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The War Effort of New Zealand

Chapter I

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Chapter I.

The Supply of Reinforcements during the War

"Per mare per terras longinqua in caede jacemus Sic Pax est vobis reddita perpetua."

New Zealand's brilliant record on the battlefields of the great war is comparable with the highest traditions of British history. The gallant deeds and the self-sacrifice of her sons are emblazoned upon the scroll of fame, and must ever live in the memory of the nation.

It is not, however, of the deeds of the expeditionary force alone that the Dominion has cause to be justifiably proud. The gallantry of a fighting force avails little in a vast and lengthy war unless there is an uninterrupted supply of well-trained reinforcements. These cannot be provided without the loyal support of the general public. Indeed reinforcements bear the same relation to a fighting army as does a healthy blood supply to the human body. In all essentials New Zealand emerged from the greatest trial in the history of the world with a record which stands high in the mighty Empire to which she belongs. The farthest outpost of the Empire and the farthest removed from the many theatres of war, she subordinated all interests to the one great cause, and maintained her generous response to the end of the great war. The ties of kinship to the Mother Country were proved to be of the finest and strongest material by the searching test of war. Where all, both men and women, both soldiers and civilians, have done so well, it would be invidious to mention individuals. It is the team spirit which prevents wars, or compels defeat of aggressors of liberty and civilisation.

When war began in August, 1914, the New Zealand defence system had been in operation for three years. It had been estimated that seven years would be necessary for its complete development, so the scheme had not reached the point page 2of maximum effectiveness. Some 26,000 territorials and a similar number of cadets were undergoing training and had reached various stages of efficiency. The organization and administrative arrangements had, however, reached a higher degree of efficiency than the training, and it was this which made possible the rapid mobilisation, equipment and despatch on a war footing, of effective expeditionary forces.

The Samoan expeditionary force, 55 officers and 1,358 other ranks, well equipped and drawn almost entirely from the territorial force, left Wellington on August 15th, 1914, eleven days after the outbreak of the war, and the Expeditionary Force (main body) with its first reinforcements, 360 officers and 8,139 other ranks, left on October 15th, a little more than two months after the declaration of war. The total strength of these forces was 415 officers and 9,497 other ranks, the equivalent of over 400,000 men for a country with the population of Great Britain. The prompt despatch of these forces would have been impossible without pre-war organization. If the defence force had been less efficient in 1914 greater time would have elapsed before either these expeditionary forces or further reinforcements could have left New Zealand. This was fortunately not the case and the 2nd reinforcement, 61 officers and 1,913 other ranks, actually left on December 14th, 1914; and there was no break in the continuity of reinforcements right to the end of the war. Further, on the signing of the Armistice in November, 1918, New Zealand held the proud distinction of having the strongest division on the western front in consequence of the steady and sufficient supply of reinforcements—a magnificent achievement and one which amazed those Powers best in a position to judge its difficulties.

The strain placed upon the territorial and cadet forces was considerable. Not only were these forces unexpectedly called upon to supply large numbers of officers and other ranks for immediate service abroad, but they were continually drained throughout the war of large numbers of trained officers and non-commissioned officers for instructional and administrative duties in the expeditionary force training camps and in the four military districts. At the same time rifles and other page 3essential equipment were taken from the home units for the expeditionary force. The training, in these circumstances, was carried on under conditions of exceptional difficulty.

During the war the territorial force provided over 1,400 officers and 38,000 other ranks for the expeditionary force. The territorial force, moreover, maintained an average strength of 27,000 men in each year of the war, notwithstanding that
Trentham Camp in 1914.

Trentham Camp in 1914.

between 8,000 and 10,000 members joined the expeditionary force annually. The vacancies in the territorial force were systematically filled from the cadet force. The latter force maintained a strength of some 26,000 throughout the war. The expeditionary forces were therefore made possible by the preparedness and efficiency of the defence forces at the outbreak of war. This fact requires to be firmly established before the other questions relating to the supply of reinforcements can be appreciated. The greatest credit and honour are due to those who were responsible for the training and efficiency of the territorial and cadet forces both before and during the war, and for the civil aid which enabled the training of the Home Defence forces to be carried out during a long period in which civil industries suffered considerable hardships owing to the necessary shortage of man power. As in all other portions of our Empire the greatest credit is also due to those women who undertook arduous civil duties in order to liberate men for the war.
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No permanent military training camps existed in the Dominion when the urgent call to arms was first sounded in August, 1914, for the universal system of training in New Zealand did not include a permanent army. Thanks to the energy and foresight of all responsible, the establishment of excellent reinforcement camps, possessing adequate accommodation and facilities for training an aggregate number of 14,000 at one time, during a period of abnormal strain, constitutes a record of the greatest magnitude.

Semi-permanent reinforcement camps were established in New Zealand during the war at Trentham (Wellington), Featherston (Wairarapa), Narrow Neck and Avondale (Auckland), Awapuni (Palmerston North), and Papawai (Wairarapa). Commencing as canvas camps these centres ultimately became model hutment encampments, equipped with all essentials for the instruction, accommodation, messing and entertainment of those undergoing training. It is safe to assume that there were no more up-to-date camps in any part of the Empire.

Racecourse in the background.

Trentham Camp in 1917.

At Trentham camp the greater part of the training of all arms was carried cut until December, 1915. Temporary subsidiary canvas camps were at the same time established at Tauherenikau, Rangiotu, Waikanae and Maymorn (all in the vicinity of Wellington), during the building of hutments at Trentham and Featherston respectively. Trentham camp was ultimately constructed to accommodate 4,500 men and page 5possessed a relief canvas camp to hold from 1,200 to 2,000 men. From January, 1916, Trentham camp became the principal training ground for the infantry and engineer reinforcements, the training of the mounted rifle, artillery and specialist reinforcements being carried out at Featherston.

Reinforcement Marching over the Rimutaka.

Reinforcement Marching over the Rimutaka.

In January, 1916, Featherston camp was established with accommodation for 7,500 men, 4,500 of whom were in huts and 3,000 under canvas.

By a system of exchange of troops the infantry reinforcements who were mobilised and equipped at Trentham, were, after five weeks preliminary training and elementary musketry, moved by rail to Featherston camp. Here they remained for eight weeks undergoing further infantry and musketry training, after which they returned by a route march of thirty miles over the noted Rimutaka Mountain road to Trentham camp for the final musketry course and equipment for service prior to embarkation.

Narrow Neck camp at Auckland was used to train the page 6Tunnelling Company, the Maori reinforcements and the reinforcements from Rarotonga, Samoa, Niue, and other of the British Islands in the Pacific. This camp could hold 400 men.

Awapuni camp was formed on the Manawatu racecourse—patriotically lent and well equipped by the Racing Club—and was used for the training of the medical reinforcements. In this camp 350 could be trained at one time. A portion of the advanced practical instruction in hospital duties for the medical reinforcements was carried out at Featherston camp. All these smaller camps fulfilled their purpose satisfactorily, preceding or relieving the strain upon the larger camps at times of severe pressure. That they were erected and
The Rimutaka Test—Almost at the Top.

The Rimutaka Test—Almost at the Top.

well provided represents a triumph of organising ability and of loyal support. That New Zealand uninterruptedly filled them with ample supplies of reinforcements for four years of war is an achievement of the highest magnitude. The fact that the reinforcements maintained a magnificent standard of page 7spirit and physique and that, in a Dominion without a regular army, efficient officers and non-commissioned officers were forthcoming to prepare the training and perform administrative duties constitutes a far greater record than the erection of the camps themselves, excellent as this was.
During the early days of the war the volunteers for active service were far in excess of requirements. This is proof of
Medical Corps Reinforcement Camp at Awapuni.

Medical Corps Reinforcement Camp at Awapuni.

the wholesome spirit of patriotism and adventure which existed. From the first a sound policy of concentration was adopted which prevented volunteers from entering camp until required. This system provided ample time for the volunteers to complete their arrangements for a severance from civil life while permitting an equal selection of man power from every part of the Dominion. Had men been permitted to enter camp immediately upon volunteering, civil industries would have been unnecessarily deprived of labour, it would have been impossible to control the supply, and the limited camp staffs, consequently, would have been hopelessly overburdened.

Under the system of control which was adopted reinforcements were equally apportioned the man-power available in all parts of the Dominion, and the drafts were called into camp as required. Prior to September, 1915, these reinforcement drafts entered camp at intervals of two months; after page 8that date, however, the recruits were despatched to camp at monthly intervals.

The recruits obtained for the expeditionary force were composed of:—(a) members of the territorial force or men with previous military service; (b) civilians without military experience. In conformance with experience gained in the past it was rightly decided to combine these two main classes for training purposes. Recruits with previous training and military experience could obviously have become efficient for war service before those without previous military training. This would, however, have considerably increased the length of training required by the raw recruit. If doubt exists on this point this assertion can be proved by the training of the "First Hundred Thousand" of the New Army in England, principally composed of spirited and gallant, but inexperienced recruits, who, lacking the example and "stiffening" given by the New Zealand territorial to the reinforcement drafts,
The Recruits' first days at Trentham.

The Recruits' first days at Trentham.

required over seven months' preparation before they were fit to take the field. The merging of the territorial and civilian recruits together, which unquestionably utilised the territorial training to the fullest advantage, accelerated and improved the training of the drafts, and in every way proved the most economical and efficient manner of training reinforcements. Subsequently this was the system adopted by the Imperial page 9Army, when it became possible to "stiffen" the New Army by the posting of experienced soldiers from the "Old Contemptibles" who had recovered from wounds.

The supply of reinforcements by the voluntary system was comparatively easily maintained for the first two years of the war. Admirable as the response was, experience re-taught an important lesson which had been learnt in past wars. This lesson was, that, although a voluntary system possesses many good points, and discloses a magnificent spirit, its disadvantages outweigh its advantages. For example, a voluntary system of recruitment in time of war must necessarily accept all fit men who come forward. It is, therefore, practically impossible to classify recruits into grades of married and single men or to place them in a satisfactory categorical order of essential and non-essential industries. A moment's reflection will show that to permit married men with children to take the risks of war, while single men without responsibilities are available, or to allow experts in essential industries to leave the country while others remain behind in non-essential industries, is neither economical, wise, nor just. Putting aside all questions of sentiment, the death of a married man with children when on active service means a heavy financial burden on the State for many years.

It is possible that New Zealand could have met her liabilities in regard to the supply of reinforcements until the end of the war under the voluntary system. Fortunately, however, by a wise act of statemanship, it was decided to replace it with a compulsory system, which remedied the drawbacks inherent in all voluntary schemes of peace training and war reinforcement.

On the 1st August, 1916, therefore, a Military Service Act became law, brought about by a general feeling that compulsion for all alike was more just in a democratic country than the voluntary system it supplanted. Under this Act all eligible males were registered and classified and could be compelled to serve when called upon. In November, 1916, the first ballot of the first division (single men) was drawn under this Act, other ballots being periodically held from this date in order to complete drafts.

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Reinforcement Officers at Bayonet Fighting Instruction.

Reinforcement Officers at Bayonet Fighting Instruction.

Advanced Training.

Advanced Training.

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In October, 1917, the first ballot for members of the second division (married men without children) was held. It cannot be emphasised too strongly that the majority of those recruited under the terms of the Military Service Act
This Diagram is based on the 1914 population and does not take into account the increase which provided an annual increment of 8,000 men of military age. Total population 1914 = 1,089,825. Men of military age 1914 = 243,376.

Diagram showing percentage of total Population and of Male Population of military age mobilised and embarked.

consisted of men who were or would have been volunteers in the ordinary course of events. To those men with large families or heavy civil responsibilities, who would have unquestionably volunteered in the ordinary course, this Act page 12
Maori Soldiers marching to Transport.

Maori Soldiers marching to Transport.

page 13 afforded considerable relief. Under the Military Service Act such men were enabled to take their proper place in the various categories without feeling that they were unduly delaying their duty to country and Empire. The voluntary system was, however, continued to the end of the war for those eligible to serve under the terms of the Act.

In all, New Zealand supplied 91,941 volunteers and 32,270 under the Military Service Act from the outbreak of war to the 12th November, 1918. When the Armistice was granted by the Allied Powers, a total of 124,211 of the pick of New Zealand's manhood, from an eligible male population of under 250,000, had been called to serve with the expeditionary force. This record speaks for itself. It is conclusive proof that, in the World's greatest fight for freedom and civilisation, New Zealand did her full share and nobly earned the laurels of praise bestowed on her by the great Empire to which she belongs.

The Maori Reinforcements

In the World's history no greater warrior race ever existed than the Maoris. A chivalrous enemy with magnificent traditions, it is less than sixty years since the last of the Maori wars against England ended. Since then the Maori has shown that he possesses the essential attributes to claim equality with any of the white races. At the commencement of the conflict the Maori sought the right to share with the white inhabitants of his ancient country the risks of war against the common enemy.

On the 17th October, 1914, the first Maori contingent, 580 all ranks, commenced its training at Avondale camp (Auckland). On the 14th February, 1915, 16 officers and 502 other ranks left for Gallipoli, there to enrich the traditions of their famous ancestors. Following this contingent, throughout the period of the war, reinforcements were uninterruptedly supplied for the Maori (Pioneer) battalion, which subsequently served in France and Flanders with distinction. Excellent soldiers and good sportsmen, the Maoris were admirably represented on every battlefield where this battalion served. Both in the training camp page 14
Rarotongans at Narrow Neck Camp.

Rarotongans at Narrow Neck Camp.

page 15 and with the expeditionary force in Gallipoli, France and Flanders, the work of the Maori contingent was of the very highest standard.

Pacific Islanders

Possibly of all the loyal responses to the call of Empire from every habitable portion of the globe, the most unique came from Britain's most distant possessions in the Pacific. From islands which, within the memory of man were savage and barbaric, came volunteers who proved worthy to serve with the other forces of the British Empire. First and foremost among these islanders must come the Rarotongans from the Cook Islands, including men from Atiu, Mangaia, Mauke, Aitutaki, Mitiaro, Manihiki, Puka Puka, Penrhyn and Palmerston. A magnificent race, cheerful, attentive, enthusiastic and intelligent—better material for conversion into soldiers could not be found. Notwithstanding that 80 per cent. were unable to speak English on arrival in New Zealand, the Rarotongans quickly learned the language and formed an excellent company in the expeditionary force.

Niue in the Cook Island Group also provided a good stamp of soldiers 97 per cent. of whom could speak only their native tongue. The Ellice-Gilbert group in the Western Pacific supplied a magnificent body of men, all members of the Island Constabulary, many of whom had relinquished senior rank in order to serve with the reinforcements as privates.

The behaviour and discipline, and the ability of these Islanders to learn their military work, were beyond all praise. Musical to a degree, their deep melodious voices, accurately joined together in native songs, afforded enjoyment to all who heard them, suggesting in their plaintive cadence the sea-girt coral homes from which they were so strangely separated.

If the great war was an education to the white man, how much more so to these South Sea islanders to whom everything appeared so strange and wonderful. No finer proof of the strength and extent of British rule has ever been afforded than was given by these Islanders, who sacrificed everything to serve an Empire, the fairness and justice of whose rule they had learnt to appreciate.

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Although many of the Islanders were well educated, a large percentage had never eaten meat until their arrival in New Zealand, while, to most, the wearing of boots was irksome during the preliminary training. They proved wonderfully adaptable, however, and rapidly adopted European customs. On the signing of the Armistice 176 Maoris, 93 Rarotongans, 23 Gilbert Islanders and 54 Fijian
Reinforcement Bathing.

Reinforcement Bathing.

reinforcements were undergoing instruction in Narrow Neck camp. In all the Maoris and Pacific Islanders provided 66 officers and 2,968 other ranks of the expeditionary force during the war.

The hardships inherent in war prevent all but the fittest from participating. Throughout the great war many New Zealanders who volunteered, and were anxious to serve their country, were found medically unfit for active service from various causes. Those who were not totally rejected on medical grounds were subsequently sub-divided into two page 17grades "C1" and "C2". The latter class were fit for home service duties only, but a special camp was formed at Tauherenikau (Wairarapa) for the physical improvement of the "C1" men. This camp gave excellent results and fully justified the wisdom of those responsible for its provision.

By means of a regular, graduated system of training an amazing improvement was made in the majority of those undergoing training, giving proof of the benefit which would accrue to a nation if attention were paid to this important question in times of peace. As a result of this training 3,528 or 49.1 per cent of those attending this "C1" camp were subsequently made fit to join the expeditionary force reinforcements, while the bulk of the remainder derived material benefit from the training received. The rapidity with which these unfit men were restored to perfect health afforded eloquent testimony of the value of the training given and its essential need. The subsequent record of those recruits made fit by this camp for active service disclosed the important fact that the majority of cures were permanent. This is eloquent testimony of the importance of such training.

In addition to supplying the needs of the expeditionary forces in France, Egypt and Samoa, New Zealand also contributed the following:—Imperial reservists—211 all ranks; naval ranks and ratings 190; H.M.S. Philomel—159 all ranks; Royal Naval Auxiliary Patrol—190 all ranks; Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force—192 all ranks; postal and audit officials—2; New Zealand Nursing Service—550, or a total of 1,494 all ranks.

In addition to the above, the following numbers of officers, non-commissioned officers, territorials and cadets were serving in New Zealand when the Armistice was granted on the 11th November, 1918:—(a) permanent forces—418 all ranks; (b) instructional and administrative staff, Trentham camp—704; (c) instructional and administrative staffs, Featherston camp—930; (d) instructional and administrative staffs employed page 18in districts—1,281; (e) Territorial Force—23,000; (f) cadet force—30,000; (g) rifle clubs—7,200. This gives a grand total of 188,397 employed with the expeditionary forces, or with the defence forces serving in New Zealand during the war.

Unfortunately, it is not within the scope of this article to dwell upon the magnificent response made by the Dominion during this period of abnormal effort. Unquestionably, in proportion to her population, New Zealand contributed a
The First Stage of the Great Adventure.

The First Stage of the Great Adventure.

larger percentage than any other overseas portion of the British Empire. This in itself testifies to the spirit which animated all members of the community, and constitutes a record which will live for all time in the memory of the great Empire to which the Dominion has the honour to belong. In order that a full appreciation of New Zealand's effort may be realised it must be remembered that the Dominion is but thinly populated, and is essentially a producing country, upon which heavy demands were made for commodities throughout the great war by the Home country.
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To enable younger men to take their place at the front, many older men, who had long retired to enjoy the fruits of their labours, responded to the call of Empire and undertook responsible and laborious work. Large industries reduced their staffs to a working minimum, while small employers of
To men who died at Featherston Camp.

To men who died at Featherston Camp.

labour in essential industries were forced to work at high pressure with inadequate staffs. Notwithstanding these severe drawbacks, the spirit of determination to conclude the struggle for civilisation was never absent, adequately represented by page 20
Gilbert Islanders at Narrow Neck Camp.

Gilbert Islanders at Narrow Neck Camp.

page 21the fact that 42 per cent of New Zealand's male population of military age actually embarked for active service.

Neither can the women's share in the sacrifices made by the Dominion be forgotten, or their noble efforts to contribute of their best towards the successful termination of the World's greatest struggle. Perhaps the greatest characteristic of New Zealand people is their affection for their children, and it can be realised with what feelings of dismay mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts saw those nearest and dearest to them embarking for warfare in lands separated by over 14,000 miles of sea. However heroic the spirit of its men, the nobility and self-sacrifice of New Zealand women are still greater testimony of the spirit, faith and loyalty of its people.

Of those who left on the Great Adventure, 16.554 were destined never to see their beloved country again, and lie to-day in the hallowed grounds of Egypt, Gallipoli, France, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Samoa, and elsewhere, after making the supreme sacrifice in the cause of freedom and civilisation. May their honoured memory serve ever to remind us of the futility and horror of war, and the scroll of their names record the glory of the freedom-loving land of New Zealand which gave them birth.

The Gilbert and Ellice Island colonists recently remitted to the New Zealand Government the sum of £3,724 in reimbursement of the pay and allowances, and cost of equipment, maintenance, etc., disbursed by the Dominion on behalf of six British residents of the islands who were sent with the N.Z.E.F. to Europe. This was in fulfilment of an agreement desired by the Islanders early in the war. The payment, though a comparatively small one, was no doubt a heavy strain on the resources of so diminutive a community. It is worthy of being placed on record—coming as it does from the lonely mid-Pacific—as a further exemplification of the British spirit.—Ed.

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Troops Disembarking at Matautu Point.

Troops Disembarking at Matautu Point.