portion of a bullock's hide with a tail attached, adorning his person.
Lavaud Street, off Adelaide Road, by the Town Belt, Newtown. Named after Commodore Lavaud, Captain of the French frigate “L'Aube,” figuring in the Akaroa affair. The “N.Z. Journal,” 15th January, 1841, states: “A French frigate with part of the French expedition to the Banks Peninsula, had arrived at the Bay of Islands. H.M. brig “Britomart” had sailed with Mr. Murphy, Esq., J.P., to warn the subjects of France, on their arrival, that the territory in question had been claimed by proclamation in the name of the Queen. After visiting Banks Peninsula, the ‘Britomart’ was expected at Port Nicholson with Mr. Murphy and another gentleman appointed Magistrates at Britannia (Wellington). Mr. Dudley Sinclair was a passenger.”page 260
This name (Lavaud) appears to have been a “hurdle” to many. Early maps of Brees and Fitzgerald, 1843–1848, bear the name “Leraud.” Other records which the writer has examined have various ways of spelling it, viz., Lavaud, Laweand, Laourd, and Leraud.
Little Pipitea Street is off Molesworth and Murphy Streets, Thorndon, through Sec. 579 and N. Res. 580. The residents in 1866 were J. Creamer, Mrs. Cooper, R. Craig, M. T. Connelly, and J. Prince.
Lowry Bay, about 16 miles from Wellington, is approached by ferry steamer or bus. A fine sketch of Port Nicholson, showing the Heads, and Wellington in the distance, from Lowry Bay, is shown on Fig. 13, p. 18, and described by Brees as swampy and fern land. There are two streams, Wainui-o-mata and the Orongo-ronga, which join the sea at Fitzroy Bay. Mention is made by Wakefield in his “Adventure in New Zealand,” p. 67, thus: “Dr. Dieffenbach and Mr. Heaphy engaged some native guides one day to go and look for some birds called ‘huia.’ The ‘huia’ is a black bird, about as large as a thrush, with long thin legs, and a slender semicircular beak, which he uses for seeking in holes of trees for the insects on which he feeds. In the tail are four black feathers, tipped with white. These feathers are much valued by the natives as ornaments for the hair on state occasions.… Our sportsmen crossed the mouth of the Heretaunga river (28th September, 1839) and ascended a steep ridge of the eastern hills. Among the forests on top they remained ensconced in the foliage, while the natives attracted the birds by imitating the peculiar whistle from which it takes the name of ‘huia.’ They only shot two or three which had followed the decoy almost on to the barrels of the guns…. Our fishing parties were generally directed to a snug cove about a mile south-east of the river's mouth, which we christened Lowry Bay, after the first mate, who used to be head fisherman. In this place we generally had a fine haul of plaice, sole and several other kinds of fish.” This spot was a favourite bathing place of Wakefield and his companions. The “New Zealand Journal,” dated January 6, 1844, states that Mr. Jackson was building a small craft of about 15 tons on his section at Lowry Bay.
The residents in the district in 1866 were: Messrs. H. Phillips, W. Cocking, “Okiwi” Brown, J. Cameron, — Langey, Geo. King and W. Judd, junr. The Governor's country house, now Sir F. H. Dillon Bell's summer residence.
Lyall Bay. About 5 miles from the city, is described in Sir J. Alexander's “Incidents of the War in N.Z.” as: “A sandy peninsula, over which Cook's boats once rowed before an upheaval from earthquakes took place.” The eastern headland, Point Hippah, was the site of a native village in 1836, Hippah being Cook's rendering in Maori of “He Pa,” a fortified village (Best's “Discovery of Wellington Harbour,” p. 14). The “N.Z. Index” for 1925 states that Lyall Bay is named after Dr. Lyall, of H.M.S. “Acheron” (1847). Early in 1842, the barque “Winwick” was wrecked at Lyall's (or False Bay). One account is that the captain mistook Lyall's Bay for Port Nicholson, and ran in boldly but, finding his error, let go his anchor, and held on for some time. The “New Zealand Journal,” from which the above extract was taken, dated 9/7/1842, also mentions that the ship “Elbe,” of New York, a whaler, was wrecked there on the 15th December, 1841. Following this is the report of a public meeting, held about the gale that caused the wrecks, and of resolutions by Messrs. H. Wallace and Wade, seconded by the Rev. Mac- page 261 farlane, A. Ludlam and Captain Rhodes, that a temporary lighthouse be erected. Messrs. Crawford, Molesworth, Brewer, Dr. Evans, Waitt, Guyton and Wicksteed were in support.
The second half annual meeting of the local races was fixed to take place on Monday, 4th July, 1842, at Lyall's Bay; horses were to be on the ground at 11 a.m. (“N.Z. Journal,” 21/1/1843). Another race—this time by the human race—took place one day in April, about forty years after, when many Wellington residents, acting on the circulation of a report that a large whale was stranded on the beach at Lyall Bay, journeyed from Wellington, only to find a pole with the usual April Fool's Day notice attached. The hoax was attributed to the “Whiffler.”
Macfarlane Street, Victoria Slopes, off Roxburgh Street, was named after the Rev. John Macfarlane, first Scotch Minister.
Maginnity Street, City, off Waring Taylor and Ballance Streets, was named after Mr. J. Maginnity, wine merchant. The old iron building with a semi-circular roof was once the Drill Hall, and was let for concerts, balls, etc., besides being used as a concert hall for an exhibition opened in the vicinity on the 1st August, 1885, and referred to against Stout Street.
Mention of this old building brings back memories of 1886 to the writer, who, as a gunner in the D Battery, took part in the keen competition amongst the detachments, and their desire to be first to accomplish the unlimbering and limbering of the guns, and to “squat” on the wheel. How we did the “giant slide” on the highly-polished floor that was used for dancing the previous night. Some shot past their objective like an inexperienced skater and hit the wall a few yards beyond. Others slid along in a sitting posture. Some of the officers then were: Captain McCredie, Lieutenants W. S. Moorhouse, Courtenay and Williams, and Sergeant-Majors Bock and Robinson.
Makara,* approached by tram to Karori, is about two miles, via. Makara road, and three miles further to the beach. In 1866 the residents for Makara North were:— Messrs. S. Brooks, J. Cook, C. and J. Gaskin, M. Hamilton, W. Longhurst, J. and T. D. McManaway, G. Perry, R. T. and J. Robinson, B. Sewell, P. Trotter. For Makara South: J. Bronger, J. Catley, J. Christy, — Cooper, W. Cornford, — Curtiss, Mrs. Curtiss (school teacher), J. Griffiths, — Humphries, T. Lake, J. McLeary, P. Monaghan, W. Selvers, G. and J. Shotter, — Stokes, and C. Williams.
His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, accompanied by Governor George Bowen, rode out to Makara on the day of the former's arrival in Wellington, on Sunday, 11th April, 1869.
Manners Street, Te Aro, extends from Boulcott Street to Courtenay Place, and was named after Lord Manners, Speaker of the House of Commons, afterwards known as Lord Manners Sutton.
The Rev. J. W. Bumby, in a letter to the London Committee, dated 20th August, 1839, states that the natives agreed to sell a piece of land described thus:—“Going by this side of the river Te Aro, to where the river breaks into the sea, by the seaside to the broken hills of the land, and turning upwards along the ridges and spurs, turning to a valley and swamp, and falling down into the river Te Aro.”
* Note.—Ma-Manga—a stream, Kara—a kind of stone-grey waeke (trap rock). This name is woefully mispronounced. (Elsdon Best.)
A raupo church, called “Araiteuri,” after a celebrated female ‘taniwha’ (or monster), was built, and a teacher named Minarapa appointed. Wharepouri, the Nga-uranga chief, appears to have been a conspicuous figure in the conferences. He was described as tall and majestic, having his hair tastefully tied on the top of his head, and falling back like a diadem. His head was also decorated with feathers, so that he had a savage and commanding appearance. The people were anxious to obtain books, and the man who obtained a copy of the New Testament became a person of distinction.
The first known white settler to fix his abode in Manners Street was the Rev. John Aldred, Wesleyan missionary.
The first church of Raupo was well built by the Maoris on the east side of Te Aro stream, where afterwards the public pound stood. It was well attended by natives and Europeans. It is reported that the congregation became one of the liveliest that existed; so lively that neither parson nor people could sit still in the church. At last the nuisance became quite intolerable, and they had to quit. Eventually the church was blown down in a heavy gale. The Exchange, belonging to Mr. Wade, was then kindly lent for the afternoon services. A weather-board church was built, opposite Bethune and Hunter's saleyards (site of Regent Theatre). Mrs. Harding and Miss McLellan were the chief collectors of the wherewithal, chiefly “shin plasters” (debentures) to construct the edifice.
On January 22nd, 1844, the foundation of a new church was laid by Governor Fitzroy, and a brick church was opened by the Rev. S. Ironside in December, 1844. Mr. Brees describes it as being 39ft wide and 48ft long, and the walls 18in thick. It was destroyed by the earthquake of 1848, and a wooden edifice built on the same ground in 1850. This was demolished by the Opera House fire on June 15th, 1879.*
* Morley's “History of Methodism,” kindly lent by “Mr. W. J. Helyer.
Fig. 124.—Wesleyan Chapel Manners Street, destroyed by the Earthquake of 1848. The Rev. S. Ironside's Mission House is on the left, and Mr. Brewer's on the right of the chapel. Bethune and Hunter's cattle yards are at the extreme right of the picture. The “mound,” or place of refuge, was made during the Wairau alarm of 1843. The theatre is seen in the distance, and the Bank Hotel, etc., to the right.
Fig. 125.—Wesleyan Church and Parsonage, Manners Street. The Royal Oak Hotel and Market Hall are on the left, and Mr. Houghton's house on the right. This block was destroyed by fire in 1879. Bethune's cattle yards are in The foreground. The site is now occupied by the Regen: Theatre.
The hotels in Manners Street in 1852 were: The “New Zealander” (R. Jenkins), and the “Ship Hotel” (J. Pimble); the latter hotel appears in an illustration of 1842. Reference to the Old Bank Hotel, known in later years as the Clarendon, corner of Farish and Manners Streets, was made in “The Dominion” (7/1/1928), which mentions: “Yesterday the furniture and fittings of the Old Bank Hotel were sold at auction, and a start is to be made at once with the demolition of the premises, one of the hoary original inns of Wellington. The hotel dates back to 1861, when Manners Street, with the exception of two or three buildings, consisted of one-storey shops and dwellings.… In those days the Bank Hotel—so named as there was one of the early banks in the vicinity—stood out as a structure of some size and dignity. The coaches used to leave that vicinity three times a week for Whanganui, via Otaki and Foxton. The sailors and watermen found it a convenient place of call.” Mr. H. E. Nicholls, in the “Free Lance,” May 19th, 1926, gives an account of the three opera houses built on the one site, viz., the “Imperial,” built 1877, burnt 1879; Te Aro Opera House opened (Silver King Coy.), 17/11/1886, burnt 29/3/1888; re-opened 6/12/1888 to 1926. An illustration of the latter (called the “Tivoli”), in process of demolition, from a photo by Schaef, accompanies the article. The plays and scenery were transferred to Johnston Street during 1871–1878 and 1879–1888. The “Cyclopedia,” vol. 1, p. 694, shows the interior of the old Arcade Building, occupied in 1895 by Wilkens and Field, now Radford's furniture shop, etc. The same publication, page 215, shows Manners Street, with Father O'Reilly's Monument in Mount Street in the distance.
Te Aro Pa site was at the corner of Manners and Lower Taranaki Streets. Remnants of the old pa existed on the beach, and Maoris resided there under patriarchal control under old Chief “Ezekiel.” In those days the road, in a rough state, ran down the present line of Lower Taranaki Street and ended in the beach about in a line with Hatrick and Co's. building, and between there and Manners Street was a collection of very old houses and wharves, forming the residences of the last of two Te Aro Maoris. Some shops were removed to make way for a nine-storied modern building for A. Levy, Ltd. This building was commenced, after the usual trouble with the foundations, but has been temporarily abandoned, and at present (1928) the unfinished frame-work of rusty steel marks the spot where the natives of Te Aro lived when the settlers landed in 1840.
A clock was placed near the Women's Rest Room in 1927.
Mansfield Street, Newtown, a continuation of Riddiford Street, is named after Judge Mansfield, of New Zealand. The bowling green is on section 883, opposite the electric tram shed. This street leads to the Newtown Park and Zoological Gardens (town belt).page 265
Maracnui, Lyall Bay, lies between Queen's Drive and Watts' Peninsula. The former name for Seantoun (Best's “Miramar,” p. 780). The sale of some sections was effected for Mr. J. C. Crawford by Mr. J. H. Bethune on the 17th November, 1896. The Maori cultivations on the shores of Au-a-Tane are mentioned by Mr. Elsdon Best on p. 784, “Old Miramar.”
Marjoribank Street, Mt. Victoria Slopes, off Courtenay Place, was named after Stewart Marjoribanks, Esq., who wrote “Travels in N.Z.” He was a director of the New Zealand Company. Residents in 1863 were: L. Harris, P. Moran, J. Hill, H. Bracken (north side); R. S. Ledger, W. Fitzherbert, J. Harrison, E. Roe (south side).
Mason's Steps, off Lambton Quay and Wellington Terrace, was part of Mr. W. F. Mason's section 489. This was the site of one of the first smithys in the forties. The right-of-way was owned by Mr. Mason until it was forfeited by the trustees not complying with the rule regarding the periodical closing of it to the public.
McKenzie Terrace, Kelburn, off Mount Street, via Wellington Terrace and Salamanca Road, was named after Thos. Wilmor McKenzie, who was apprenticed to Samuel Revans, the proprietor of the “N.Z. Gazette,” in 1840.
McKenzie Terrace is shown on the maps of 1843 and 1844 as Clerical Road, bounding the east side of three residential reserves for the Roman Catholic Priest (Father O'Reilly), and the Wesleyan and Scotch ministers. The map of 1880 (Coleridge's) shows it as Grave Yard Road. A notice that McKenzie Terrace was to include the southern arm of Mount Street appeared in the “Dominion,” 10/9/26. An extension was made to give access to the Waiteata Estate, sections 1–15, auctioned by Harcourt and Co. (Evening “Post,” 2/5/1927). Lot 12, containing 22.06 perches, was sold for £900.
Mein Street, Newtown, extends from Riddiford Street to the Ranga-a-hiwi heights (town belt), and is named after Capt. W. Mein Smith (R.A.), the first surveyor-general to the New Zealand Company. The State school is on res. 14.
Melrose is between Island and Lyall Bays. The area of Melrose, including roads, was owned by Messrs. N. Reid, G. H. Luxford, R. Davies, H. M. Hayward, Mrs. Macdonald, Hon. W. J. M. Larnach, C.M.G., and the trustees in the estates of R. M. Greenfield and the Hon. P. A. Buckley, K.C.M.G. (“Cyclopaedia N.Z.,” vol. 1, p. 802). In 1879 it was subdivided by Mr. J. N. Coleridge and auctioned by Mr. T. K. Macdonald at the Athenaeum Exchange Hall, Lambton Quay. Plans of these sales, numbered 2.4 and 16/33, are in the possession of the Harbour Board. The Melrose Borough Council, incorporated 5/3/1888 (“Cyclopaedia N.Z.,” p. 797) had jurisdiction over a large district extending from the Botanical Gardens to Oriental Bay (round the city), including Upland Farm, Mitchelltown, Taitville, Brooklyn, Vogeltown, Island Bay, Melrose, Kilbirnie and Roseneath. Mr. J. H. Heaton was Mayor during 1889, 1890 and 1891 (“Cyclopaedia N.Z.,” p. 316).
The Council, in 1896, comprised: John Collins (Mayor), G. H. Baylis, W. Brunskell, C. T. Browne, G. Key, J. Wishart, R. Tait, G. Webb, S. F. Wright and F. J. W. Fear. An amalgamation took place with the city in 1903 (“Evening Post,” 1904, p. 25).
A very fine view of Cook Strait, Lyall Bay, Kilbirnie and Miramar, taken from Mount Melrose, is shown in the “Free Lance,” March 16th. 1927, p. 34. In it the Duchess of York is admiring Welling- page 266 ton from the Karitane Home tennis court at Melrose. Groups comprising Her Royal Highness, Sir Truby King, and others at the opening ceremony are also shown.
Mercer Street, City, extends from Willis Street to Jervois Quay, and is named after Miss Mercer, who married Mr. John Duthie. This street was once officially known as “College Passage,” and later as “College Lane,” when, in 1852, it was a cross-street from Willis Street to the waterfront. It derived this name because it was on part of Sir. G. Grey's grant for an endowment for the Wellington College (Baillie's Early Reclamations, p. 711, and “Dominion,” 15/12/27). The city engineer's office, Central Fire Station, the Railway Booking Office and Tourist Bureau are situated in Mercer Street. The “Dominion” newspaper offices, nearly completed, now house the Railway and Tourist new offices.
The “Dominion” newspaper of the 19th December, 1926, shows Reeves' Corner in Mercer Street before the buildings were demolished to allow for street widening. The same paper, 16/9/26, defines the acquisition of property, and the issue of 15/12/1927 notifies the widening of the north side and the erection of two-storied modern fronted shops, the whole length of the street, from Willis to Victoria Streets.
Military Road, Northland, is off Orangi-Kaupapa and Garden Road, via Northland Road. “The many fine roads through the country,” says Mr. J. Dutton in the “Free Lance,” 29/9/26, “were called military roads, and the soldiers while making them had to have their firearms beside them, usually all day. The roads were across the uplands, to avoid ambushes and surprise attacks which could not be forseen on the flat. Most of the stone wall from Tinakori Road to the Hutt was soldiers' work.”
Miramar is about 6 miles from Lambton Station and is approached by Crawford and Coutts Roads, via. Kilbirnie, or Oriental Bay, via Roseneath.
The peninsula is described by Mr. Crawford in his “Notes on Miramar Peninsula” (published in vol. V. Trans. N.Z. Inst.) and in Mr. Elsdon Best's “Miramar,” as being covered with fern mixed with flax, small scrub, koromiko, tutu and light bush in a gully at the head of Miramar Bay, and karaka trees on the coast line, some of which are still existing. It was once occupied by the Ngai-Tara. Ngai-Tahu and Ngati-Ira tribes.
The writer is indebted to Mr. A. D. Crawford for names of the original owners of Watts Peninsula holding N.Z. Coy's, certificates of selection, 1st August, 1839:—Lots 1 and 2, C. H. Luxford, dated 12/6/60; lots 3 and 4, W. Bowler and James Watt, 6/3/58; lot 5, W. Bowler, 6/3/58; lot 6 (name unreadable); lot 7, J. C. Crawford; lot 8, James Watt; lot 9, V. Germain Hine (W. Bowler), 6/3/58; lots 10 and 11, James Watt; lot 12, Sir Wm. Molesworth (no date); lot 13, James Watt; lot 14 (name unreadable); lot 15, Lady M. M. (no date); lot 16, Sir Wm. Molesworth (no date); lot 17 (name unreadable); lot 18, James Petherick.
The peninsula was called “Whataitai,” or “Hataitai,” and the lake, now a well-grassed flat, near Evans Bay (1904), was called “Para,” a name it retained until rechristened “Burnham Water” by Colonel Wakefield in 1840, after Burnham Hall, Essex, home of the Wakefields.
The Miramar Estate, which was almost completely surrounded by the sea, was part of the territory acquired by Mr. J. C. Crawford in 1839. It comprised the whole of the isthmus on the south and the peninsula on the east of Evans Bay (“Cyclopaedia N.Z.,” vol. 1, p. 805).
Two cattle farms were established in 1840, namely, Glendavar Cattle Farm, north end of the lake, and Tettcott Farm, amongst page 267 the hills at the south side of the peninsula. The former was established by Mr. Crawford, the latter by Mr. F. Molesworth. The late Mr. James Taylor, of Tawa Flat, lived at Tettcott Farm in the early days. (Best's “Miramar,” p. 790.)
A lake of some 200 acres in extent on the property was artificially drained, and afterwards became the Burnham Water racecourse, said to have been the first in New Zealand. The “N.Z. Journal,” 11th March, 1848, refers thus to the tunnel made by Mr. Crawford, cut out especially to drain Burnham Water into Evans Bay:—“A tunnel about 100 yards long, cut out of solid rock, about 4ft wide and 5ft high, carried out to the level of high water, thus reclaims some hundreds of acres of land for first-rate pasturage.” This was the first tunnel made in New Zealand. It is in good preservation, and may be seen a few yards up the Shelly Bay Road, by the cutting (Miramar Avenue) and Miramar Wharf.
An article in the “N.Z. Journal,” 1/12/1849, refers to the employment of pigs to clear fern land in New Zealand. The following is from the pen of Mr. A. D. Crawford:—
The Killing of the Wild Boar of Watts Peninsula.
“When the Duke of Edinburgh was here with the flying squadron, the authorities were anxious to give him some sport, and Major McBarnet was asked for suggestions. Many people had tried to secure this famous wild boar, but he always beat them. It was, however, suggested that the Duke should try. Major McBarnet made all arrangements. He sent a bullock-dray out into the middle of a heavy flax swamp, and in the dray was a big pig taken from the sty at the farm. He also had a lot of men to beat the swamps. In due course, the Duke arrived, and the beaters began their work, and did their best to find the real article, but, failing to do so, the domestic article was tipped out of the dray and, with a terrible lot of grunting from the pig and yelling from the beaters, the “wild boar of Watts Peninsular” was driven up to the Duke, who killed him. On the following morning, a long account of the killing of the wild boar of Watts Peninsular by the Duke of Edinburgh appeared in the local paper.
“The name Miramar was given by Major and Mrs. McBarnet to the site of the house that was built for them on the hill on the south-east end of Evans Bay. This house was built somewhere about 1868. Major McBarnet was a brother of Mrs. J. C. Crawford. Miramar was named after a shooting castle built by the great Maximillian, just north of Trieste. It is on a small peninsula, and the meaning of the word is ‘Behold the Sea!’ The name was given as being so appropriate, because from the site you have a full view of Lyall Bay and the ocean on the south and Evans Bay and the harbour on the north. The property was always known as ‘Watts Peninsular,’ and it was only the site of the house that was ‘Miramar’ until it became a borough, when it was named the Borough of Miramar, and even then it did not take in the whole of the original property as the isthmus and Kilbirnie went into the city, and were not included in the borough.”
The Borough of Miramar, with an area of 2176 acres and a population of 3200, was amalgamated with the city on the 1st February, 1921 (City Year Book, 1926). A view of the locality of the racecourse, showing the grandstand and surrounding hills, was taken by Muir and McKinlay, a reproduction of which appeared in the “Auckland Weekly News.” Feb. 17th, 1921, and another view, serving as a companion, showing the tennis court preparations for France v. New Zealand championships, page 268 1928, appeared in the “Dominion,” 14th January, 1928.
Where once the “Moa” stalked abroad
O'er fen land, dune and brush,
Afar the pale-skinned “tipua” hears
The tram cars' ceaseless rush.
Aye, where the lordly Star Fort frowned,
Where Tara lived and died,
Where hill forts girt the Red Lake round,
Your whining street cars glide.
(The Ballad of the Retrospective Savage. Miramar, A.D., 1212–1912—“Early Settlers Journal,” December 1912, p. 40).
Mitchelltown is off Aro Street, and is built on the slopes on each side of a road that was formerly used as a bullock track to bring the heavy rata and other trees from the forest. It was named after Mr. Henry Mitchell, who owned some of the land.
An illustration of Mitchelltown may be seen in the “Cyclopaedia N.Z.,” vol. 1, p. 803 (1897). The school was opened in 1894, with an average attendance of 140, under the direction of Miss McKenzie.
The Mitchelltown War Memorial stands at the junction of Aro Street and Holloway Road.
Molesworth Street, Thorndon, extends from Lambton Quay to Tinakori Road, and is named after Sir Wm. Molesworth, a director of the company and original purchaser, besides other sections in Wellington, etc., of sections 536 and 579 (corner of Pipitea Street), and 564 (Hill Street corner).
The southern portion of this street, from Hill Street to the Quay, was formerly known as Charlotte Street, and shown as Charlotte Street on the maps of 1880 and 1888, but not on Clint's Litho of 1841.
Mention is made on page 73. Macmorran's “Schools and Schoolmasters of Early Wellington,” of Richard Barrett's whare, at the corner of Charlotte Street and the Quay (a proposed site for a war memorial). The Reserve was known as the “Waipirau.” The old whare, which cost the Institute Committee £30, was used as a school conducted by Mr. J. H. Rule, who, at his own expense, erected a giant stride for the use of his pupils. Doubtless this old whare, which housed Dr. Knox's library and was used as a church, etc., was a grog shop before Barrett purchased the framed house belonging to Dr. Evans, and converted it into the principal hotel.
The first Government house stood on the same reserve, which was set apart by the New Zealand Company for the Government Domain and recorded on a plan of the City of Wellington, signed by Felton Mathew, the first Government surveyor-general, August, 1842. The reserve was gazetted 26/10/1841, in the Government Gazette. This reserve is described in Wakefield's “Adventure in N.Z.,” p. 283:—“Colonel Wakefield was busy, like the rest, getting up a town residence. A swampy clay mound of some six acres in extent had been reserved for public purposes near Barrett's Hotel, and on the spot near the summit (old Government House) of this, some labourers were busy digging the holes for the foundation piles. He had brought a house from England in frame from a colonist who hesitated about setting it up for himself, and proposed, by the addition of a verandah and kitchen, to make a tolerably comfortable dwelling. The holes filled with water as fast as they were dug.… Te Puni, who had once tried a crop of potatoes on the very spot, declared that it was good for nothing. A plan, signed by Sir F. Dillon Bell, then Commissioner of Crown Lands, 5th October, 1855, shows the Reserve as a Government House residence, with a sketch of the residential quarters. The entrance gate and guard-house were in Charlotte Street, and an avenue led up to the terraced main page 269 entrance and drawing-room, which faced Sydney Street. The servants' quarters faced Kumutoto Street (now Bowen St.), and the stables and out-house were near the Wellington Terrace and Bowen Street corner. The Church of England was shown on the west of these, a short distance from the Reserve boundary, and near the centre of the paddock (about opposite the Museum entrance). There were three ponds, two upper ones close to Sydney Street, and the lower one underneath the flagstaff and guns. A stream called Waipirau, from Glenbervie and Sydney Street, flowed into these, and found its outlet to the sea at the corner of Bowen Street and Lambton Quay. Flower gardens and orchard were above the upper pond, and vegetable gardens and paddocks faced what is now Museum Street (Plan W. XI., L. and S. Dept.) The configuration of the Parliamentary lawn and grounds, shows the position of the ponds. The flag-staff and gun, sketched on the plan, stood above the lower pond, and faced Bowen Street. Another stream, shown on Brees' plan, June 6th, 1843, crossed the road at the junction of Hawkestone Street and found its outlet at the “Pah Pipitea,” through the market reserve No. 1, adjoining Messrs. Williams and Davis' section.
The writer and the late Mr. Isaac Clark, who knew every building in Molesworth Street, had arranged a field day together, to note the old houses still existing, but Mr. Clark's lamented death intervened. But from information received from Miss Dorset, Messrs. Clark and J. Weight, and the almanacs of the period, the names of early residents were:—Dr. Fitzgerald (corner of Pipitea Street, 1841); Wm. Freeman, R. H. Carpenter and Mr. Murphy (site of Staple's Brewery), 1843. Cameron's flax dressing school for the children of settlers, corner of Murphy and Molesworth Streets. Mr. Cameron was the unconscious pioneer of all preceeding New Zealand manual instructors (Macmorran's “Schools,” p. 66). A plan, signed by Chas. Toxward, architect, about 1856, shows Dr. Grace's house and grounds, and C. Bull's and Burrett's printing office, part of which is now occupied by a tobacconist and laundry. This was known as Burrett's Corner, and an illustration of Molesworth Street about this time, taken from May Street, showing the site of Staple's Brewery and the Metropolitan Hotel, appeared in the “Post” Christmas number, 1903, p. 13.
The only names shown on Carkeek's map, 1861, are Cimino, sec. 531, near Wellington Hotel; Hoskins, Jones and Brogan Pt. 531, and River's Provincial Hotel, near Fraser's Lane; W. Hickson and W. Mein Smith, sec. 535; J. Hemming and J. Phillips, Pipitea Street corner; S. Gawith, opposite corner; Hart Udy, Pt. 580; W. Bowler, W. Calvert and W. Gilling. A building partly built on the Hospital Reserve, encroaches on the street. The Native Hostel stood on the corner section (574) of Tinakore Road, and D. Williams was on part 564.
In 1863, the names on the west side of the street were (Almanac, 1863): Government House, Old Smith's store. W. Bampton, R. H. Carpenter, A. Johnston, W. Moxham, Mrs. E. Styles, E. Cook, C. Hartmann, H. Yates, J. Yates, G. Webster, W. Freeman, D. Anderson (Hawkestone Street intersects), J. Wilson, J. Russell, Mrs. Pilcher, J. H. Cleland, J. H. Cook, C. Millward (police agent), Mrs. S. Cooper, A. Maney, W. Mason, J. Astill. On the east side were: S. Cimino, F. Jones, P. Brogan (cordwainer), Levi Buck, C. Cull, J. Greaves, Mrs. McIndoe, H. S. Schultze, F. Bolton, Mrs. Whittaker, W. Webster. In 1878 Kennerley's, and 1882, Smith's livery and bait stables were in operation. Lane's “Tattersall's Royal Horse Repository,” opposite the Parliamentary page 270 Buildings, running into Sydney Street, was a big concern before the advent of the motor car. An advertisement in the “Cyclopaedia,” vol. 1, p 757, shows a high-stepping leader and a fine turnout on hire. Fifty horses were employed and twenty-five vehicles; twenty stalls and twenty looseboxes. A strange visitor, in the shape of a “kiwi,” was picked up in Molesworth Street one night and lodged at No. 5 Poplar Grove until the Government took charge of it. An account of the transaction, the bird's appearance and habits, was given in the “Post,” 16th September, 1926.
Moturoa Street, Thorndon, off Hobson, Moore and Pipitea Streets, is named after a chief at Pipitea Pa.
Mount Cook, Te Aro (Te Aka-tarewa) (initial station), approached by Buckle Street via Cuba Street and Kent Terrace cars, and from Tasman Street, is named after Captain Cook. The Maori name is Puke-Ahu. The “Independent,” 23rd September, 1848, mentions that parties of men were busily at work levelling the ground of Mt. Cook, intended for the site of military barracks. The “N.Z. Journal,” of 15/1/1848 (copy from “Independent”) states that “the mechanics and artisans employed in the erection of the new barracks lately completed at Mt. Cook, were on Monday evening regaled with a substantial supper by the contractor, Mr. Mills.” The same issue announces that “Te Rauparaha is holding levees in a very dignified style.” The early history and a full description of the barracks appeared in the “Post,” 24/9/1927, and a reference to the proposal to erect a Museum, Art Gallery and War Memorial Carillon is in the “Dominion,” 22/12/1927.
Mount Victoria, 648ft alt., approached by Alexandra Road via Constable Street, is named after Queen Victoria. The old Maori name was Matai-rangi, then later, Tangi-te-keo.
Mr. Brees, in his Pictorial N.Z., 1847, p. 29, describes the view taken by him of the mount, thus: “There are four mills for grinding corn in Port Nicholson, viz., Mr. E. Catchpool's steam mill, which was taken to the colony by Dr. Evans, was at work so early as October, 1841; Messrs. Simmons and Hoggard's windmill, on Mount Victoria, each with one pan of stones. Mr. Molesworth's new windmill, in the Hutt Valley; and the fourth, near the mouth of the Kaiwharawhara stream. Messrs. Simmons and Hoggards motive power is the wind, but the motion is conveyed to another building, where the mill stones are fitted up. A road is formed up to the top of Mt. Victoria and to Evans Bay. The cottage shown at the foot of the hill, called Victoria Cottage, is the farm residence of Wm. Fitzherbert, Esq. The flax plant luxuriates about this locality.…”
J. Watson's Victoria dairy farm, was in operation in 1852, and in 1866 the signal station was removed from Mt. Albert to Mt. Victoria. (Baillie, p. 704.)
The big gun was hauled to its present position in the seventies by the Artillery and Volunteers, which comprised most of the old A.C. Force. It was intended to use it as a signal gun, but the idea was abandoned.
The writer was informed that “young” Willeston and some companions alarmed the citizens one night by firing it off for a joke. A new Victoria Trig Station was placed there recently by the Survey Department, and the broadcasting station for 2YA erected in 1927.
Fig. 126.—Mt. Victoria Slopes, 1842. Mr. Brees states: “Simmonds and Hoggard's windmill on Victoria slopes (site of De Luxe Theatre). The farm residence of Mr. William Fitzherbert (Sir William), called ‘Victoria Cottage,’ is at the foot of the hill (top of Marjoribank Street).”
Fig. 127.—The Gun on Mt. Victoria. This gun was hauled up by the A.C. Force and Volunteers in the seventies. Major W. S. Moorhouse states that all hands would haul it up a certain distance and anchor it for the night, and the same performance was carried out until the gun was placed in the position it now occupies (1929). The Basin Reserve is in a line (a few hundred feet below) with the cannon's mouth. The Wellington College is on the left of it.
Mulgrave Street, Thorndon, off Lambton Quay and Sydney Street, is named after the eldest son of the Colonial Secretary, the Marquis of Normanby.
When Captain Mein Smith was surveying Thorndon, he found that a claim by Mr. Tod, of about four acres, purchased from a Pipitea Chief named Moturoa, comprised the land which is now the junction of Mulgrave, Pipitea and Murphy Streets, and portions of the corner sections adjacent. (See Thorndon Flat.) These were set down on the map as Native Reserves. Samuel Brees made a sketch of the lower part of Mulgrave Street, showing the Law Courts and temporary church. Groups of people are seen in front, probably awaiting the opening hour, when Mr. Justice H. S. Chapman presided. The next house was the Thistle Inn, kept by Mr. Cooper. A corner building, afterwards Warcup's, was beyond, while below was a thatched cottage near the present site of the Tram Offices. An old identity (Isaac Lovelock) informed the writer that he was born in the thatched cottage, when the rain was dropping through the thatch into the room. (See Fig. 128.)
A glance over the fence in this locality, from Mulgrave Street, up to 1927, gave an indication of the cultivations near the hamlet. At the present moment (January 20th, 1928) excavation operations are being carried out, and the soil lifted and dropped on the adjoining section by a steam scoop. The stocks, for refractory people, were situated opposite the little store at the corner of Pipitea Street (Sec. 543, marked Heberley's grant on the survey map, 1926, and near the residence of Major Richmond), about where St. Paul's Church now stands; the house originally belonged to Mr Levien. Major Hornbrook's house is shown on the west side of the street, and Pipitea Pa and Point below. A bullock team is in the foreground. The sketch was made by Brees. (See Fig. 131).