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Te Ika a Maui, or New Zealand and its Inhabitants

Chapter VIII. Tini-Rau

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Chapter VIII. Tini-Rau.

The Pa of Te Arero on the Manga-Nui-A-Te-Ao.

The Pa of Te Arero on the Manga-Nui-A-Te-Ao.

The natives have innumerable traditions, which are generally known, and no one who has any claim to be thought an orator would think his speech complete, if he could not find some appropriate sentiment from one of these traditions or songs, to enrich it.

The following is a well known one, and though containing a great deal of the marvellous, it is still viewed as an historical account of some of their most distinguished ancestors, and of the commencement of their wars.

Tini-rau was a great chief, some say of the middle island, but others of Hawaiki; he was celebrated for his fine form and his great vanity; he had several pools filled with beauti- page 108 fully clear transparent water, which served as looking glasses to admire himself in. He also kept a stud—not of horses, for they were then unknown, but—of whales: these were his mokai, or pets, one of which was called Tutunui. The fame of this chief reached the ears of Hine-te-iwaiwa, a lady of a distant tribe, who was also remarkable for her great beauty; she fell in love with him, from the report, and at last nothing would satisfy her, but she must go and see him. One day when she was out with the women of the pa, gathering muscles, she suddenly jumped into the sea, and dived down; she came up again near a rock, at a little distance from the shore, on which she rested for some time, then diving down again, she had a long submarine journey. Meeting with many adventures, and holding long conversations with the different fish she met with, especially the shark and the kahawai, at last, she came up near the abode of Tini-rau, in the form of half fish and half woman; she then resumed her usual shape, and sat down considering which would be the best way of introducing herself to the chief.

Being aware of Tini-rau's admiration of himself, the plan she adopted to attract his attention, was to spoil his looking glasses, by jumping into them, and rendering the water muddy.

Now Tini-rau was so particular about his looking glasses, that he kept an owl as their guardian, who, perched upon a lofty tree in the vicinity, always had his eye upon his charge; immediately therefore that he saw Hine-te-iwaiwa floundering about in them, he called out to Tini-rau, who was sitting on his elevated stage; incensed at the insult, he came down at once and went to the pools, where he soon discovered the cause, and equally soon formed an attachment with the lady.

Tini-rau's wives, however, did not admire their new companion, so much as their lord and master; he was therefore obliged to keep her apart from them. After some time, Hine-te-iwaiwa gave birth to a child; this event caused her to be viewed with still greater hatred by the jealous ladies; two of them determined to kill her. She was naturally in great fear, but as they separately approached her, she had time to utter a potent spell, and then threw a stone at the first, whose body burst open, and behold it was filled with green stone; she page 109 treated the second lady in the same way, and with a similar result. Thus green stone was formed.

After some time, Hine-te-iwaiwa returned to visit her friends, and Tini-rau missing her society, went to her village; when he approached the place, where she lived, he saw some children playing at the back of the pa, in a swamp, which was covered with the kakaho or reeds: he hid himself amongst them, and then made a noise to attract the attention of the children, who came to see what it was, and then he recognized his own child by its ear ornaments. He sent it to its mother, with a little scented bag, she had given him, and which he constantly wore round his neck. The child went, and its mother immediately recognized the love token, and came to him, bringing him into the pa, where he was received and welcomed with great distinction, and many feasts were given on his account. In fact, their entire stock of provisions was soon consumed, and to increase the evil, they were unsuccessful in fishing. Tini-rau saw their destitute state, and promised them a plentiful supply of fish the next morning, provided they all remained in their houses with their doors and windows closed during the night, and did not open them until the morning. This they readily agreed to do. He then uttered one of his powerful spells, and immediately a great rushing sound was heard, which continued during the whole night, and in the morning when they opened their doors, they were amazed to find all the inside of the pa filled with every kind of fish, which reached up to their very watas.*

After staying some time with the relations of Hine-te-iwaiwa, they returned to Tini-rau's abode, where she again became a mother; but when the child was born, her husband began to slight her, and went to live with one of his other wives. When Hine-te-iwaiwa thought she was near her confinement, she sent two of her slaves to bring Tini-rau, that he might catch some fish, for which she had taken a fancy. When her slaves reached the outside of the pa, they called out

* The wata are high food stores or stages, erected on poles about five feet from the ground, to secure them from dogs and rats.

page 110 Tini-rau-e. He answered, -e- Your wife is unwell, and very near her confinement, she wishes you to catch her some fish. Tini-rau went on board his canoe, and reached his wife's abode. He demanded, What is the matter with you? Hine-te-iwaiwa replied, my child, which is about to be born. When he had seen her, he made a fence of nettle-branches and briars bound with flax, around her house, and left her, that she might not be able to leave. Her heart was very dark, at such treatment, and shortly afterwards the child was born. When Tini-rau heard of this, he went and began to open the fence of nettles and brambles. But being deeply grieved for his want of love, Hine-te-iwaiwa, cried to her brother, “O Rupc,* come and take me and my child away.” Rupe flew down at once. When Tini-rau returned, Rupe with the child and its mother were gone, he had folded them up within his wings and flown away. Tini-rau called out as they went, “O Rupe, bring back your sister and the child!”

Hine-te-iwaiwa said to her brother, “Do not consent, O Rupe, rather give him back his child.” He gently let it fall, and Tini-rau caught it. He fed it with water, the child grew, and he named it Tu-huruhuru. One day, the children went to play at the teka, some cast their stalks—they did not fly. Tuhuruhuru threw his, having first uttered this karakia:

Taku teka nei, You are my teka,
Ko te teka nawai, The teka of whom?
Ko te teka na Tuhuruhuru, The teka of Tuhuruhuru.
Te roko hina te rokohana. Overtake the other sticks and arrive first.

Jealous of his skill in throwing the teka, the children mocked him. There goes the teka of this bastard, where is his mother?

Tuhuruhuru heard their taunts, and when he returned home he demanded of Tini-rau his father, where is my mother? Tini-rau replied, I don't know; you can't reach her; the child demanded, but where is she, you do not tell me, lest I should go to her. Tini-rau replied, you are welcome to go, if you

* Rupe was a pigeon and the parent of it. He was brother to Hine-te-iwaiwa; he came from Hawaiki, to look for her

A game with fern stalks, which are thrown to see who can cast them the furthest, and hit a mark.

page 111 like, but listen to my advice; when you have reached a burnt piece of ground, go and roll yourself in the ashes, to disguise your countenance, that they may think you are a slave. Tini-rau said, is your heart strong to go? the child replied, Yes it is strong. He then directed him. When you have reached the pa, offer to carry water for Rupe, and when you have brought it, do not pour it into the mouth, but into the nose of Rupe. In the evening, when Hine-te-iwaiwa stands up to dance with the damsels of the place, then do you utter a karakia. The child said, But what karakia shall I say. Tini-rau replied,
Te tu o Hine-te-iwaiwa The fig leaf of Hine-te-iwaiwa
Makere makere Has fallen fallen,
Te Taupaki o Hine-te-iwaiwa The covering of Hine-te-iwaiwa
Makere makere Has fallen fallen.

Tuhuruhuru having received his directions, set off. When he arrived opposite the place, he saw the women who came to carry firewood, he therefore rolled himself in the ashes that they might take him for a slave child. Having reached the dead wood, he laid down amongst it. When the women, who came to collect it for fuel, saw him there stretched all his length, they cried out, Here is a nice young slave for us, he will do for Hine-te-iwaiwa. On reaching the pa, they therefore turned him over to her; she said “Oh, he will just do to carry water for Rupe:” before long he was sent for some. When Tuhuruhuru had returned, with the water, Rupe held out his hands, but Tuhuruhuru poured it up his nose. Rupe cursed: the young slave has poured the water up my nose; he ran after him, and gave him a beating. Tuhuruhuru cried, complaining,

In vain have I come!
Rupe is my uncle,
Hine-te-iwaiwa is my mother,
And Tini-rau is my father.

Rupe said, the little slave grumbles and cries.

In the evening, Hine-te-iwaiwa and her damsels began the dance. Then Tuhuruhuru uttered his karakia:—

The garment of Hine-te-iwaiwa has fallen, fallen,
The garment of Hine-te-iwaiwa has fallen, fallen.

Hine-te-iwaiwa turned aside and stooped down, because she page 112 had dropped her garment. Some of the young women heard it, and said to Hine-te-iwaiwa, the young slave has been making game of your taupaki. Hine-te-iwaiwa ran after him, and gave him a beating. Tuhuruhuru cried, lamenting—

In vain have I come:
Rupe is my uncle,
Hine-te-iwaiwa is my mother,
And Tini-rau is my father.

He ran crying out of the house; she heard her child crying, and ran to catch him, being grieved for what she had done, saying, Alas! my child, my youngest, that I should beat you. Tuhuruhuru thought they now knew him, he fled; they pursued and pursued, but could not overtake him; he ran into the water to cleanse himself from the ashes. Hine-te-iwaiwa called, O Rupe, fly down at once, and catch your child. Rupe flew down to the water, he caught him up, and brought him back to the pa. Hine-te-iwaiwa cried over her child, whom she had now recognized. Alas! alas! my child, who was abandoned! After she had finished her tangi, she asked him, what message did his father send to her. Tuhuruhuru replied, he said we and Rupe must return to my naming.* Rupe and his sister agreed to accompany him. They reached the abode of Tini-rau; he was rejoiced to see his wife, his brother-in-law, and his child. They slept, and the following morning, as soon as it dawned, he sent off a messenger to assemble all the chiefs for the naming of his child. All agreed to come; Kae also came; they called him Tuhuruhuru, his first name was Tu-ai-takaroro. The meaning of this new name is The plumage of Rupe. When the ceremony was over, all returned to their homes, but Kae remained. After most of the company had dispersed, Kae inquired, Where is Tutunui, the pet of Tini-rau, the mokae of my grandchild? will it not serve as a bridge to carry me over? Tini-rau replied, By no means, lest your grandchild's pet should die. Kae replied, No, I will be very careful of him. Tini-rau at last consented, but gave him this direction:—“E hia hia koe ki te mimi me mimi ki te papa maui, e hia hia koe

* To the ceremony of bestowing a name upon him.

page 113 ki te tiko, me tiko koe ki te papa maui.” Kae agreed to all this. Tini-rau afterwards charged him, when he approached the pa, and he shakes, you must get off, and go on shore, lest you chafe his belly against the bottom, and he should die. Kae assented, saying, Yes, I am aware of it, and will do as you say. He then got on the back of the pet whale, but he paid no attention to the directions given him, for when he got outside to sea, ka hiahia ia ki te mimi, ka mimi ia ki te papa matau, ka tiko ia ki te papa matau; when he approached the shore, which is close outside the pa, Tutunui began to shake. Kae paid no attention, he still kept on his back, he chafed his belly against the bottom. Tutunui, the pet whale of Tini-rau was killed, the people of that pa cut him up, and cooked him. Tini-rau kept waiting for his return: night passed away, the morning also, and yet he did not come back; at noon, the tonga or N. E. wind arose, and brought the smell of the ovens to his nose. Tini-rau cried in his sorrow, the fragrance of Tutunui is wafted from haruru atea, (a place of Hawaiki). From that time, from the death of Tutunui, the heart of Tini-rau became dark. He exclaimed, I must have Kae for my revenge. After many nights' thought, he said to his wife and to the women of his place, Go and fetch Kae; the women answered, We don't know him. Tini-rau replied, You will find him out by his teeth; but, they said, How shall we be able to see them? Play some silly game, was the reply. Enough, the women agreed; they got into their canoe, and paddled away. When they reached the pa, they entered the house where Kae lived. They found that tutau, or singing in turns, he whae (cats' cradles), he haka (singing with gestures), and he waiata (songs), were the amusements of the evening. But Kae did not laugh. They inquired, What is the haka that will make him laugh? They at last found the pua pua, the waitoremi, the anaana. They sung the waitoremi: he laughed. They saw the hollow space, Kae had lost his front tooth; this was sufficient, they gave over. They repeated this rotu,* or charm, to send him to sleep:—

* The rotu is a potent spell to throw a person into a deep sleep; the same word is used in Tahaiti for prayer.

page 114
O mata e tiromai, O eyes that behold,
Nana tu wakarehua, Be you closed in sleep,
Tu wakamoea, e moe, Be you fast bound in sleep, sleep.

He tried to resist its power, and placed two pieces of pearlshell over his eyes, to make them think he was awake: but in vain. Kae could not withstand the charm; he fell fast asleep; he was completely overpowered, with every one in the house as well. They then went gently and carried him on board their canoe, and paddled off with him to their house; there they laid him by the pillar of the house, and left him to sleep.

In the morning they heated the oven; sow-thistles and other leaves were used as a wariki or covering for it, and food was placed in a basket by the side; they then awoke Kae. Sir, Sir, arise, although you sleep alone there. Yes, he replied, this is my sleeping place; come then to eat: he came. Tini-rau motioned him to his place on the green covering of the oven; he sat down upon it, and stretched out his hand to take the food; they then poured water over his back; the thick steam from the heated oven beneath immedidiately arose, and stifled him—Kae was dead. They then covered him over with the leaves: he was cooked and eaten.*

* In another version of this story: Tini-rau despatched his sisters; when they discovered Kae, who had built himself a new house, they sent the exact pattern of it to Tini-rau; he caused a fac-simile of it to be made; they then rotued the entire pa, carried off Kae, and laid him in the new house. In the morning, one went into his house and awoke him, saying, well Kae, where are you? ho replied, where should I be, but in my house. Another crept in and said, well Kae, where are you? he looked about, but could find no difference, as both houses were exactly alike; he said, I am at home. A third came; and thrusting the door a little aside, demanded, Well, Kae, where are you? Kae looked out, and saw a different scenery, and said, I don't know. They then told him where he was, and killed him.

Ko te mea i kai kino ai te Tangata maori.

Na Kae i timata, ko tutunui he tohora, Titiro ana nga tamahine a Tini-rau, ko Kae ka patua na Tini-rau, i patu kai rawa, muri iho ko Tuhuruhuru, ka patua hei utu mo Kae: ka ea te mate o Kae, ka utua e Wakatau: ka mate ko Mango pare, ko Manga waho Na titiro ana a Wakatau, ka tahuna te ware o te Tini o Manono. Ka tahi ka tupu mai ki nga uri: ka tahi ka kainga te tangata no te witinga mai o Tainui o te Arawa, o te mata atua ki tenei motu ka timata ai te kai tangata.

Na Hoturoa tenei Korero.

page 115

Matuka and Witi were two great cannibals. After having killed and eaten many persons, Matuku murdered a great chief, named Waheroa, and carried off his wife. His friends, however, determined not to suffer such a crime to go unpunished, they therefore went to the wood, and selected a suitable tree for a canoe, that they might pursue after Matuku; having found one, they set fire to it, and burnt it down, but during the night * Te tini-o-te Hake-turi (Hake-turi's flock of little birds) came and raised it up again. They hid therefore a second time to burn it down. Haki-turi, however, returned with his multitude in the night, and again made the tree whole; this was repeated several times. Wondering what could be the cause, they determined to watch; having, therefore, burnt down the tree, they hid themselves near it, and when te tini-o-te Hake-turi appeared, they suddenly made such a great noise, that the birds flew away. Some of the trees themselves were so alarmed, that they held down their heads, and have never been able to raise them up since; amongst these, were the ponga (a fern tree) and the kareao (supple jack), whose tender shoots are now always bent. When they had adzed out the canoe, and sewed on the top sides, and got everything ready to go to sea, they found the thicket was so dense, that they could not launch it. They therefore repeated this karakia:—

Waea turihunga, Thrust aside the thicket,
Waea taramoa, Thrust aside the brambles,
Ka puta ki waho, And Witi and Matuku
Ko Witi ko Matuku, Shall come forth.
The thicket immediately opened. The canoe was then launched, and all the warriors embarked. The name of the canoe was Riwaru They pulled over to Matuku's residence;

* Te tini-o-te Hake-turi appear to be a kind of fairies, in the form of small birds, and in very large numbers. In the myth of Tawaki, Tongo hiti is spoken of as being the chief of a similar race, although he himself was a glow worm.

This is a saying for the beginning of a quarrel:—Push aside the barriers, and anger will burst out.

The canoe had three names:—

The first, Riwaru, because the damp of the forest made it green.

The second, Tuirangi, when it reached the sea, it was painted and ornamented.

The third, Pakawai, when it was drawn up on shore.

page 116 on arriving at the place, where they expected to find him, they discovered that he was from home, but the woman they were in search of was within; they asked her how they might most easily capture Matuku. She advised them to place a large noose over the door, and to conceal themselves in the sides of the house; but she recommended them by no means to attempt to catch him by the neck, but by the waist, as in the former part he was too strong to be held. They soon heard him coming, for he made the ground shake under his feet as he went along. He had a load of human flesh on his shoulders, which he threw down as he approached the door. The woman called to him, but suspecting some treachery, he said,

Piro piro haungaunga taku kai, he tangata,
I scent my food—a man.

She assured him all was right, so he crept in on his hands and knees; as soon as he got his head and shoulders in, they drew the noose tight and secured him. They cut off one of his hands, but he told them they could not kill him; this he repeated, as they chopped off each limb. But when they had severed his head, he died, and according to some accounts, was changed into the bittern, which still goes by his name.

When he was dead, the warriors asked the woman how they might also capture Witi. She told them where they would find the den in which he lived, and said, that if they placed a noose over it, and made a noise, the monster would be sure to come out and attack them, as he did every one who came near his abode. They did as she advised, and when he put out his head, they immediately drew the noose tight and despatched him with ease.

The first person who reached New Zealand, is acknowledged by all to have been Kupe; he came in the canoe Mata-o-rua to Wanganui-a-te-ra, seeking for his wife Kura Marotina, who had been carried off by his younger brother Hoturapa. He went from the place of his landing as far as Patea; there he page 117 heard the cry of the kokako inland, and mistook it for the call of a man. Hua noa he reo te tangata, he exclaimed, and sent to see who it could be, but found no one. Not seeing anything of her, he set up a post there, and returned to Wanganui-a-te-ra, and thence again to Hawaiki; hence the saying—

Hoki Kupe, e kore ia e hokimai,
Come back, Kupe, he cannot return.

Several extraordinary works are attributed to him; such as severing the two islands asunder, thus forming Cook's Straits, and also cutting off New Zealand from Hawaiki, to which it is said to have been previously united. (May there not be here preserved some remembrance of a grand Southern Continent being submerged).

Ka tito au, ka tito au, ka tito au, I Sing, I sing, I sing,
Kia Kupe te Tangata, Of Kupe, the man
Nana i tope tope te whenua, Who cut off the land,
Tu ke a Kapiti, Stands apart Kapiti,
Tu ke Mana, Stands apart Mana,
Tu ke Ara pawa. Stands apart Ara pawa.
Ko nga tohu tena, These are the signs
A taku tupuna, Of my ancestor,
A Kupe, nana iwaka Of Kupe, who went over Titapua,
Tomene Titapua,
Ka tomene au te whenua-e-. Who went over the land.

It was from the account Kupe gave when he reached Hawaiki, that other canoes came; six are said to have arrived together. The chief of this second expedition was Turi. He is universally allowed to have been the first person who settled on the western coast; and by all the inhabitants of that part, was regarded as a kind of demi-god.

Turi is said to have fled from Hawaiki on account of a quarrel. Popouakoako, his younger brother, at the ingathering of the kumara, offered one to Uenuku, the ariki, (the god of the rainbow,) who was so indignant at the smallness of the offering, that he swallowed both it and the offerer together. Turi, in his anger, slew Oe-potiko, the son of Uenuku, and eat him. The manawa or lungs he carried to Uenuku, who having eaten them, perceived they were those of his own son. He then uttered a powerful spell:—

page 118
Tikina atu te tini o nga ti rongotea, Bring me the many,
Wakataka mai, kia tini, Of nga ti rongo tea,
Kia mano, Let many, let a multitude fall,
Kia nga kia te mate oe-potiki, Let oe-potiki work death.
Koreka te kai mua, The first vengeance
Runa mai rongo e—, Is sweet, assemble
Ka runa ha-i— The rongo he, assemble.

When Turi heard that this karakia had been uttered, he went and brought his canoe, Aotea, from his father-in-law, Toto.* Turi embarked, but he forgot in his haste the tata (baler) of his canoe, which was called Tupua oronoku; his paddle was named Kautu ki te rangi. The pukeko, the rat, the green paroquet, the moeone (a small bronze beetle), the awato (the grub of a sphinx moth, which preys on the kumara), the kumara, the karaka, the native calabash, were taken with him, also his god, who was carried by his priest Tapo; but before he had proceeded far, he pushed Tapo into the sea, for his supposed filthiness. Maru grumbled at the unjust slight showed to his priest, and said by the mouth of Tapo, if you leave without my servant on board, we shall never reach Nukuroa (New Zealand); place me on the out-rigger (tu ama,) and we shall reach Uku-rangi (New Zealand). Turi consented and took him again on board. He went on shore at Motiwatiwa, (there he killed his dog Iki iki rawea,) there Potoru eat him, and he became deranged by doing so; and was lost with his canoe in the Gulf of Parata.

Turi landed at Wangaparaoa, where he planted the karaka, thence he sailed to the Aupouri (North Cape), thence to Aotea, and there he left his canoe, which was turned into a rock, which is still to be seen. He went inland, and named all the rivers Kawia, Marakopa, Mokau, Moakatino, Tangapo-

* Another tradition states, that Toto built his canoe in a small river named Tau-118toru, and when finished, gave it to his son-in-law Turi, who made a sail for it, which they called Mata o rua, and sailed to Witi Marama.

Te Waha o to Parata. It was supposed that the ebb and flow of the tide is occasioned by the ocean rushing down the throat of Parata and being vomited out again. In this way a very broken sea was supposed to be occasioned. Kupe had a narrow escape from the Korokoro o Parata; hence the saying, no canoe can go where Kupe went.

page 119 rutu
, Mimi, Rini, Waitara, Wai o ngana, Wai Wakaio, Kau pokonui, Puni, Waingangoro, Tangaoe, Hinga ape, (so called from his slipping there, a most appropriate name, the descent to this river being over a very slippery rock.) Turi named all the rivers from Aotea to Patea; and Hou, all from that place to Wairarapa. At Patea he planted the kumara, at a spot called Heke heke i papa, where he saw Kupe's post, which stood on Rangi tawhi. He took up some of the soil in his hand, and smelled it, calling it a rich soil, hence the saying for good ground, this is the earth that Turi smelled; there he killed his dog, Mata Ware. He said to Taneroa, his daughter, either the men or his children have stolen it. At this word Taneroa fled, and went to live at Papa wero, where she had two children. She said to them, when you grow up, there will be food enough for you at Rawaira-ra, (on the other side of the river,) at the place of her brother, Turanga i mua. Turi and his son slew* the men of this island. The name of that race was the Kohi-kohi.

Wheu Turi left his pa, to go to fish or to work in his cultivation, that his enemies might not be aware of his departure, and also that he might take all his people with him, and not be obliged to leave any behind, to guard the pa, he placed a matuku, or bittern, in it, so that when any one came they might hear the cry of the bird—hu, hu, hu, and fancy he was at home. And to strengthen the matuku in the defence of his pa, he uttered the following incantation:—

* That there were inhabitants of the land before the arrival of the Maori race appears highly probable, since they not only state as much in their traditions, but also record their having gradually driven away a race far inferior to themselves, and compelled it finally to take refuge in the Chatham Isles. This despised people, by way of reproach, were called Kiri waka papa, which we may translate bare sides, from its ignorance of clothing.

Ko te Matuku i hea The bittern from whence,
Te Matuku i Wai aua, The bittern of Wai aua,
He Matuku, a ha te Matuku, The bittern, what of the bittern?
Matuku tau tiaki, tau aroaki, The bittern, the guardian, the overlooker,
Tau aro aki. The rustler of the wings,
Te waka rongona manawa, The imitator of the hum of men,page 120
Te korero te wakarongona a te Let your voice resemble,
Wananga, waka tikaia, That the enemy may be deceived,
Kia tika, Be quite correct; be perfectly correct,
Wakatonu hia kia tonu hau e Kia tonu, Your imitation,
Ko te Matuku i hea, The bittern from whence,
Ko te Matuku i Waingongoro, &c., The bittern from Waingongoro, &c.

This is repeated to each of these rivers, Tangahoe, Hinga-hapa Patea, Whenua-kura, Waitotara. When the Matuku heard this incantation of Turi, he was strengthened to hu, hu, hu, in the pa, and thus those who came, hearing his voice, thinking it was Turi, were afraid and fled away.

A great love for Hawaiki, his country, then seized him. He committed suicide by running into the Patea, and drowning himself. This is all;—so concludes the uative tradition. The sites of Turi's house, Matangirei, and his kumara farm, at Patea, are still pointed out; and an old man living there said, that in his early days, the land marks, which were sculptured stones, sixty in number, still remained; but when the Gospel came, they destroyed them all. Turi's well is yet pointed out.

Nga hui came from Hawaiki to see a quarrel between the Mata and the Pounamu, which had its origin in that island. He landed on the East Coast, at Wangaparau, and came to Tauranga, and from thence to the Wairere and Taupo. He then crossed over to Kapiti, Arapawa, and Arahura, near Wakatupa; when he reached that place, he obtained the Pounamu (green stone) in a lifeless state, and there he laid hold of the Kaukau matu and Tukurangi; from thence he returned to the Arawa Mountains, and there was the moa, at the waterfall, and there he killed one, and carried it in a taha (bark basket), and went back to Hawaiki, and told the chiefs of Hawaiki, Tamate Kapua, Nga Toro i rangi, and Hotu roa, yonder is the fine country named Aotea roa, the large country. These persons said to him, How shall we cross over to it? he replied, Let us build canoes. The canoes were commenced, the first, Arawa; the second, Tainui; the third, Aotearoa; the fourth, Taki-tumu; the fifth, Kura-haupo; the sixth, Tonga-maru. They all left Hawaiki together; when they were page 121 putting on the haumi, or stem part of the canoe, which is a separate piece, joined on to the end, they accidentally killed Mania's son, whose name was Tutenana hau; the builders of the canoes were therefore anxious to finish them as quick as possible, and get away before the child was missed. Being a chief child, he was in the habit of going about visiting his friends, and staying ten days at a time, they knew he would not be missed for some time. They therefore made haste, and paddled away from Hawaiki, having buried the child near the place where they adzed out their canoes.*

The Arawa first sailed. The chief of it, Tama te Kapua, called to Nga toro i rangi, to come and eat their food at sea, or tupeke, that is, do away the tapu, by making it noa for them, that they might eat on the voyage, which they could not have done till the principal chief took off the tapu, so that they might prosper. They succeeded in persuading Nga toro i rangi to go on board, also his wife Kearoa, and so he went with them to Aotea roa. Nga toro i rangi did not live inside the canoe, being too sacred a person, but on the top, their canoes having houses built on them with wooden side poles, and were roofed with raupo. They landed at Wangaparau, and came on to Wake-tane, and Maketu, and there left the Arawa, where she has ever since remained, turned into stone. The Tainui went to Kawia; its chief was Hoturoa. The Aotea roa remained for a time at Hauraki, and thence sailed to Otahuhu in company with the Tainui and Tonga maru, where they hauled the canoe across the isthmus. The Aotea roa remained at Aotea; the Tainui at Kawia; and the Tonga maru at Nga ti awa.

Some time after they left Hawaiki, the young child Tute, nangahau Mania's son, was missed, but they could not discover what had become of him, until Tuparaunui, a large

* Another account states, that this boy was not killed by accident, but designedly, by Hoturoa, for mocking his work as he was adzing out his canoe; and that he buried him on the spot, strewing the chips of his canoe over it to avoid detection.

From the Tamaki to Manukau there is a portage of not more than a quarter of a mile, called Ota huhu: by dragging their canoes across this, they passed from the Eastern Sea to the Western.

page 122 fly and an ancient god, came to their aid, by his exquisite power of smell, he found out where he was buried, and by his low thrilling sound over the spot, enabled them to discover the poor child's remains.

At the foot of Pukenui, a volcanic hill, about three miles distant from Waimate, Bay of Islands, there is a very fine lake, from five to seven miles long, and two or three broad, at an elevation of more than seven hundred feet above the level of the sea; it is called by the natives Mapere. There is a curious tradition relative to its formation. They state that, once it was a plain, containing five villages; in one of these, situated near a wood, lived a chief, who, wanting some water, when his wives and slaves were from home, and being ashamed to let his neighbours see him draw it at the public fountain, went and began to a dig a well in a retired spot; but no sooner had he dug down a little way, than flames burst forth from it, which rapidly spread, and consumed the trees and village; large stones also were shot out, but, after a time, the fire was exhausted, and water gushed up, which formed the present lake. The survivors preserved the names of the places and families by calling the head lands after them. Two old chiefs still living at Mawe, a village on its banks, declare that, when they were boys, watching with their tribe, by the side of the lake, for fear of their enemies, in bravado they ran up the hill Putaia, a very sacred spot, which has several remarkable fissures in it; down one of these they threw some stones. Afraid of what they had done, they ran away, when a tremendous rumbling took place, and the earth shook under them until they were so frightened that their teeth chattered. After some time, they saw an island suddenly rise up in the middle of the lake, which extended nearly across it; it remained the whole of that day, and then gradually sunk, leaving a shoal in its place, which is still to be seen, the dcepest water being near the shores.*

* This tradition is probably founded on fact. That the site of the present lake was a wood, is evident from the number of trees which are still standing in the water. When Captains Ross and Crozier came to Waimate, they cast the seine into the lake at some distance from the shore; but it was so entangled amongst the stamps at the bottom as to be almost torn to pieces, bringing up large branches of trees with it. The greatest depth of the lake was found to be five fathoms. From it flows a river over a ledge of rock, to the west, and falls into the Hokianga. This ledge is doubtless a stream of lava, which, crossing the lowest part of the plain, stopped its drainage, and thus formed the present lake, which might, with a very little expense, and no doubt some day will, be restored to what it must have been—one of the most fertile plains in this part of the island.

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The following is a list of the Canoes which are reported to have brought the first settlers to the island:—


Mataorua.—Its chief was Kupe; it came to Wanganui a te ra (Port Nicholson). Kupe went back to Hawaiki. The Nga te rua nui came in it.


Aotea.—Turi was its chief; it brought the karaka, which was first planted at Aotea, the kakaua (kumara), the para tawiti, or yam. The name is now given to an edible fern, the former being lost. The pukeko, kiore, kakariki, and all plundering birds came in it; also the Nga-ti-rua-nui, Nga rauru, Wanganui, and Ngatimaru. This canoe is also called Aotea roa.


Tainui.—Hoturoa was the chief, Waikato, Nga ti Raukawa, Nga Puhi, Nga ti Awa. The anurangi, a kind of kumara, came in it.


Arawa.—Nga Toro i rangi was its Ariki, and Tama te Kapua its chief. The ancestors of the Nga ti wakaue, and the Nga ti Porou were in it. This was a double canoe.


Kuru aupo.—Ruatea was its chief; Nga ti Apa, Taranaki, Nga ti rua nui, Nga ti Kahungunu were in it.


Orouta.—Uengapuanaki was the chief; Nga ti Rua-nui came in it.


Taki tumu.—Tamatea-hua tahi-nuku roa, was the chief; Nga ti Rua nui.


Matatua.—Rua auru was the chief; Nga ti rua nui, Nga ti Kahungunu. The taro was brought in this canoe.


Pangatoru (according to another account this canoe is called Papakatoru).—Its chief was Rakewananga ora; Nga ti rua nui, Nga Rauru came in it (Some traditions state that this canoe did not land its men, as the natives opposed their doing so.)

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Tokomaru.—(This canoe is also called Tongamaru.)— Rakeora was the chief; Nga ti rua nui, Nga ti tama, Nga ti mutunga, Nga ti awa.


Motumotu ahi.—Puatantahi was the chief; Nga Rauru, Nga ti rua nui were in it.


Te Rangi ua mutu.—Tamatea rokai was the chief; Nga ti rua nui. It came to Ranga tapu.* This canoe is also called Tairea.


Waka ringa ringa.—Mawakeroa the chief; Nga ti rua nui. It came to Kaupoko nui, Nga te ko.

Toto was the name of the person who made the first canoe; Mata o rua, and also the Aotea, out of one tree, which split in two parts when it fell. (This was considered a remarkable circumstance, as formerly, having no iron tools, they had both to burn down the trees, and then hollow them with fire, and thus could only get one canoe out of one tree, however large it might be.)

The tuwhenua or main land was united to Hawaiki before Kupe came; he cut it in two, and made the sea between. When he first came to this tuawhenua, he found a people there called Kahui toka. The names of their chiefs were Kehu, Rehu, and Monoa. They had no food but fern-root before Kupe found them. When they saw his canoe come, they were dreadfully alarmed. Turi, on his arrival, killed them. Taki tumu and Orouta are different names for the same canoe; according to some, Tutaranaki was the maker of Auraro tuia and Tane a rangi: they were also formed of a split tree The former was Maui's canoe. These two appear to be distinct ones; and the accounts of different parts of the island vary as to the names of some and the number. Altogether I have had seventeen names thus given, but not by the same person.

When Kupe went back, he gave such a glowing account of the size, beauty, and productions of Aotea toa (for so he called

* On their arriral at that place, they saw stones like English flints, and mos bones. It was there I discovered the largest quantity of the bones of the dinornis which I have seen. The flints, I have no doubt, were the stones which that bird used to swallow, being chiefly quartz pebbles.

page 125 New Zealand), that a fleet of six canoes was immediately raised to go and take possession of the new found land. Kupe is fairly entitled to be viewed as the New Zealand Columbus.*

In another account, Taha tuna, Tairea, Rima rapu, Totara karia, are also mentioned. With all these little discrepencies, when we find the majority of these names well known in every part, with the chiefs who commanded them, as well as the ancestors of the different tribes who came in them, we have a sure proof that the general tradition is correct, and that the natives have a more accurate account of the founders of their race than either the English or Spanish have of theirs in America, although one is more remote in point of time than the other, and labouring under the disadvantage of not possessing a written language to preserve the memory of it, when they can thus give the names of all the canoes which brought their ancestors, the names of those in them, and even the various things they brought.

The Prow of A War Canoe.

The Prow of A War Canoe.

* When this fleet arrived, they named the north island Aotea roa, and the great Barner island Aotea iti.