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Early Wellington

Chapter XII

page 128

Chapter XII.

Governor Fitzroy's Levee—The Brewer-Ross Duel—Mechanics' Institute—The Militia—Fitzroy's Recall—Troops March to the Hutt—Native Depredations—First Shot in the War Fired—Boulcott's Farm—Allen's Heroism.

Ready, lads, with your hand-grenades,
Ready, lads, with your rifles true;
Ready, lads, with your trusty blades,
Ready, lads, with your bayonets, too.”
Thos. Bracken.

The following are extracts from a letter (25th Jan., 1844), written by Mr. A. P. Holroyd, of Wellington, to Mr. W. Bridges, Secretary of the New Zealand Society, and published in the “New Zealand Journal,” 17th August, 1844, page 548:—

“I take the opportunity of writing by the “Tyrian” for London direct.… In the district of Port Nicholson there is only one bank which discounts bills at the present time after the rate of 10 per cent.…”

“A branch of the Oddfellows Lodge was established in June, 1843, comprising 80 members.”

“Land to be cleared for farming is usually let upon lease for 21 years at the following terms:—First four years at peppercorn. Next three for 5/- per acre. Next seven for 10/- per acre, and the remaining seven at 20/- per acre, with a covenant to clear half an acre of land, or thereabouts annually.…”

“Church service is held in the Country Courthouse by the Rev. Cole. Other churches are the Scotch Kirk, Independent Wesleyan, and Roman Catholic.”

“A brick built gaol has also been recently erected on Mt. Cook.”

“We have a theatre adjoining the Ship Hotel and a substantial Billiard room adjoining Barrett's Hotel.” (Hotel Cecil site.)

“A congratulatory address was presented to Captain Fitzroy, signed by upwards of 350 of the inhabitants.”

“I have not yet taken any steps to form a branch here of the New Zealand Society, because I prefer waiting the arrival of Mr. Chapman,* who is expected from Auckland.”


Arthur P. Holroyd


* Afterwards Mr. Justice H. S. Chapman.

Governor Fitzroy's Levee.

On the evening of the 26th January, 1844, the H.M.S. “North Star” entered the harbour with Captain Fitzroy on board. Mr. F. Dillon Bell was also a passenger.

On Saturday, the 27th, at two o'clock, a Levee, which was very numerously attended, page 129 was held at Barrett's Hotel (Hotel Cecil site). Considering the short notice given it was well attended. On landing, the Governor was greeted with cordial acclamations of welcome from a large assemblage of the settlers.

The arrangements for the Levee were rather undignified; no aide-de-camp, sentries or constables had been appointed to keep the ingress through the French window of the large room in the hotel free. After thanking the deputation for the congratulatory address, His Excellency assured all parties of receiving justice, but deprecated the feelings of the settlers at Wellington against the native population.

Wi Tako and other chiefs were presented, also Colonel Wakefield and several prominent people.

On Monday and Tuesday a deputation from the settlers, with a memorial detailing their political wants, waited upon him.

Except as regards the Wairau question, which he passed over by reminding his hearers “that our countrymen were the aggressors,” his promises gave general satisfaction.

On the 3rd February His Excellency sailed for Nelson, the day after a ball which he and the officers of the “North Star” were invited by the settlers, and returned from Nelson on the 16th, but his attitude towards the settlers this time did not warrant popularity.

A Duel.

On the 26th of February, 1844, a duel was fought between two lawyers in a valley running from the hills to the beach (now Sydney Street).

Upon the first exchange of shots, Mr. Brewer was severely wounded, and died a few days after. A legal difference was the cause.

The “New Zealand Journal” (London), dated 28th September, 1844, p. 579, gives the following account:—

“A duel was fought at Wellington between Mr. W. V. Brewer, barrister, and Mr. Ross, solicitor, Mr. Brewer fired in the air, but received Mr. Ross' ball in the groin, from which wound he died in a few days afterwards.

“Mr. Ross' second was Major Durie, and Mr. (Dr.) Dorset the surgeon in attendance.

“The cause arose from a Government source. These people are sure to be at the bottom of any mischief. Ross, a Government Officer, was defending McDonogh (of proclamation notoriety), in an appeal against a decision which he had given, from circumstances connected with which the quarrel arose. On Mr. Brewer's falling, the parties absconded, but returned on finding that he was not dead. After his death they did not appear to think the precaution necessary. While, to the astonishment of everyone, the Coroner's Jury brought in a verdict of “Died from a gunshot wound, by whom inflicted there was no evidence to prove.” The deceased gentleman was a brother-in-law of Mr. Justice H. S. Chapman, and the brother of the Judge of the County Court at Nelson, and arrived in New Zealand before the occupation of Cook's Strait by the New Zealand Company.

“Ross was, until recently, Attorney General of Van Dieman's Land. The unhappy affair has created the greatest disgust. We shall feel obliged to any of our readers who may have received accounts of this melancholy affair, to forward them to us.”

A Great Procession.

A great event took place on Friday, 3rd May, 1844, in the “little fishing village,” as Wellington was contemptuously termed page 130 by some of its visitors, and a few of its inhabitants.

This was the laying of the foundation stone of the Mechanic's Institute, School and Library, by His Honour Major Richmond (Superintendent of the Southern Division of New Zealand), with Grand Masonic honours. The Masonic Ceremonial was arranged as a compliment to Mr. William Lyon, a prominent member of the fraternity at Port Nicholson.

The following Orders marched in Procession to the site of the proposed building (Athenaeum Exchange, Lambton Quay):

  • (1) Constables.

  • (2) Band.

  • (3) Independent Order of Rechabites, Banner,

  • A tent supported by four boys.

  • Chief Ruler.

  • Past Chief Ruler  Deputy Chief Ruler.

  • Scribe.  Secretary.

  • Brothers (two and two).

  • (4) Independent Order of Oddfellows, Banner.

  • Arms of the Lodge.

  • Tylers, with drawn Swords.

  • Warden, with Broad Axe.

  • Members of the First Degree (two and two)

  • Conductors with Bible and Chalice.

  • Members of the Second Degree (two and two).

  • Secretary, with Insignia of Office.

  • Surgeon with Staff and Serpent.

  • Supporter.  Vice-Grand.  Supporter.

  • Members of the Third Degree.

  • Banner.

  • Supporter.  Supporter.

  • Noble Grand.

  • Past Grand.  Grand Master.  Past Grand.

  • (5) The Schoolmaster of Mechanics' Institute.

  • (6) Children of the School (two and two).

  • (7) Members of Committee (two and two).

  • (8) Revs. John Macfarlane, S. Ironside and J. Woodward.

  • (9) His Honour Major Richmond and The Assistant Colonial Secretary.

  • (10) The Secretary of the Mechanics' Institute.

  • (11) The Society of Freemasons, viz.: Tyler (with drawn Sword).

  • Master of Ceremonies.  Architect.

  • (with baton).  (bearing plate.)

  • Visiting Brethren (two and two).

  • Secretary.  Treasurer.

  • Senior Deacon.  Junior Deacon.

  • Senior Warden.  Junior Warden,

  • (with Level).  (with Plumb Rule).

  • Brother, with Mallet.

  • Stewards.  The Wor. Master.  Stewards.

  • Stewards.  Inner Guard.  Stewards.

The proceedings were opened by a prayer from the Rev. John Macfarlane, and speeches were made by prominent people.

A plate, engraved by Mr. Marriott, was deposited under the Stone. The inscription, beautifully engraved, was as follows:—

“This Stone was laid May 3rd, A.D., 1844, Aera of Masonry 5844, by His Hon. Major Richmond, assisted by the Masonic and other Lodges, and Committee of Management.”

Patron, His Excellency Governor Fitzroy.

President, Colonel Wakefield.

William Swainson Esq., and William Lyon, Esq., Vice-Presidents.

J. Howard Wallace, Esq., Treasurer.

John Knowles, Esq., Secretary.*

* “N.Z. Gazette and Cook Strait Guardian,” 8th May, 1844.

Shipping Arrivals.

The Vessels “Eliza,” with passengers, Messrs. H. L. and J. W. Peake; “Ralph Bernal” (Capt. McLean), with Messrs. Toxley and McLaren; and the “Theresa,” page 131 Mr. John King, solicitor, amongst others, arrived during the year 1844.

To Arms.

The natives had lost all respect for the authority of the Government, and British authority was brought into contempt by Captain Fitzroy's proceedings. At the same time that Whanganui was threatened, a troublesome chief named Paramata, with a considerable body of natives, created a disturbance at Happy Valley (Nelson). The New Plymouth people were also in great trouble. Some of the settlers sent to Wellington “to engage a vessel to convey a number of persons to South Australia.”

These wars and rumours of wars kept the inhabitants of Wellington and the surrounding districts in a constant state of alarm, and the bugle call “to arms” was frequently heard.

At Windy Point (immediately behind Barrett's Hotel, Dominion Steps), cannon were placed in position, and the inhabitants enrolled; for the city had to do “sentry go.”

The Militia Ordinance was passed on the 25th March, 1845, signed by Robert Fitzroy, Governor, and J. Coates, Clerk in Council.

An address to the inhabitants of Port Nicholson and fellow Colonists, from the Superintendent and the Magistrates of Wellington, was published in the local newspapers, and the “New Zealand Journal,” dated 11th October, 1845. The following announcement appeared in the latter issue, of which a few extracts are given:—

“The Town will be divided into three districts, viz.:—

Te Aro District.—All portion of Town south of Boulcott Street.

Central District.—From Boulcott St. to Sydney St., including Karori Road District.

Thorndon District comprises the whole of the Town to the north of Sydney Street, including Wade's Town and Kai Warra (Kaiwharawhara).

Hutt.—A separate District.

“A place of refuge will be selected and fortified in each district. Every person capable of bearing arms is required to come forward and be sworn in, as rapidly as possible, as a Special Constable. A Magistrate will attend for the present at Bethune and Hunter's store (old Custom House Street), from 1 to 2, for Te Aro. Mr. Grace's house at Kumutoto (Woodward Street), from 11 to 12, for the Central. The Police Office, Thorndon, from 11 to 12, and BurchaMcs house, for the Hutt; also at places of drill.

Officers for Te Aro District.—A McDonogh, Esq.; Capt. Sharp; Major Hornbrook; Major Durie; and Mr. Halswell, J.P.

Central District.—Colonel Wakefield, J.P.; Capt. Daniell, J.P.; E. Chatham, Esq., J.P.; and Dr. Dorset.

Thorndon District. — Capt. Smith, J.P.; Mr. St. Hill, J.P.; Mr. Clifford, J.P.; and Major Baker.

Hutt District.—Hon. H. Petre, Esq., J.P.; W. Swainson, J.P.; and Mr. Compton.

“Major Richmond in command of all.

“All required to attend drill at 5 p.m., Monday.

A. Chetham

Clerk to Magistrates.”

“All persons, with few exceptions, between the ages of 18 and 60, are liable, if fit, to service within 25 miles of the Police Office, and to a drill of 28 days in every year.

“An alarm will be a gun fired in the enclosure adjoining Major Richmond's residence, and at the Barracks at Te Aro. 50 page 132 men of each division, who are reported efficient, will be supplied with arms forthwith. On the alarm being given, the Thorndon Division will, for the present, assemble at Major Richmond's. The Aro Division at the Barracks. Te Aro to receive orders. Two Divisions to amount to 229 men.”

So read the memorandum addressed to the settlers at Parade.

“Places of security are being made by surrounding the immigration houses and Clifford's house at Thorndon Flat, with a strong mud wall and deep broad trench. Similar defences are being thrown up from Watt's store to Ridgway Hickson & Co., on the water side, and from LudhaMcs house to Dr. Hansard's, in Manners Street” (locality of Bank of New Zealand and Bethune and Hunter's cattle yard), “and connecting them with defences along each of the side lines. A place of defence and refuge for the centre division of the town is to be erected on the hill, just behind Northwood and Drake's brewery.”

“A battery has been erected on Clay Hill (above Stewart Dawson's Corner), under the superintendence of Capt. W. Mein Smith, R.A., and three guns placed therein.

“At Thorndon Flat another battery was in progress at the period of the arrival of the military from Auckland, but has not been proceeded with since the arrival of the soldiers of the 96th Regiment, numbering 53.

“The Police Magistrate undertook to charge the Government with the cost of its completion. And a local subscription has meanwhile been entered into to meet the expenses.

“A Military sub-committee has been formed, comprising Captain Daniell, Captain Sharp, Captain Smith, Major Baker, Major Hornbrook, Captain Robinson, Dr. Dorset, Mr. Lewis, Wm. Fox, Abraham Hort (Senr.), T. Watt, R. Park, N. Levin, Geo. Hunter, K. Bethune, N. Ross, C. Penny, J. Boulcott, B. Polhill, K. Mathieson.

“The Companies of Militia stationed in the Town of Wellington will patrol every morning from 5 to 7 a.m. No. 1. the district from Thorndon Flat to the station of the 58th Regiment. No. 4. from Kumutoto Stream (Woodward Street), to Thorndon Flat. No. 2. from Te Aro Flat to Kumutoto Stream. These patrols will consist of a non-commissioned officer and four men, and will move in the rear of the town. The detachment of the 58th and 96th Regiments will protect the flanks, and patrol at the same hours, the former in the direction of Wade's Town, the latter towards the signal station at Evan's Bay.

“The Cavalry Corps, when formed, will patrol the roads leading to Karori and Porirua.

“A guard of the Militia, consisting of a sergeant, corporal and twelve men will mount daily at Thorndon Fort.

“Definite instructions have not yet been received relative to the pay of the Militia, but for the present it will be the same as the non-commissioned officers and privates of the line. Those working at the batteries between the hours of drill will receive 10d. a day extra.“*

* “N.Z. Journal, 3rd January, 1846, and 1st March, 1846.

Governor Fitzroy's Departure.

The “Spectator” of October 11th, 1845 gives a detailed account of the proceedings when Governor Fitzroy, who was recalled by the Home Government departed from New Zealand.

Captain Grey, who superseded him, arrived at Auckland on the 14th of November, 1845.

Despite the anxiety caused by the warlike page 133 attitude of the natives and Militia, the inhabitants of the town, especially the Scottish portion, did not forget their Patron Saint, for St. Andrew's Day was observed on Saturday, November 30th by many of the Colonists who came from the land o'cakes. Several games of shinty were played at “Kai-Warra” and a dinner concluded the day's amusements.

The following Monday a “dinner” was partaken at Mr. D. Munn's Cottage of Content to celebrate the Anniversary of Scotland's Patron Saint.

Native Troubles.

A letter, written by Mr. Tracy Kemp, Protector of the Aborigines, Southern Division, on the 19th January, 1846, at the instigation of representative tribes, makes interesting reading. A few extracts are given:—

19th January, 1846.

“We used to hear what your intentions really were; then our minds were free from anxiety; and however frequently it may have been said to us by white persons: ‘Your land will be forced from you; you will be destroyed.’ Mr. Hadfield used at once to say: ‘Regard not these expressions,’ whereupon our irritable feelings became calmed.

“.… . We are anxious that the laws of the Queen should be firmly and permanently established among us, that by that means we may be raised to a more enlightened state; for we have already Ministers of God teaching us the laws of God.”

The signatures attached were:—H. Tracy Kemp; Te Rauparaha; Te Watahauki Motorua; Rawiri Kingi; Henry Martin Te Wiwi; Robert Hurumutu; Thomson Te Rauparaha; Noble Te Taiepa Paea: for the Ngatitoa Tribe. William King Wite; Wata Te Herepounamu; Riwai Te Ahu; for the Ngatiawa. Te Watanui; Zachariah Te Reinga; Solomon Toremi; for the Nagtikaukawa.”

On February 11th, 1845, H.M.S. “Calliope,” Capt. Stanley, arrived at Wellington; on the following day His Excellency Governor Grey, accompanied by Mrs. Grey, paid a visit to the port in the “H.M.S. Castor.”

The first steamer to enter Port Nicholson, H.M. Steamer “Driver.” arrived on the same day (12th).

On the 24th February, 1845, troops, comprising men of the 99th, 58th and 96th Regiments marched to the Hutt District, under the command of Colonel Hulme, to expel the intruding natives.

They comprised one hundred men of the 99th, commanded by Major Last. Captain Armstrong' and Lieut. Elliott; one hundred and forty men of the 58th, commanded by Lieut.-Adj. McLerie, Capt. Hardy, and Lieut. Leigh; and sixty of the 96th, under the command of Acting Brigade-Major McAndrew, Capt. Snodgrass, Capt. Eyton, Lieut Mundell and Lieut. Cervantes, accompanied by His Excellency the Governor, and encamped respectively at various positions near the river.

On Thursday, the 26th, thirty-five of the 96th, under Capt. Eyton, and seventy-six men of the 58th, commanded by Capt. Hardy, returned to Wellington.

A few days later forty-two of the 96th, seventy-three of the 99th, and ninety-four of the 58th proceeded to the Hutt. Two hundred men were stationed at the encampment until the new block house was completed.

Troops arriving by the “Slains Castle” were quartered in the barracks at Te Aro.

A band of natives pillaged the Waiwhetu District on March 1st, robbing on this occasion Messrs. Hart Udy, Thos. Freathy, Chas. Cundy (on the third river), Henry page 134 Jackson, Wm. Saxby, Jas. Bryant, John Cole, George Copeland, A. W. Shand, Richard Williams, Wm. Knight, Thos. Brightwell, Mr. Reynolds, Arthur Hayward (Waiwhetu). The total number of persons plundered was 79 adults and 157 children.

Rations were supplied to the sufferers by order of the Government.

Colonel Wakefield rode over to the Hutt on the following morning to ask for arms for the volunteers, and on the Governor's arrival there, arms were distributed. Fifty volunteers, under the command of Mr. Watt guarded the upper passes of the Hutt to intercept the marauders, while a picquet of soldiers were stationed at Mr. Boulcott's farm to cut off their retreat in that direction. The natives escaped with their booty and crossed the river near Mr. Swainson's.

Mr. James Cowan, in Volume I. of “New Zealand Wars,” page 99, mentions that the first shot was fired in the Hutt War on the 3rd March, 1845; the day that Martial Law was proclaimed in the Wellington District (south of a line drawn from Wainui
Fig. 40—Residence of William Swainson, Esq., F.R.S., in 1843. The site is now occupied by the Roman Catholic Convent, Main road, Lower Hutt. The successive owners to the property prior to the inception of the convent were Messrs. E. J. Riddiford and H. Bunny.

Fig. 40—Residence of William Swainson, Esq., F.R.S., in 1843. The site is now occupied by the Roman Catholic Convent, Main road, Lower Hutt. The successive owners to the property prior to the inception of the convent were Messrs. E. J. Riddiford and H. Bunny.

in Cook's Strait to Castle Point on the East Coast, excluding therefrom the Town of Wellington).

On Monday (3rd March), a party of rebels visited the Hutt District and carried away a quantity of potatoes from Mr. Mason's section, just above the spot where the camp formerly stood.

On Tuesday another party robbed a settler named Leverton of potatoes and 3 pigs, which they killed and carried away; they also took away his blankets and other property.

A party of Militia, under the command of Mr. Watt, followed on their track, but it was night before they came up with them, and as they were ignorant that Martial Law had been proclaimed, they refrained from firing. At daybreak Major Durie went up the Hutt with a party of Police to scour the valley and co-operate with the Militia in the necessary measures for the protection of the settlers.

On March 9th His Excellency proceeded to Porirua in the “Driver,” accompanied by the “Castor,” with 160 troops, under Colonel page 135 Hulme, and the Militia were called out to protect the Town.

His Excellency, when in Wellington, then occupied a suite of apartments at Barrett's Hotel.

On the 2nd April, Andrew Gillespie and his son, of 13 years, were murderously attacked and were found by a Militia man at the Hutt River.

Te Rauparaha sent in a letter, by Mr. W. C. Cowper, to the Rev. Mr. Hadfield, informing him that the murders had been committed by natives from Porirua. Acting on this letter, Ensigns Cervantes and Symonds, Fitzgerald, McDonogh and four constables, set out for Porirua.

On arriving at Jackson's, they apprehended two deserters of the 99th, who were staying there.

The party stayed at Jackson's all night, and in the morning proceeded to Mr. Cowper's. An interview took place between Ensign Cervantes and Rauparaha, who informed him that Rangihaeata would not give up the murderers without a struggle, and that he espoused the cause of the Hutt intruders heart and hand.

Later, a native arrived in Town, bringing despatches to the Governor, containing the above-mentioned intelligence.
Fig. 41.—Fort. Richmond and the Hutt Bridge, 1846. The new ferro-concrete bridge (1929), occupies the approximate site.

Fig. 41.—Fort. Richmond and the Hutt Bridge, 1846. The new ferro-concrete bridge (1929), occupies the approximate site.

Orders were instantly issued for Her Majesty's Ships “Driver” and “Castor” to prepare for sailing; and 260 men of the 58th, 96th and 99th Regiments were conveyed on board.

In the meanwhile poor Gillespie, after lingering for two days and three nights, expired, unconscious to the last. The body of the son was brought over from the Hutt and placed in the Episcopalian Church, and after the inquest. Mr. Gillespie's body also was placed by his son's in the church until the funeral, which, when it occurred, was attended by a large concourse of people.

The Gillespies were buried in the old cemetery, close to the Bolton Street boundary fence, about opposite the old vicarage.

On April 9th, 1846, the “Castor,” “Driver” and the “Slains Castle” (transport), proceeded to Porirua with troops, and established a Military Station on the site of the old whaling station belonging to Mr. J. Thoms, generally known as “Geordie Bolts.”

On the 13th April, 1846, the armed police were embodied, and Major Durie was appointed Inspector.

The following day the Porirua Road was commenced by the soldiers, and Martial Law was again proclaimed in the Southern District on the 20th April.

On the 16th May, 1846, fifty men of the page 136 58th Regiment, under Lieut. Page, stationed at Boulcott's farm, in the Hutt Valley, were surprised an hour before daylight by seventy natives, under Mamaku. Seven were killed and four wounded. The soldiers killed were: Lance-Corporal James Dockrell; Privates W. Allen, Robert Brett. Thos. Bolt, J. McFadden and T. Sonham. Mr. Thos. Hoseman, a settler, was wounded and conveyed to the residence of Mr. J. Boulcott, Te Aro, where he died five days later, on the 21st May. Pvte. Jas. French. 99th Regt., died of wounds.

Sergeant Ingram also died of wounds, received on the 16th. Privates P. Bevan, T. Taylor and J. Ward were wounded.

* Now Plimmerton.

Bugler Allen.

During the fighting at Boulcott's Farm, at the Hutt, on the 16th May, 1846, a bugler named Allen, belonging to the 58th Regiment, espied a body of rebels coming stealthily forward to attack the detachment of troops stationed there. He was in the act of sounding an alarm on the bugle to give warning to the regiment, when he was struck by a tomahawk on his right arm. He placed the bugle in his left hand, when that limb was also struck. Then, placing the bugle between his knees, he effected his purpose, but was instantly brained with the tomahawk. His heroic act saved the whole detachment from being massacred.

An account of this incident is given in Sir J. G. Wilson's “Early Rangitikei,” page 14. It was related to Sir James by the Hon. John Bryce. The following lines, extracted from “Early Rangitikei,” form part of a touching little poem published in the Wellington Girls' College “Reporter” magazine, under the initial of A.V.T.1

“He raised his bugle, and with clarion sound,
The clear Reveille filled the sleeping vale;
Awake! Awake! The rocks and hills around
Sent back the echoes in the dawning pale.

Allen's bugle was carried away as a trophy and subsequently recovered in one of Rangihaeata's deserted camps at Horokiwi Valley.2

Fig. 42—Bugler Allen's Heroism at Boulcott's Farm, 1846. Photo by Mrs. W. J. Helyer, from an engraving in Mrs. W. Moxham's possession.

Fig. 42—Bugler Allen's Heroism at Boulcott's Farm, 1846. Photo by Mrs. W. J. Helyer, from an engraving in Mrs. W. Moxham's possession.

page 137

Correspondents to the “New Zealand Journal,” dated 10th October, express themselves thus:—

“After getting rid of the Maoris on the Hutt, His Excellency decided on building a block house and maintaining a post of 100 men somewhere about Mason's section. Instead of this being done, the Superintendent and his co-adjutors objected to the amount of the tenders for building the block house, and the Governor, yielding to them, the soldiers fell back to Boulcott's barn, where they were attacked. Captain Hardy, who was appointed to command at this spot, was removed to the stockade at the bridge. Thus there were only forty-two men under a subaltern, instead of one hundred under a captain. A post was established at Porirua of about one hundred and fifty men., which Major Last commanded.”

The “New Zealand Spectator,” of the 23rd May, contains a graphic description of the attack of the 16th; also an account of a meeting at Barrett's Hotel, convened to adopt measures of defence. Mr. S. Revans ocupied the chair. The speakers were Messrs. Lyon, Vincent, and R. Davis. A meeting of the Thorndon Militia was also held at which Captain Sharp, Lieut. A. de Bathe Brandon and Ensign Spinks were elected officers.

One hundred and twenty men attended the first muster at Te Aro Parade ground, at 7 a.m.

Some Te Aro natives who had been at the Hutt reported that the rebels had returned there, their fires having been seen on the hills; and that Te Puni had arrested a native, formerly in the service of Mr. Molesworth, on a charge of being a spy of the rebels.

On Monday, 18th May, 1846, a meeting was held at the Aurora Tavern and Messrs. Daniell, Revans, Lyon, Cooper, Vincent, Annear, Wade, Clifford, McDonald, Bethune, Dr. Featherston and others were the speakers. Mr. Wade proposed, and Mr. J. H. Wallace seconded: “That the detachment of the 58th Regiment, acting under Lieut. Page during the engagement at the Hutt on Saturday, 16th, and the seven discharged Militia men, who, upon hearing the report of guns, hastened to the support of this noble band, and who succeeded in repelling the rebels, are entitled to the gratitude of this community.”

Te Aro inhabitants and others then proceeded with Mr. Wade and Mr. J. H. Wallace to Major Richmond's and requested His Honour to supply them with arms and ammunition.

These were served out at the Thorndon Fort, and Te Aro Militia marched in a body to the Aurora Tavern, where Mr. J. H. Wallace presided at a meeting. The following gentlemen were elected officers:—Captain Daniell, J.P. (Captain); Mr. Kenneth Bethune (Lieutenant); Messrs. George Dalrymple and Monteith (Ensigns); Joseph Masters and George Swainson (Buglers).

It was arranged that Mr. Wade, with others, should take temporary command for the night. Mr. St. Hill supplied sixty more of the Militia with arms, at the Aurora Tavern. At midnight the volunteers met at Bevan's place, Te Aro Flat, and formed guards and pickets.

The Militia in Wellington was disbanded about the 23rd May, and it was intended to reduce the numbers stationed at Taita to 25 men, who would be placed under the command of Major McDonogh.

On June 15th, 1846, Richard Rush was murdered in the Hutt District by the rebels, and on the 16th a skirmish of a detachment of troops, under Capt. Reid, took place with the natives at the Hutt, when Lieut. Herbert and four soldiers were wounded. One subsequently died of wounds. On the same date an engagement of the Militia from page 138 Taita, under Mr White, eventuated. The rebels were repulsed and two of their number wounded.

“On Saturday last, October 24th, 1846,” states the “New Zealand Journal,” London. “Cemino, the Master of the Cutter ‘Catherine Ann,’ had nearly completed his lading in the Manawatu River. On Sunday afternoon, the rebel chief Te Rangihaeata sent a letter down to Taratoa, chief of the Ngatiwakatere, directing him to order the settlers to leave the Manawatu District in eight days.

“On receipt of the order, Messrs. Kebbell, Cook, and Compton, with the chief Taratoa, took a canoe and pulled up the long reach. On arriving on a line with Para-tawao, the position occupied by Rangihaeata, they landed and proceeded to the Pa.

“Mr. Kebbel asked the rebel chief why the settlers were to leave. Rangihaeata answered: ‘I can answer for the conduct of the men at present with me, but natives are coming from Rangitikei, and all parts to join me, and I cannot answer for their conduct’; further, he said: ‘I will not take you by surprise, like Rauparaha was taken; I give you warning, and you had better go.’ Rangihaeata told Mr. Cook to look out, for if he caught him in two or three days, he would murder him, in consequence of some report having got abroad amongst the natives that Mr. Cook was concerned in the apprehension of Te Rauparaha. Rangihaeata said to Mr. Compton: ‘I know you; you were in the Hutt Militia. There is a vessel in the river, you had better all go at once.’

“On the return of the party, the settlers determined to leave the district, but were persuaded by the chief of a small tribe, who had been friendly disposed, to remain till they heard from Wellington.

“About 150 rebels are encamped at Poroutawao, and an accession of 300 from Rangitikei was hourly expected.

“Cemino was compelled to bring back most of his cargo.”

The “New Zealand Journal,” of the 15th January, 1848, contains a list of killed and wounded in action during these troublous times:—

Private Wm. Weller, 5th Company, 58th Regiment, killed.

Private Joseph Spratt, Grenadiers, 65th Regiment, wounded.

Lieut. Barnard, Grenadiers, 65th Regiment, wounded.

Gunner Wm. Connolly, R.A., died of wounds.

Gunner Wm. Broadhurst, R.A., wounded.

Sergeant Wm. Gibson, 58th Regiment, wounded.

Corporal Francis Reilley, 58th Regiment, wounded.

Private H. Storey. 58th Regiment, wounded.

Private Wm. Dunn, 58th Regiment, wounded.

Private M. Rogers, 58th Regiment, wounded.

Sergeant Thos. Kells, 65th Regiment, wounded.

Corporal Wm. Allsopp, 65th Regiment, wounded.

Private Jas. Fryan, 65th Regiment, wounded.

Herikiwa Ruawiwi, a Ngatitoa ally, wounded.

Some time after the events recorded above, the Pito-one friendly natives, the Waiwhetu, and those of the Pas in Wellington who were engaged in the Military operations against Rangihaeata during the Maori trouble, assembled before Major Richmond's house to receive the pay due to them from the Government. Te Puni and other chiefs addressed them on this page 139 occasion, and a “Korero” was held after the usual native custom, previous to the distribution of the money.*

* May 8th, 1847.

Presentation to Te Puni.

The “New Zealand Journal,” of January 15th, 1848, contains, amongst other interesting items, an account of an episode occuring at Pito-one, and the following letter, addressed to Te Puni:—

“Friend E' Puni,—Great is my love to you on account of your benignity to the men of my tribe. Therefore I have sent a silver cup to our friend Wide-awake (Colonel Wakefield), as a free gift from me to you. For you, then, is this cup.

“Lo! If perhaps you should die hereafter; the words outside it shall live forever to commemorate your children your chieftain like attitude and as a call to your children and grand children that they should do likewise to the white men.

However, long may this cup remain with you. But if hereafter your death should be near, lo! give it your eldest son as an heir-loom; tell him also, as a sacred commandment that he and his commandment to his son be the same.

“Wide-awake constantly praises the straightness of your mind.

“Here, indeed, Wide-awake and all the white men who have seen you, praise you. Remain now your place.

“Concluding is the speech of your loving loving friend,

Alexander Currie,
New Zealand House,
November 30th, 1846.

“To E' Puni, the Chief of Pito-one, Wellington, New Zealand.”

“A number of persons met at Pito-one upon the occasion of the presentation to the Chief E' Puni, of a silver cup, the gift of Alexander Currie, Esq., of London, in commemoration of the services rendered by him in assembling his people in defence of the Hutt District in 1846. After M. Le Compte, the Catholic Minister, had read the letter to E' Puni in the midst of his people, the Hon. Mrs. Petre presented the cup to him with a recommendation to receive it as a mark of approbation of his conduct on the occasion referred to and of his uniform, upright conduct towards the Colonials since the establishment of the settlement.”

“The old gentleman expressed his gratification with the present and a perfect appreciation of its object.

The native people then regaled themselves with a copious repast provided for them on the occasion.

“The translation of the inscription on the cup (now in Mary Te Puni's possession) is as follows:—

“To E. Puni. Chief of the Ngatiawa Tribe of New Zealanders, his loving friend Alexander Currie has given this cup* in order to commemorate, with kind esteem, thee greatness of his constant excellent doing to the men of England, from their first arrival at Petone in January, 1840, down to the present time.

“In order to commemorate his magnanimous behaviour in May, 1846, when he assembled his children in arms as a safeguard for the bodies and property of his white friends.

“London, November, 1846.”

* (See Fig. 57, p. 175.)

1 The writer has since been informed that the author of the lines was the Rev. Archdeacon A. V. Towgood, late of Marton, Rangitikei, who died at the age of 84 on the 20th July, 1925, and was buried in the old Whanganui Cemetery.

2 This incident was related by Mr. T. M. Wilford, M.P., at the official opening of the Boulcott School, on the 9th October, 1928. The School is situated on the site of part of Boulcott's Farm. Reference was also made to the Stone Monument erected at the entrance of the old Military Road, to mark the gallantry of the defenders. The “Evening Post” (9th October, 1928), mentions that it is understood that the Bugle used by Allen is in England, in the possession of Allen's Regiment, and an effort was to be made to procure it as a memento for the School.