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Italy Volume II : From Cassino to Trieste


page 611


AA anti-aircraft
AA & QMG Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General
AAI Allied Armies in Italy
A Branch (Office) staff of division or higher formation or command devoted to administration
ACV Armoured Command Vehicle
acqua water
ADC aide-de-camp
Adm, Admin Administration
ADMS Assistant Director of Medical Services
ADOS Assistant Director of Ordnance Services
ADS Advanced Dressing Station
adv advance(d)
AFHQ Allied Forces Headquarters
AFV Armoured Fighting Vehicle (tank or armoured car)
AGRA Army Group, Royal Artillery
Air OP
AOP Air Observation Post
alpe; alpi high mountain, summer pasture
amn ammunition
anvil (later dragoon) code-name for Allied landing in southern France
AP armour-piercing
AQMG Assistant Quartermaster-General
arco; archi arch
Ark turretless Sherman or Churchill tank with hinged ramps for the bridging of canals, etc.
armd armoured
armoured brigade formation of fast cruiser tanks, etc.
army tank brigade formation of slow infantry tanks, etc.
arty artillery
ASC Army Service Corps
aslt assault
a-tk anti-tank
autostrada; autostrade State motor-roadpage 612
AVRE Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers (a Churchill tank with a large calibre mortar for demolition work, also carrier of fascine)
Bde brigade (British or Allied formation, normally three tank or infantry battalions)
B Ech(elon) non-fighting elements of unit or formation which can temporarily be dispensed with in battle; or transport for same
bel or bello, bella; bei or hegli, belle beautiful
BEM British Empire Medal
BGS Brigadier, General Staff (chief staff officer at Corps or Army HQ)
bianc-o, -a; bianch-i, -e white
BM Brigade Major (chief staff officer at Bde HQ)
Bn battalion (a unit of tanks or reconnaissance troops, normaliy three squadrons plus HQ; of infantry, four rifle companies plus HQ company; of machine-gunners, four companies of Vickers guns)
Bn Battalion (German unit of tanks, anti-tank or anti-aricraft guns, engineers, infantry, machine-gunners, or motor-cyclists)
bocca; bocche mouth, estuary; pass; volcanic vent
Bofors 40-millimetre light anti-arircraft gun of Swedish design
bonifica reclaimed land
borgo; borghi market-town; suburb
borro ravine, watercourse
Breda Italian heavy machine gun or light automatic cannon
Bren standard British light machine gun
Bren-carrier light armoured tracked vehicle intended to carry Bren gun, but also used for reconnaissance, carrying ammunition or wounded under fire, etc.
brhead bridgehead
Brig Brigadier
Bty battery (two, three or four troops of guns)
buckland code-name for Eighth Army's attack across the Senio River, April 1945
campanile bell-tower, belfry
campo; campi field
canale; canali canal, channel
Capt Captain
carrier see Bren-carrierpage 613
carabiniere; carabinieri policeman, gendarme
casa; case house
casale; casali hamlet, outlying houses
cascina; cascine farm-building
casella, caselle small house
casetta diminutive of casa
casino; casini small house; casino
casone; casoni hut, blockhouse
casotto cottage, hut
castel or castello castle, keep; fortified village
Cav Cavalry (light tanks, armoured cars, carriers)
cavalcade code-name for operation for advance to Ravenna
CB Companion of the Order of the Bath; counter-battery (fire), locating and silencing of hostile guns
CBE Commander of the Order of the British Empire
CCRA Corps Commander, Royal Artillery
CCS Casualty Clearing Station (large medical establishment between MDS and fiedl hospital)
Cdn Canadian
CE Chief Engineer (Corps or Army)
cerro; cerri Turkey (southern European) oak
CGS Chief of the General Staff
chiat-o, -a; -i, -e clear
chiesa; chiese church
CIGS Chief of the Imperial General Staff
C-in-C Commander-in-Chief
CM counter-mortar (fire)
CMF Central Mediterranean Force
CMG Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George
CO Commanding Officer (usually of a unit)
Col Colonel
colle; colli (col) rising ground, hill
Coln Column
Comd Commander; Commanding
comn communication(s)
coy (own) sub-unit of engineers, infantry or ASC troops (in infantry, three paltoons; in other units, three or four sections); (enemy) sub-unit of tanks (=squadron), anti-tank or anti-aircraft guns, engineers, signals, infantry, service or medical troops
corduroy a method of covering unmetalled road with timber for the passge of wheeled vehicles
corno; corni horn, peak
C of S Chief of Staffpage 614
Cpl Corporal
CRA Commander, Royal Artillery (of a division)
CRASC Commander, Royal Army Service Corps (of a division; became CNZASC in 2 NZEF)
CRE Commander, Royal Engineers (of a division)
CREME Commander, Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
croce; croci cross
Crocodile flame-throwing tank
CSM Company Sergeant-Major
CSO Chief Signal Officer
DAF Desert Air Force
DAQMG Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General
DCGS Deputy Chief of the General Staff
DCIGS Deputy Chief of the Imperial General Staff
DCM Distinguished Conduct Medal
del or dello, della; die or degli, delle of the
di of
dickens code-name for the operation by NZ Corps to capture Cassino
Division formation above brigade or Regiment, below corps
Div Arty Divisional Artillery (or NZA)
Divisional Workshops Ordnance unit for maintaining guns, vehicles and other equipment
DR despatch rider (usually motor-cyclist)
dragoon (formerly anvil) code-name for Allied landing in southern France
DSO Distinguished Service Order
DUKW buoyant lorry driven over land on six wheels and through water by propeller
Dvr Driver
Echelon (First, Second, Third) First, Second and Third Contingents of 2 NZEF to go overseas
ED Efficiency Decoration
engr(s) engineer(s)
en portée (of two-pounder gun) carried on special lorry, ready to fire
ENSA Entertainments National Services Association
ERS Education and Rehabilitation Services
fabbrica; fabbriche factory
faggio; faggi beech
Fantail amphibious tracked vehicle
fascine bundle of logs used for filling ditches, etc.page 615
FC/CTH First City/The Cape Town Highlanders
fd field
Fd Amb Field Ambulance (medical unit)
Fd Coy Field Company (of engineers)
FDL(s) forward defended locality (localities)
Fd Pk Coy Field Park Company (of engineers)
Fd Regt Field Regiment (unit of artillery)
fiume; fiumi river
fondo bottom; farm, estate
fontana; fontane fountain; regulated spring
fonte; fonti spring, source
FOO Forward Observation Officer (field or medium artillery)
formation any group higher than unit
fossa; fosse pit, ditch; watercourse
fosso; fossi large pit or ditch
fwd forward
GAF German Air Force
G Branch (Office) staff of division or higher formation or command devoted to operations
GCB Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
GCMG Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George
Gds Guards
Gen General
Gen Tpt Coy General Transport Company, RASC
GHQ General Headquarters
Gk Greek
GOC(-in-C) General Officer Commanding (-in-Chief)
gora conduit, irrigation channel, stream
Goumiers North African tribesmen organised in Tabors (approximately battalions) of Goums (or companies) in the French Expeditionary Corps
Group (battalion or brigade) force of all arms; (RAF) major formation, above Wing
grand-e; -i great
Gren Grenadier
Grid (line) numbered map ruling, part of pattern usually of one or ten kilometre squares
gross-o, -a; -i, -e big, thick, coarse
grousers metal plates bolted on to Sherman tank tracks to increase the area of the bearing surface and thus improve the performance of the tank over soft ground
GSO (I, II, III) General Staff Officer (Class 1, 2, 3)
H Hussars
HE high explosivepage 616
Herbstnebel autumn mist – German code-name for plan of withdrawal
HF harassing fire
HMG heavy machine gun
HMS His Majesty's Ship
Honey tank nickname for General Stuart tank (American Mark III)
HQ headquarters
hy mor heavy mortar
Int Intelligence (of the enemy)
2 i/c second-in-command
il; i the
Ind Indian
inf infantry
inferiore; inferiori lower
IO Intelligence Officer
isola; isole island
Kangaroo turretless tank used to carry infantry or stores
KBE Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
KCB Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
KDG King's Dragoon Guards
KG Knight of the Order of the Garter
la the
LAD Light Aid Detachment (Ordnance establishment for repairing guns, transport, etc., within brigade or unit)
lago; laghi lake
laguna; lagune lagoon
L-Cpl Lance-Corporal
lido shore (at Venice, long low islands bounding the lagoon)
line (transport)
1st unit
2nd divisional (carrying between field maintenance centre and division)
3rd rear (carrying between railhead and field maintenance centre)
Littlejohn two-pounder anti-tank gun with a tapered-bore muzzle attachment
LMG light machine gun
LO liaison officer
LOB left out of battle
L of C Line(s) of Communication
LRDG Long Range Desert Group
Lt Lieutenant; light
Luftwaffe German Air Force page 617
M10 self-propelled anti-tank gun
MAAF Mediterranean Allied Air Forces
maggiore; maggiori greater
Maj Major
mare sea
marina surface of the sea; sea coast; port of an inland village
Mark (I, II, etc.) designation of production type, especially of tanks
masseria; masserie tenancy including a number of farms
MBE Member of the Order of the British Empire
MC Military Cross
MDS Medical Dressing Station (divisional medical establishment usually situated between ADS and CCS)
Med medium
ME(F) Middle East (Forces)
mezz-o, -a; i, -e half, medium, middle
m.i.d. mentioned in despatches
(M) MG (medium) machine gun
MM Military Medal
MO Medical Officer
montagna; montagne mountain
monte; monti mound, height, mountain; spring and autumn pastures
MT mechanical transport
mtn mountain
NAAFI Navy, Army, Air Force Institutes
naviglio navigable canal, ship canal
NCO non-commissioned officer
Nebelwerfer German six-barrelled rocket-projector
ner-o, -a; -i, -e black
nuov-o, -a; -i, -e new
NZA New Zealand Artillery
NZE New Zealand Engineers
NZEF New Zealand Expeditionary Force
NZEME New Zealand Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
NZOC New Zealand Ordnance Corps
OBE Officer of the Order of the British Empire
OC Officer Commanding (squadron, battery, company)
Ofenrohr German rocket launcher similar to the American bazooka
offrs officers
OKH Oberkommando des Heeres (Army General Headquarters, War Ministry)
OKW Oberkommando des Wehrmacht (Supreme Command of the Armed Forces, Defence Ministry)page 618
OP observation post
Ops operations; staff branch dealing with operations
Ord (Fd Pk) Ordnance (Field Park, unit for supplying and maintaining equipment issued through Ordnance)
ORs other ranks (not officers)
ospedale hospital
osteria; osterie inn, tavern
OVERLORD code-name for Allied cross-Channel invasion of western Europe
PA Personal Assistant (to GOC)
palazzo palace, palatial house
PZ armour; armour plate
Panzerfaust recoilless anti-tank grenade launcher
Panzerkampfwagen German tank
para parachute
passo pass, passage, strait
pr pounder
piana (pian) plain, small plain
piano (pian) plain, plateau
Piat projector, infantry, anti-tank
piazza public square, market place
piccol-o, -a; -i, -e small, little
pino; pini pine
PLDG Princess Louise Dragoon Guards
podere; poderi peasant-farm or holding
poggio; poggi height, hill
Point height marked on map, usually in metres above sea level
ponte; ponti bridge
portée see en portée
porto port, harbour; ferry-boat
posn position
posta post, post office
pozzo, pozzi well
prato; prati meadow
Pte Private
PW(s) prisoner(s) of war
Q Quartermaster; (broadly) administration
QM(G) Quartermaster(-General)
quad lorry for towing British field gun or 18-pounder anti-tank gun
querce or quercia; querci or querce oakpage 619
RA Royal Artillery
RAC Royal Armoured Corps
RAF Royal Air Force
RASC Royal Army Service Corps
RCD Royal Canadian Dragoons (1 Armoured Car Regiment)
RCR Royal Canadian Regiment
rd(s) round(s)
RE Royal Engineers
Recce Reconnaissance
Regt regiment (unit of tanks, reconnaissance troops, or artillery; in British Army also groups of tank, artillery or infantry units, e.g., RTR, RHA, King's Dragoon Guards)
Regt (enemy) Regiment (formation of armoured troops or infantry, roughly equivalent to a brigade; also unit of field or medium artillery)
Reinforcements successive contingents of 2 NZEF which went
(4th, 5th, etc.) overseas after Third Echelon
REME Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
Res reserve
RHA Royal Horse Artillery
RHQ Regimental Headquarters
rio stream
ripa bank, shore
riviera strip of land between the hills and the sea; river
RMO Regimental Medical Officer (of a unit)
RMT Reserve Mechanical Transport (general carrier when not taking infantry into or out of action)
Res MT
RN Royal Navy
RNZA Royal New Zealand Artillery (Regular Force only)
rocca; rocche rock; crag; tower, keep
ross-o, -a; -i, -e red
rotond-o, -a; -i, -e round
Royals The Royal Dragoons
RSM Regimental Sergeant-Major
R/T radio-telephony (wireless transmission of speech)
RTR Royal Tank Regiment
R Tks
‘Ruatoria’ (‘Charing Cross’) a road junction near Faenza
SA South African(s)
SAA small-arms ammunition
San or Santo, Santa, Sant' Saint, Holy
sangar rocks piled up for protection in lieu of slit trench where ground too hard to digpage 620
sasso; sassi (sass) stone, crag
SC Staff Captain (administrative staff officer at Bde HQ)
Schmeisser German machine carbine
scolo; scoli drain
scuola; scuole school
sec section (2–3 guns; detachment of Signals; third of infantry platoon; third of ASC company, etc)
secc-o, -a; secch-i, -e dry
selva; selve wood (usually of cultivated trees)
serra ravine, defile; barricade; cross-range of mountains; height
Sgt Sergeant
Sigs Signals (responsible for R/T, W/T, Dr, telephone and other communications)
sitrep situation report
slit trench one- or two-man trench for fire position or protection
sopra above
sotto below
SP self-propelled (guns); starting point
spandau nickname for standard German light and medium machine gun
Spr Sapper
sqn squadron (of tanks, reconnaissance troops, or aircraft)
SS (Schutzstaffel) corps d'èlite of Nazi Party, security force with embodied military formations
ST starting time
stazione; stazioni station
strada; strade road
Stuart (General) American Mark III light cruiser tank
sul or sullo, sulla; sui or sugli, sulle on the
superior-e; -i upper
Svy Survey
Tac HQ Tactical Headquarters
Tac/R (aerial) Tactical Reconnaissance
taverna tavern, inn
Tedes-co, chi German
Tentacle wireless detachment, usually of Air Support Control
Tk tank
Tommy gun Thompson sub-machine gun
torre; torri (tor) tower; summit
torrente; torrenti mountain torrent
Tpr Trooperpage 621
tp(s) troop(s); part of squadron (usually four tanks or armoured cars); part of battery (4–6 guns)
tribunale law-court
ufficio or uffizio office
UNRRA United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
USAAF United States Army Air Force
valle; valli (val) valley; lagoon, broadwater
VC Victoria Cross
VD Volunteer Officers' Decoration
vecch-io, -ia;-i, -ie old
via; vie way
villa; ville house with gardens
Voralpenstellung Prealpine Defence Position
Wasp flame-throwing Bren carrier
wastage reduction in manpower
WE, war establishment authorised full allotment (of men, weapons, etc.)
Wehrmacht German Armed Forces
WO Warrant Officer
W/T wireless telegraphy
page 622