The New Zealand Medical Service in the Great War 1914-1918
Note to the Student of Military Medical History:—
The History of the New Zealand Medical Services should be read in conjunction with the Official History of New Zealand's Effort in the Great War, (4 vols.) published by the New Zealand Government, of which the text, the maps, and I many illustrations will supplement deficiencies. For more detailed information on the Medical Administration and Operations of the N.Z.E.F. at the Overseas Bases, in Egypt, Gallipoli and France, the student is directed to the collators' typescript notes and compilations bound in four volumes quarto to be found in the Library of General Headquarters at Wellington. The compilation, upon which most of this volume is based, includes a daily precis of events for the years 1915, 1916, 1917, inclusive, copies of all important operation orders, medical memoranda and correspondence with historical notes on the principal war diseases, all arranged in chronological order with indices I and a bibliography. The fourth volume contains all the sanitary memoranda issued to the A.D.M.S. of the Division during the period covered. In the G.H.Q. library also is included a series of contemporary works dealing with war medicine and surgery collected at London Headquarters in 1916-1919, with many official pamplets and memoranda issued by the armies in France or by the War Office.
For matters appertaining to Medical Administration in New Zealand reference should be made to the Appendices to Parliamentary Papers, more especially the reports of the D.M.S. and the D.G.M.S, included in the annual reports of the G.O.C., New Zealand Forces from 1912 onwards. In the New Zealand Year Book some information as to Statistics, Medical and Military is available, but fuller details will be found in the annual reports on the Health of the Troops in New Zealand Camps, compiled by the A.D.M.S. Sanitary for the years 1916-1919.
The war volumes of The New Zealand Medical Journal, edited by Lt.-Col J. S. Elliott, N.Z.M.C., contain a number of valuable articles on war medical matters and medical administration in New Zealand.
The short Bibliography which follows comprises only those books to which reference is made in the text or those which have been found most helpful to the compiler. The references in Medical Literature are to contemporary articles written by immediate observers and, in most instances, are the earliest references known to the compiler; amongst them will be found many contributions by N.Z.M.C. officers.
Grace, Dr. Morgan S., C.M.G., M.L.C. "Sketch of the New Zealand War," London, 1899. Horace Marshall and Son (written by the late Surgeon-General Grace).
Marshall, W. B., Surgeon R.N. "A personal narrative of two visits to New Zealand." (London, 1836, James Nisbet & Co.).
Thompson, Arthur S., M.D., Surgeon-Major 58th Regt. "The Story of New Zealand" (London, 1859, John Murray).
Whitmore, Sir George, Major-General, K.C.M.G., M L.C. "The last Maori War in New Zealand." (London, 1902, Simpson, Low, Marston & Coy.).
"Anzac": "12 Months Hard." (Heineman, 1916). Written by a New Zealand Sapper.
Anzac Book. Written and illustrated by Anzacs at Gallipoli; edited by C. E. W. Bean, Australian War Correspondent (Cassell 1916).
Bean, C. E. W. "The Story of Anzac." Australian Official War History, Vol I. (Angus Robertson, Sydney 1921).
Beeston, Lt.-Col., A.A.M.C. "Five Months at Gallipoli," covers the landing and the work of the 4th Australian Field Ambulance.
Hamilton, Sir Ian. (1) "The tragic story of the Dardanelles": Dispatches from May 20th, 1915 to January 6th, 1916. (Five maps, Newnes); (2) "My Gallipoli Diary," 2nd Edition (London, 1920, Edward Arnold); (3) "The Dardanelles, an Epic told in Pictures." A photographic record to illustrate the Dispatches (London, 1916, Alfieri Picture Service).
Mackenzie, Clutha. "The Tale of a Trooper" (John Lane, London, 1921). Contains a vivid picture of Sari Bair, August 1915.
Masefield, John. "Gallipoli" (London, 1917, Heineman).
Nevinson. "Gallipoli" (London, 1918, Nisbét & Co.).
Ross, Malcolm. "The Light and Shade of War." Written by the New Zealand War Correspondent (London, Ed. Arnold 1916).
Waite, Fred. Major D.S.O., N.Z.E. "Gallipoli." New Zealand Official History (Whitcombe & Tombs Ltd., Wellington 1921).
The Western Front.
Buchan, John. Nelson's History of the Great War, 1st Edition.
Dewar and Boraston "The Haigh Command." Supplements Lord Haigh'a Dispatches and contains much political information which could not be published during the war. (London, Constable 1922).
French, Field-Marshall, Viscount or Ypres. "1914." (Constable, London 1919).
Haigh, Field-Marshall Lord. Dispatches. (London 1920, J. M. Dent & Sons).
Ludendorf, Genl. Von. "My War Memories." Translation. (London 1919, Hutchinson).
Martin, A. A., M.D., F.R.C.S.E. "A Surgeon in Khaki," by the late Major A Martin, N.Z.M.C.: deals with treatment of wounded in 1914-1915. (London, Ed. Arnold 1916).
Neil, hardie, Lt.-Col., D.S.O. (F), N.Z.M.C. "Field Ambulance Organisation." A valuable compilation. (London, 1919, Lewis & Co.).
Stewart, Col. H., C.M.G., D.S.O., M.C." The New Zealand Division in France.' New Zealand Official History. (Whitcombe & Tombs, Wellington, 1922).
Weston, Claude, Lt.-Col., D.S.O. "Three Years with the New Zealanders." Gives a pen picture of Passchendacle.
Sinai and Palestine.
Larrey, D. J. (Baron). "Relation historique et chirurgicale de l'éxpedition de l'Armée d'orient en Egypte e Syrie." Paris Demonville et Sæurs. See also Sloan's Life of Napoleon.
Powles, Lt.-Col. C. Guy, C.M.G., D.S.O. "The New Zealanders in Sinai and Palestine." New Zealand Official History. (Wellington, Whitcombe & Tombs Ltd., 1922).page 552
In New Zealand and at the Bases.
Drew, Lt. H. T. B. "The War Effort of New Zealand." New Zealand Official History. Information about New Zealand Hospitals, Hospital Skips, N.Z.A.N.S. and Dental Corps. (Wellington, Whitcombe & Tombs Ltd., 1923).
Bilharziasis. Mission in Egypt, Report on. Lt.-Col. Robert T. Leiper D.Sc; B.A.M.C Town. Vol. 25, July, 1915, pages 1-55.
Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis: Cerebro-spinal fever in Company Barracks. William Osier, B.M.J., January 30th, 1915, page 189. Epidemic Cerebro-spinal Meningitis: leading article Lancet, March 20th, 1915, page 612. Interpretation | of Epidemiological observations in the light of Bacteriological knowledge: Joseph A. Arkwright, M.D., Lister Institute, B.M.J. March 20th, 1915, page 494. Diagnosis and prophylaxis, Lundie (Bacteriologist Aldershot Command), B.M.J., March 20th, 1915. C.S.M. at Trentham Camp, New Zealand, Sydney Champtaloup, M.B. and John T. Bowie, N.Z. Med. Journ., August 1915," page 169. Fairley and Quest (Melbourne) Med. Journ of Australia. October 23rd, 1915. Alwyn Stewart (Melbourne) Ibid. November 6th, 1915. A classification of Meningococci based on group agglutination, Arthur W. M. Ellis, C.A.M.C., B.M.J., page 881, December 18th, 1915, Carriers in Military and Civilian population in New Zealand. Champtaloup and Bowie, N.Z. Med Journ., Feb. 1916. C.S.M.: a few observations: Lt.-Col. Andrew, N.Z.M.C. (P.M.O. Trentham Military Camp), N.Z. Med. Journ., December 1916, page 257.
See Cerebro-spinal fever. Thos. J. Horder, Oxford Med. Pub., 1915.
See Adami: History of the G.A.M.C.
Dysentery: Notes on the treatment of. Issued by the Advisory Committees for the prevention of epidemic diseases in the M.E.F. Lt.-Col. Andrew Balfour, B.A.M.C. (discusses the various types of Dysentery met with on Gallipoli, in Lemnos and in Egypt, Vol. 25 B.A.M.C. Journ, Nov. 1915.
Ipecacuanha and Emetine in Dysentery, B.M.J. November 13th, 1915, page 728. A lecture on the treatment of Dysentery. Lt.-Col. Sir B. Boss, Lancet, January 1st, 1916, page 1. Common intestinal protozoa of man. Wenyon, Lancet, November 27th, 1915 (Important).
See Reports of Med. Besearch Committee on Dysentery.
Influenza—Purulent Bronchitis: Prophylactic vaccinations against catarrhal infection. Eyre and Lowe, Lancet, 1918, ii. 484; Autumn Influenza Epidemic (1918) as it affected the N.Z.E.F. in the United Kingdom. Eyre and Lowe Lancet, 1919, April 5th; Ibid: Treatment, Eagleton and Butcher. Purulent Bronchitis complicating Measles and Rubella (Sling Camp outbreak), Macdonald, Ritchie, Fox and White, BM.J., 1918 Nov. 2nd.; Preliminary report on the influenza epidemic at Dunedin, Otago, Fitchet, Bowie, Champta-leup and Drennan, N.Z. Med. Journ., 1919, page 1.
Enterica: Paratyphoid Fever and Anti-typhoid Inoculation in France. B.M.J., August 7th, 1915. Mixed Typhoid Vaccinations. Ibid, October 23rd, 1915, page 780. Paratyphoid Fever, discussion on, B.M.J., November 13th, 1915, page 723 and November 23rd, 1915, page 780. Enteric cases at Cairo. Col. Parkes, N.Z.M.C., B.M.J. 1916, July 29th (See also article by CoL Summers, A A.M.C. in same number) Gallipoli cases. Bacteriological Laboratory report (N.Z.G.H.). Capt. F. L. Armitage, N.Z.M.C. N.Z. Med. Journ., December, 1916. Enteric and Paratyphoid fevers, origin of at Gallipoli and Lemnos, 1915. Fleet-Surgeon H. W. Craig, Journ. R N. Med. Services, Vol. 3, 1917, page 364.
See Medical Annual 1916. See Horizon Series (C. Vincent).
Jaundice, Epidemic, of Campaigns: Willcox, B.M.J. 1916, February 26th; I bid: Symposium on, at Alexandria; Weil's disease in Japan: B.M.J., 1916, April 1st, page 491: I bid: June 17th, 1916 Leading article, B.M.J., 1916 June 17th. See also Baron Larrey, op cit.
Jaw, Fracture of, Treatment, Major Piekerill, N.Z.D.C., N.Z. Med. Journ. 1916, page 101.
Lice: Typhus fever and Lice B.M.J., 1915, May 1st. page 784; Lancet, 1915, June 12th, page 125; B.M.J., 1915, November 20th, page 737 (Wittenberg Camp); Ibid, 1915 December 4th, page 841; Destruction of Lice in Epidemics page 553of typhus fever, Lancet, 1915, June 19th, page 1307; German Campaign against, B.M.J 1915, October 2nd, page 513; See Shipley's "Mirror Horrors of War," 1st Edition. See Martins' "Surgeon in Khaki." See "Lice and Their Menace to Man." Lt Lloyd. R.A.M.C, Oxford Med. Publication, 1919.
Recruiting in New Zealand: "Our King and Country Need Us," Editorial N.Z. Med. Journ., 1915, October, page 243. "Medical Examination of Recruits": Surgeon-General R.S.F. Henderson, K.H.P., N.Z Med. Journ., Vol. XV., 1916, page 28; Ibid: Hermaphrodism in a recruit, G. Macdonald, p. 46.
See Lt. Drew, "The War Effort of New Zealand."
Sanitation: A Regimental Medical Officer on Gallipoli, Lt. Col. F. E. Fremantle, R.A.M.C. (T), Lancet, 1916, January 15th, p. 163; Gallipoli, the fly pest in: Staff-Surgeon E. L. Atkinson. R.N., Journal R.N. Service, 1916, p 147; Impressions of the Gallipoli Campaign from a Battalion Medical Officers' standpoint. Jour. R.N. Med. Service, July, 1915, page 313; Gallipoli, Water Supply difficulties, Gaskell, Journ. R.N. Services, Vol. 3, 1917.
See Le lean, Sanitation in War, 1st Ed., London, 1915, J. and A. Churchill.
Shell-Shock, War Neuroses: "Mental and Nervous Shock Amongst the Wounded": B.M.J. 1914, November 3rd, page 802: T. R. Elliott, M.D. "Transient paraplegia from shell explosions," B.M.J. 1914, December 12th, page 1004; Shell-shock, a contribution to the study of, Chas. S. Myers, M.D., Lancet. February 13th, 1915, page 317. See Martin's "Surgeon in Khaki" on nervous shock in 1914-1915. Shell-shock, loss of personality from, Anthony Fielding, M.D., Lancet, July 10th, 1915, page 63. "The effects of high explosives on the central nervous system," F. W. Mott, Lancet, February 12th, 1916, page 330; Ibid, February 26th, 1916, page 441. Early methods of treatment: B.M.J. 1916, July, page 73; Ibid, August 5th, 1916, page 201; Ibid, August 12th. 1916, page 242; Ibid, October 28th. 1916; Shell-shock, disciplinary action in treatment of (from German Medical Journals), B.M.J. December 23rd, 1916, page 882. See "Horizon" Series (Babniski), (Roussy and L'Eremite), (Léri). See (Med. Annual 1916).
Surgical Treatment of War Wounds: Gallipoli, Surgery on the Peninsula, J. Morley, Ch. M., F.R.C.S., B.M.J., 1915, Sept. 25th; Work of the Hospital Ship Rewa. by the Medical Staff, Jour. R.N. Med. Service, 1916, January, page 1; Ibid, work of Hospital Ship Soudan, C. Trevor Collingwood, M.V.O., Vol I., 1915, page 315; Ibid, Vol. II., 1915, page 200; "Field Ambulance work at Anzac," Lt.-Col. C. Mackie Begg, N.Z.M.C., B.M.J., 1915, Vol ii., page 806. Eusol: "Experimental observations on the antiseptic action of Hypochlorous Acid and its use in wound treatment." J. Lorrine Smith, A. Murray and Drennan. B.M.J. 1915, July 24th, page 129. Dakin's Solution: La Presse Méd. translated, B.M.J., August 28th, 1915. Eusol, clinical application, report on (Med. Research Com.) Lancet, February 5th, 1916. Dardanelles, a trip to, Watson Cheyne, Journ. R.N. Med, Service, 1916, VoL, 2, page 137. W. Young, M.D., F.R.C.S.E. Notes on cases and treatment at Base Hospitals, N.Z. Med. Journ., 1916, page 194. "Growth of Surgery of the Front in France," Sir Anthony Bowlby, St. Bart's Hasp. Journ., Aug. 1919. See (Delorme War Surgery, 1st Ed., 1915) and ' (Martin, Surgeon in Khaki). See "Early Treatment of War Wounds," Col. H. M. Gray, Oxford Med. Publication, 1919; "Treatment of infected wounds," Carrell and Dehelly. London University Press, 1917.
Trench Fever: "Intermittent fever of obscure origin occurring in British Soldiers in France," G. H. Hunt, M.D., and A. C. Rankin, M.D., Lancet, November 20th, 1915, page 1133; Trench fever, notes on, Captain T. Strethill, B.M.J., 1916, Vol ii., page 186, Major Hurst on, Lancet, 1916, October 1914. See Hurst, "Diseases of the War," 1st Ed. 1917; Report of Med. Resch. Com. and American Red Cross, Oxford Press, 1918.
Trench Foot: Lorrain Smith, Ritchie and Dawson, Experimental Observations, Journal of Pathology, 1915, vol xx., page 160; Delepine, on: Jour. R.A.M.C.,1915, May and Lancet, 1915, Vol i., page 271; "Pied au Tranchéea," Villemin La Presse Méd. precis in Lancet, 1916, Vol i page 1187.
Trench Nephritis: "A new disease," B.M.J., 1915, Vol. ii., page 17 A record of five cases," Nathan Shaw, M.D., B.M.J., September 25th, 1915 page 468; Discussion by Royal Soc of Med. B.M.J. 1916, Vol i., page 278; McLeod and Ameuille. Lancet, 1916, Vol ii, page 468.