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The New Zealanders at Gallipoli

The Place-Names of Anzac

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The Place-Names of Anzac.

Some unfortunate tracts of country are destined from their situations to be the battlegrounds of the world. Old world names, before this war but the memory of former campaigns, have once again become household words. So Mons and St. Quentin, Kantara and Damascus, have become familiar to the boys of the present generation, for have not their elder brothers been on police picket in the back streets of every one of them?

But war sometimes chances to descend on poor, unsettled and otherwise unimportant territory. Such a place was Anzac—rough and hungry clay hillsides, no habitations in its area except the lonely Fishermen's Hut near the mouth of the Sazli Beit Dere, and a poor shepherd's hut at the foot of Monash Gully. Into this desolate country, with only a few ridges and watercourses important enough to be marked on the map, came legions of foreign soldiers who peopled every scrubby ridge and winding gully.

The necessity for place-names became very pressing. Retaining such of the native ones as were shown on the maps, a multitude of Australian and New Zealand names appeared spontaneously at Anzac, just as the English and French names appeared at Helles.

Difficulties often arose. An Australian unit holding a part of the line had local names for every place within the sector, whereas a New Zealand unit taking over manufactured or evolved names quite different. The preparation of a trench map or operation orders written by the Staff fixed the name for all time. Place-names like “The Sphinx” are evidence of this.

Ismail Oglu Tepe with its wavy crestline, naturally became the “W” Hills of Anzac. From Walker's Ridge the description point—“W” Hills—never failed to be recognized.

Most places in Anzac are named after men or units. This is natural. But sometimes accidents crept in here, too. For instance, an attack of measles made what might have been “Johnston's Ridge,” into “Walker's Ridge.”

The word “Anzac” arrived in quite a different way. “Anzac” obviously suggested itself. But numerous stories are current as to its origin, and doubtless many of the stories are correct. Statements on this subject have been made by the two most important Generals connected with the campaign, and their claims may easily be reconciled.


In the “Anzac Book” General Birdwood stated that when he took over the command of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps in Egypt, he was asked to select a telegraphic code address for his Army Corps, and adopted the word “Anzac.” Later on, after the landing, he was asked by General Headquarters to suggest a name for the beach, and in reply he christened it “Anzac Cove.”


General Ian Hamilton wrote in his preface to “Crusading at Anzac, A.D. 1915,” by Signaller Ellis Silas: “As the man who first, seeking to save himself trouble, omitted the five full stops and brazenly coined the word “Anzac,” I am glad to write a line or two in preface to sketches which may help to give currency to that token throughout the realms of glory.”

In compiling this list of place-names and their origins, the aim has been to set down only those names that were generally accepted and used at Anzac. Official trench maps, operation orders, books, pamphlets, and captured Turkish maps have been searched and verified. I am greatly indebted to the work of my friend Sapper Moore-Jones in his unrivalled “Sketches Made at Anzac.” Besides being works of art, these sketches are particularly valuable as showing in faithful detail page 318 the land features of the Anzac area, with many of the place-names in use during the operations.

It is not necessary to burden this volume with a complete Turkish dictionary, but the following words, with their equivalents in English, may be found of value:—
DereValley with stream
SirtA Summit

Abdel Rahman Bair.—The great northern spur of the Sari Bair range.

Anafarta.—(1) The Turkish name for the Suvla front.


There are two villages inland from Suvla Bay called Biyuk Anafarta and Kuchuk Anafarta.


A long-range gun firing from the hills was called “Anafarta Annie.”

Anzac.—Formed from the initial letters of Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. First used (written A. and N.Z.A.C.) in Egypt, when the Army Corps was formed. It soon became A.N.Z.A.C., and the new word was so obvious that the full stops were omitted.

Anzac Cove.—The little bay where the principal landing was made on April 25, 1915.

The Apex.—High up on Rhododendron Spur, and the furthest point inland retained by the Anzac forces after the attack on Chunuk Bair. An earlier name, little used, was “The Mustard Plaster.”

Ari Burnu.—The northern horn of Anzac Cove. The Turk called the Anzac area the Ari Burnu front.

Asma Dere.—One of the upper reaches of the Azmak Dere, starting in the foothills of the Abdel Rahman Bair.

Azmak Dere.—A watercourse leading from Biyuk Anafarta, running to the south of Ismail Oglu Tepe and debouching on to the Suvla flats. There is another Azmak flowing into the north of the Salt Lake at Suvla.

Australian Valley,—One of the northern branches of the Aghyl Dere, named after the 4th Australian Infantry Brigade.

Baby 700.—A Turkish position between The Nek and Battleship Hill.

Battleship Hill.—High ground within the Turkish lines between Baby 700 and Chunuk Bair. Turkish reserves sheltered behind it, and were frequently shelled by the warships.

Bauchop's Hill.—A hill between the Aghyl Dere and the Chailak Dere. Named after the gallant colonel of the Otago Mounted Rifles, who was mortally wounded here on August 8.

Beach Road, The.—The road running along the sea beach from Ari Burnu toward No. 2 Post.

Bedford Ridge.—A ridge opposite Cheshire Ridge on which were situated our three isolated posts: Newbury's Post, the southern one; Franklin Post, the central one; Warwick Castle, the northern one.

Blamey's Meadow.—Overlooked by Tasmania Post. Named after Major Blamey, an Intelligence Officer who carried out extensive reconnaissances in Turkish territory towards Maidos.

Blockhouse, The.—A Turkish position opposite the Apex. This blockhouse was built after the Turks swept us off Chunuk Bair in August.

Bloody Angle.—The gully between Dead Man's Ridge and Quinn's Post. The 4th Australian Brigade and the battalions of the Royal Naval Division suffered heavy losses here on the night of May 2/3.

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Bolton's Hill.—Named after Colonel Bolton, 8th A.I. Battalion. On the extreme right flank; part of the front line of the Australian position.

Biyuk Anafarta.—See Anafarta.

Braund's Hill.—A hill behind the centre of the Australian line on the right, and overlooking Shrapnel Valley. Named after Colonel Braund, of the 2nd Australian Infantry Battalion. Colonel Braund was a member for Armidale in the New South Wales Paliament, and was killed soon after the landing.

Broadway.—The wide sunken road leading from the top of Walker's Ridge round the back of the firing line on Russell's Top.

Bridges' Road.—A road leading to the right from Shrapnel Valley towards Wire Gully. Named in memory of General Bridges, the Australian Divisional Commander, who was mortally wounded in Shrapnel Valley.

Brighton Beach.—The long stretch of beach running southwards from Hell Spit towards Gaba Tepe. Brighton is the well-known watering place near Melbourne, named after the English seaside resort.

Brown's Dip.—A depression just behind the Australian trenches opposite Lone Pine, where the Turkish and Australian dead were buried after the struggle for Lone Pine. The lower part of Brown's Dip was known as Victoria Gully.

Bully Beef Gully.—A gully running up from the centre of Anzac Cove past Army Corps Headquarters. As stores on the beach would be threatened by rough weather, beef and biscuits were stacked in this valley.

Bully Beef Track.—A communication trench running from the right of Russell's Top to the head of Monash Gully.

Bully Cut.—A deep communication trench cut to enable troops to avoid a much-sniped section of the Aghyl Dere.

Camel's Hump.—A Turkish position just below Snipers' Nest.

Canterbury Gully.—A small gully between Plugge's Plateau and Shrapnel Valley, where the Canterbury Infantry Battalion rested when in reserve from Quinn's Post. Often shown on the map as Rest Gully.

Canterbury Slope.—On the slopes of Rhododendron Spur.

Canterbury Knob.—A famous machine gun position on the right flank of the Apex position and overlooking the head waters of the Sazli Beit Dere. Known to machine gunners as Preston's Top after the gallant Lieut. Preston (killed in France) who first placed machine guns there on August 7.

Canterbury Ridge.—A name given to Rhododendron Spur during the early days of August. The Canterbury Infantry occupied this ground on the morning of August 7.

Chailak Dere.—A narrow valley falling down from Chunuk Bair, past the north side of Table Top and between Bauchop's Hill and “Old No. 3 Post.”

Chatham's Post.—The southern limit of the Anzac line. Named after Lieut. Chatham, of the 5th Australian Light Horse.

Chessboard, The.—A criss-cross network of Turkish trenches opposite Pope's Hill and Russell's Top.

Cheshire Ridge.—A ridge between the upper reaches of the Chailak Dere and the southern fork of the Aghyl Dere. Named after the 8th Cheshires who were in the 40th Brigade of the 13th Division. Its respective parts were known as Upper and Lower Cheshire. Durrant's Post was in the centre.

Chocolate Hills.—A range of hills inland from Suvla Bay, south of the Salt Lake. These hills were brownish red, and later swept with fire. One part was covered with scrub and, not being burnt, was known as Green Hill.

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Chunuk Bair.—A ridge about 860 feet high on the Sari Bair, below Hill Q, and above Rhododendron Spur.

Clarke Valley.—Between Victoria Gully and Shell Green. Colonel Clarke had the 12th Australian Infantry Battalion.

Cornfield, The.—A small patch of cultivated ground on the right flank just above Shell Green.

Courtney's Post.—One of the three famous posts at head of Monash Gully. Lieut.-Colonel R. E. Courtney, of the 14th Australian Infantry Battalion, was in command here in May. He died at Melbourne on October 22, 1919.

Daisy Patch, The.—A piece of old meadow at Cape Helles.

Damakjelik Bair.—On the left of the Anzac line; the objective of the Left Covering Force on August 6.

Dawkins' Point.—On Brighton Beach, about 600 yards south of Hell Spit. Named after an officer of the Australian Engineers.

Dead Man's Ridge.—A much-contested Turkish salient running in between Pope's Hill and Quinn's Post. So called because of the bodies of New Zealanders, Australians, and men of the Royal Naval Division which lay there from May 2/3 until the Armistice.

Destroyer Hill.—A small hill overlooking the Sazli Beit Dere and midway between Rhododendron Spur and No. 1 Post. Often heavily shelled by the torpedo destroyers.

Durrant's Post.—A post on Cheshire Ridge. Major Durrant was an officer in the 4th Australian Infantry Brigade.

Farm, The.—A hotly contested corner of the Chunuk Bair battlefields. Just underneath the ridge of Chunuk Bair. It eventually remained in the hands of the Turk.

Fishermen's Hut.—A rude hut or huts near the coast, at the foot of the Sazli Beit Dere.

Gaba Tepe.—A headland about a mile and a quarter south of the Anzac right flank. The Anzac landing was originally known as the Gaba Tepe landing. Most of the earlier gazetted decorations were prefaced “in the neighbourhood of Gaba Tepe,” which really means Anzac.

Gillespie Hill.—A part of Hill 60. On the left of the Anzac theatre. Named after Lieut.-Colonel Gillespie, of the South Wales Borderers.

Hampshire Lane.—A communication trench leading from the Aghyl Dere towards Sandbag Ridge.

Happy Valley.—The valley just north of Walker's Ridge, and immediately below Turk's Point. In the spring the lower reaches were a mass of flowering shrubs, beautiful grasses, and fragrant wild thyme.

Hay Valley.—A southern arm of the Aghyl Dere; branching to the left it was known as Stafford Gully, and to the right, Hotchkiss Gully. Captain Bruce Hay, N.Z.S.C., was killed while leading a squadron of the Otago Mounted Rifles in the attack on Bauchop's Hill.

Hell Spit.—The southern horn of Anzac Cove. Jutting out into the sea, it was a convenient mark for the Turkish gunner of the Olive Groves and Gaba Tepe.

Hill Q.—Sometimes known as Nameless Peak. Midway between the heights of Hill 971 and Chunuk Bair. About 280 feet.

Hill 60.—The height in metres of the hilll known as Kaiajik Aghala, near which was the important well Kabak Kuyu.

Hill 100.—High ground between the Asma Dere and the head of the Kaiajak Dere; held by the Otago Mounted Rifles at the evacuation.

Hill 112.—Ismail Oglu Tepe, which see.

Hill 971.—The most important tactical feature on Gallipoli Peninsula. The highest Peak of the Sari Bair range, 971 feet high. Known to the Turk as Koja Chemen Tepe, and shown on the later maps as Hill 305, from its height in metres.

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Hotchkiss Gully.—See Hay Valley.

Howitzer Gully.—The northernmost gully running up towards Plugge's Plateau from Anzac Cove. Here the 4.5 Howitzer Battery, under Major Falla, made its welcome appearance the morning after the Anzac landing.

Hughes Gully.—Part of the Sazli Beit Dere running to the north opposite Destroyer Hill, towards the front of Table Top. Lt.-Col. J. G. Hughes, C.M.G., D.S.O., was in command of the Canterbury Battalion during the August offensive.

Ismail Oglu Tepe.—See “W” Hills.

Johnston's Jolly.—A Turkish position between Lone Pine and German officers' trench. Named after Colonel G. J. Johnston, Brigadier of the 2nd Australian Artillery Brigade.

Koja Chemen Tepe.—See Hill 971.

Koja Dere.—A Turkish village two miles due east of Lone Pine. Here were concentrated a large proportion of the enemy's reserves. Koja Dere (sometimes spelt Kurija Dere) was the site of the Turkish Army Headquarters in the southern sector of the Ari Burnu front.

Kaiajik Aghala.—See Hill 60.

Kuchuk Anafarta.—See Anafarta.

Kabak Kuyu.—A valuable well in the neighbourhood of Hill 60.

Kur Dere.—A valley between Chunuk Bair Hill Q, on the enemy's side of the watershed. Mentioned as one of the objectives in the operation order for August 6.

Lala Baba.—The highest ground between Nibrunesi Point and the Salt Lake. This observation post was raided several times by New Zealanders before the Suvla landing. On it a German flag was flown after the evacuation.

Leane's Trench.—A set of Turkish trenches near Tasmania Post, taken on July 31 by Western Australian troops under Major Leane, who was killed during the operations.

Little Table Top.—A small, flat-topped hill north of the original “Table Top,” which was sometimes called “Big Table Top.”

Long Sap, The.—A communication trench running from Anzac Cove, near Ari Burnu, along the foothills out to No. 2 Post.

Lone Pine.—A set of Turkish trenches south of Johnston's Jolly, taken and held by the Australians during the August fighting. Seven Victoria Crosses were won here by Australians.

Malone's Gully.—A dry watercourse between Happy Valley and No. 1 Post, leading up towards Baby 700. Named after the gallant Colonel of the Wellington Infantry Battalion.

Mal Tepe.—A small hill inland from Gaba Tepe, on which the Turks had guns. One of the objectives mentioned in the operation order for the Anzac landing.

Monash Gully.—See Shrapnel Valley. Brigadier-General Monash commanded the 4th Australian Infantry Brigade, which first held the head of Monash Gully.

Mortar Ridge.—A ridge behind German Officers' Trench. Under the reverse slope of Mortar Ridge were innumerable dugouts protecting the Turkish reserves.

Mule Gully.—A ravine running up behind Walker's Ridge. Under the shelter of the high banks the mules of the Indian Supply and Transport Corps were protected from fire.

Mustard Plaster, The.—See the Apex.

Maclagan's Ridge.—The ridge running from Plugge's Plateau down to Hell Spit. Named after the landing in honour of Colonel Sinclair Maclagan, D.S.O.

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Maclaurin's Hill.—Just south of Steel's Post. Colonel Maclaurin, the Brigadier of the 1st Australian Infantry Brigade, was killed in Monash Gully two days after the landing.

McCay's Hill.—On the right flank, north of White Valley. Named after the Brigadier of the 2nd Australian Infantry Brigade.

No. 1 Post.—On the left flank of Anzac. Sometimes known as Maori Post, from it being garrisoned by the Maori contingent.

No. 2 Post.—Called Nelson Hill in the earlier days because held by the 10th (Nelson) Mounted Rifles; then taken over by the Otago Mounted Rifles; eventually became Divisional Headquarters for the August operations.

No. 3 Post.—Established just north of No. 2 Outpost, when Old No. 3 was abandoned.

Nameless Peak.—See Hill Q.

Nek, The.—A narrow tongue of No Man's Land, running from Russell's Top towards the Turkish trenches.

Nelson Hill.—See No. 2 Post.

Nibrunesi Point.—The southern horn of Suvla Bay, shown on some Turkish maps as Kuchuk Kemekli.

North Beach.—See Ocean Beach.

Ocean Beach.—The stretch of sea shore between Ari Burnu and No. 2 Post. Sometimes known as North Beach.

Old No. 3 Post.—High ground above Fishermen's Hut. Captured and held for two days by the N.Z.M.R. in May, but eventually abandoned to the Turks; retaken during the August advance.

Olive Groves.—Clumps of trees inland from Gaba Tepe. “Beachy Bill” and other obnoxious Turkish guns were “dug in” in the vicinity.

Otago Gully.—Near No. 3 Post. The Otago Mounted Rifles had their headquarters hereabouts during June and July.

Overton Gully.—A gully named to commemorate Major Overton, Canterbury Mounted Rifles, a keen officer who directed the scouting and reconnoitering on the left flank. He was killed on August 7 while leading Cox's Indian Brigade up the Aghyl Dere.

Owen's Gully.—A gully in Turkish territory between Johnston's Jolly and Lone Pine; named after Brigadier-General Cunliffe Owen, the artillery commander of the A.N.Z.A.C.

Phillip's Top.—Near the bottom and on the southern side of Shrapnel Valley there was a low ridge called “The Razor Back.” which, running up towards the firing line, became known as Phillip's Top, after Major Phillips, of the Australian Field Artillery.

Pimple, The.—A salient in the Australian line just opposite the Turkish Lone Pine trenches; this Pimple became the Lone Pine Salient.

Pine Ridge.—A Turkish position opposite the extreme right flank of Anzac.

Plugge's Plateau.—The high ground immediately inland from Anzac Cove, the southern spur running down to Hell Spit being named Maclagan's Ridge. Plugge's Plateau is called after the O.C. Auckland Infantry Battalion.

Point Rosenthal.—On the ridge below Bolton's Hill. Colonel Rosenthal commanded the 1st Australian Artillery Brigade.

Pope's Hill.—An isolated post at the head of Monash Gully; on its right was Dead Man's Ridge; on its left a deep canyon separating Pope's from Russell's Top. Colonel Pope was the gallant white-haired commander of the famous 16th Australian Infantry Battalion.

Poppy Valley.—There were many “Poppy” Valleys and “Poppy” Fields in the Anzac area, but the only one to get on the map was in the Turkish territory between Harris' Ridge and Pine Ridge, on the extreme southern flank of Anzac.

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Queensland Point.—That lower part of Maclagan's Ridge which resolves itself into Hell Spit. The Queensland Infantry landed here early on April 25.

Quinn's Post.—At the head of Monash Gully; the most famous post in Anzac, the salient of the Anzac line. Named after Major Quinn, of the 15th Australian Infantry Battalion, who was killed defending the post. For the first few days this ground was held by Major Rankine (“Bobby”) of the 14th Battalion A.I.F. He then handed over to Major Quinn.

Reserve Gully.—A “rest” gully in the low ground between Plugge's Plateau and the Sphinx. It eventually became unsafe, being periodically searched by the guns from the “W” Hills.

Rest Gully.—See Canterbury Gully.

Rhododendron Spur.—A prominent spur running westward from Chunuk Bair, and between the Chailak Dere and the Sazli Beit Dere, the point nearest Chunuk Bair being called the Apex. It was first called Rhododendron Spur by Major Overton, who saw in the scrubby arbutus some resemblance to a rhododendron.

Rose Hill.—A northern underfeature of Bauchop Hill, below Little Table Top and above Hotchkiss Gully. Guns placed here defended the ground between The Blockhouse and our position on the Apex. Major Rose was a New Zealand machine gunner in charge of the 4th Australian Infantry Brigade machine guns.

Russell's Top.—The highest point of Walker's Ridge, where Brigadier-General Russell, commanding the New Zealand Mounted Rifles, had his headquarters during May, June, and July.

Ryrie's Post.—On the right of the Australian line; named after Brigadier-General Ryrie, 2nd Light Horse Brigade.

Sandbag Ridge.—A salient in the new Anzac line near Hill 100.

Sari-Bair.—The tangled mass of hills and watercourses inland from Anzac and Suvla, culminating in Hill 971.

Sazli Beit Dere.—A watercourse, dry in summer, originating in the slopes of Chunuk Bair, and entering the sea near Fishermen's Hut.

Scimitar Hill.—A round hill north of the “W” Hills, on which was a curved strip of yellow earth resembling a Turkish sword; shown on some maps as Hill 70, from its height in metres.

Scrubby Knoll.—A Turkish position about 1500 yards due east of Courtney's Post.

Shell Green.—A small area of cleared cultivable ground on the extreme right of Anzac, between Clarke Valley and Ryrie's Post.

Shrapnel Valley.—The road to the centre of the Anzac position; heavily shelled by the Turkish artillery from the first day. Known to the Turks as Kamu Kapu Dere. The upper portion of the valley was known as Monash Gully.

Snipers' Nest.—A scrubby hill about 1000 yards from the sea, from which Turkish snipers made the beach north of Ari Burnu unsafe for bathing or traffic.

Smyth's Post.—A post in the Australian sector, named after an Australian officer.

Sphinx, The.—A peculiar knife-edge spur jutting out seawards from Walker's Ridge. During the early days it was known by many names such as the Sphinx, the Knife Edge, the Cathedral, the Snipers' Crevice, &c., until it was entered on the map as the Sphinx. A legend that from a crevice a sniper picked off men for the first few days, until shot by Captain Wallinford, the well-known machine gunner, has no foundation in fact, except that some wild pigeons which had their home there were thought to be carriers.

Stafford Gully.—See Hay Valley.

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Steel's Post.—The post south of Courtney's, named after Major Steel, of the 14th Australian Battalion. For the first week, Courtney's and Steel's were included in Steel's Post; but Lt.-Col. Courtney took over the left section which was renamed Courtney's.

Susuk Kuyu.—A well just north of Hill 60, where the Anzac forces got in touch with the Suvla forces after the Suvla landing.

Table Top.—A flat-topped hill, 1400 yards inland from the sea, just south of Chailak Dere and at the foot of Rhododendron Spur; captured by the Wellington Mounted Rifles on the night of August 6/7.

Tasmanian Post.—A post held by the Tasmanians on the right of the Anzac front line, just north of Ryrie's Post.

Taylor's Hollow.—A depression just below Bauchop's Hill; named after Lieut. Taylor, of the 10th (Nelson) Mounted Rifles, who made numerous reconnaisances in the vicinity.

Turks' Hump.—A Turkish position on the lower slopes of Gunners' Hill, opposite Canterbury Knob.

Turk's Point.—Part of the left of the original Anzac line, overlooking the head of Malone's Gully.

Valley of Despair, The.—A valley in Turkish hands opposite our extreme right flank, running from near Lone Pine down towards the sea.

Victoria Gully.—See Brown's Dip.

Walden's Point.—North of Taylor's Hollow. Waldren, whose name was always mis-spelt “Walden,” was a very daring sniper who did much reconnoitering on the Suvla Flats as a machine gun officer of the Maoris. He was killed on the Apex.

Walker's Ridge.—The left flank of the original Anzac line. Brigadier-General Walker was attached to Army Headquarters, but as Colonel Johnston was down with measles on the morning of the Anzac landing, General Walker took command of the Brigade.

Walker's Pier.—A wharf erected north of Ari Burnu, between Mule Gully and Reserve Gully.

Wanliss Gully.—A gully breaking the Anzac line just opposite German Officers' Trench. This section was at one time under the command of Colonel Wanliss, 5th Australian Infantry Battalion.

Warley Gap.—The gap in the line at Sandbag Ridge.

Waterfall Gully.—A small sheltered gully in Bauchop's Hill, where newcomers bivouacked. The Headquarters of a Turkish unit was captured here on August 6/7.

Watson's Pier.—The first wharf built at Anzac Cove by the New Zealand Engineers. Captain Watson was an officer of the Australian Signal Service, who overlooked the work when N.Z.E. officers could not be spared.

Wellington Terrace.—The cliff side under the shadow of the Sphinx, studded with dugouts; originally a rest camp for the Wellington Regiment, who saw some resemblance to their native hillsides.

White's Valley.—A valley turning to the right off Shrapnel Valley, north of McCay's Hill; named after Lieut-Colonel White, of the 8th Australian Light Horse.

Wine Glass Ridge.—A Turkish position opposite the Anzac right flank.

Williams Pier.—A pier on North Beach.

“W” Hills.—A low ridge 112 metres high, about a mile due north of Hill 60; shown on Turkish maps as Ismail Oglu Tepe, but better known to the Anzac troops as the “W” Hills. When looking north from Russell's Top, the spurs of this feature formed the line W, while the re-entrants formed the shadows.