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The Past and Present Of New Zealand With Its Prospects for the Future

Chapter XIV. Statistics

page 301
Waingaroa Harbour.

Waingaroa Harbour.

Chapter XIV. Statistics.

Census of New Zealand, 1864.

In the Census of 1864, there are several interesting particulars to be noticed.

The progress of Wellington then was less than that of any other province. In 1861, its population was rather more than 12,500, and in 1864 it was rather less than 15,000; of this little increase the country districts must claim nearly all. But if Wellington be so far behind the other provinces in the increase of its population, it seems to stand proportionally better than even Auckland in real progression, that is, in the cultivation of the soil; Auckland, with its population of 42,000, has 129,000 acres fenced, whilst Wellington, with only 15,000, has still managed to cultivate 127,000 acres, which is nearly three times as much in proportion to that of page 302 Auckland, a convincing proof that the actual progress of Auckland has been very trifling, and that its great increase of population was in part only temporary,—that the war brought it and peace might take it away, as it seems to have so little hold on the soil.

Of the 127,000 acres belonging to Wellington, we find them divided as follows:—Wanganui, 36,785; Rangitikei, 18,926; Pororua, 16,113; Hutt, 10,498; Wairarapa, 12,185; Town of Wellington, 908. From this it is evident that Wanganui and Rangitikei have greatly increased, and, in fact, chiefly form the province.

Another thing to be noticed is, that by far the greatest increase in population has been with the new provinces. Marlborough has more than doubled its inhabitants, and Southland more than quadrupled its; in fact, Southland, in spite of its financial difficulties, has still made the greatest progress of all the provinces, a convincing proof that were these nine provinces to be broken up into municipalities or counties, the general progression would be immediately increased.

Lighthouses on the Coast of New Zealand.

There are now eight lighthouses, five of which have been used since January 1st, 1865:—

1.Auckland, on the Tiri Tiri Island, near the entrance of the Auckland Harbour, 300 feet above the sea level, visible for a distance of 23 miles in every direction in clear weather.
2.Cook’s Straits, Mana Island, 450 feet above the sea level; the tower is 70 feet high; it is visible 29 nautical miles.
3.Wellington, on Pencarrow Head, at the entrance of Wellington Harbour, 420 feet above sea level, and is visible 30 miles off.page 303
4.Soames Island lighthouse, in the Wellington Harbour.
5.Nelson lighthouse on the S. W. end of the Boulder Bank, visible 12frac12; nautical miles, 60 feet above high water.
6.Canterbury, Godley Head lighthouse, on the N. W. entrance to Lyttelton Harbour, visible 27 miles; tower 30 feet high.
7.Otago, Tairoa’s Head lighthouse, on the east side of the entrance to Otago Harbour, visible 18 miles.
8.Foveaux Straits, Dog Island, off the entrance to the Bluff Harbour, 150 feet above sea level; the tower is built of native stone of a grey color, and is 118 feet high.

Telegraphs.—A line is now finished, and is working from the Bluff to Wellington, thus connecting Dunedin, Christchurch, Nelson, and Wellington together. Auckland also has a line from the city to Onehunga.

Railroads.—At present the longest line is, perhaps, that from the Bluff to Invercargill, a distance of about 20 miles. The next is from Heathcote to Christchurch; on the completion of the tunnel now being driven through the lip of the crater which forms Lyttelton Harbour, it will run direct to that port. It is also being carried on beyond Christchurch, eventually to reach Dunedin and Invercargill. It is a mark of the progress of the province and of the Middle Island generally. At Auckland a railroad has been long under construction, to connect the city with Onehunga. The work is for the present in abeyance, but, doubtless, will soon be renewed and finished.

The mention of the New Zealand Banks must not be omitted, although all of them are of very recent origin, their progress is something wonderful. The Bank of New Zealand is paying an annual dividend of 17 per cent. The Bank of Otago 6 per cent. The Bank of Auckland 10 per cent.; and the Commercial Bank of New Zealand 10 per cent.

page 304

The Colony has also now its Fire and Marine Insurance Company, called The New Zealand Marine Company, established in 1859.

The progress of Steam in New Zealand has been very rapid. Some ten years ago the colony did not possess a single vessel; the first, I believe, was the Emu, which was built in Auckland, then a small one was obtained, which gave rise to the Wellington Steam Company, which now own a considerable number; the Otago people were not behind; they possess several. Different places also have become owners of steamers, which bear their names, and render their transit from place to place quite easy and regular without delay. Good frequently comes out of apparent evil, and this was the case with the steam navigation, which would not have progressed so rapidly but for the war, which, by closing the roads by land, compelled all to travel by water.

The transit of troops, stores, ammunition, &c., also gave a helping hand, and thus steam power is now permanently established in New Zealand, there are steamers plying on most of our rivers and some of our lakes. New Zealand has likewise the honor of uniting with the Australian colonies in subsidising and supporting the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Company, and, still later, in aiding and procuring the establishment of the Panama line, Melbourne and New Zealand being its chief supporters.

Nor has this terminated the efforts of the colony. We have lines of coaches traversing the length and breadth of the Middle Island, and in the northern one running as far as Wanganui and Wairarapa; at Auckland coaches run as far as the Waikato, a distance of about 40 miles, and perhaps by this time the lines are extended up the Waikato, to all the fresh-founded towns on its banks. Roads are at present in their infancy, still some attention has been paid to them; the longest line of coaches is from Lyttelton to Dunedin.

page 305

A List of the earliest Works printed in Maori.

Kendal’s Grammar and Vocabulary, imperfect, printed on China paper at Sydney, about 1818
Kendal’s Grammar, revised by Professor Lee, published by Church Missionary Society, London 1820
3rd chapter of Genesis, 20th chapter of Exodus, 5th chapter of Matthew, 1st chapter of John, The Lord’s Prayer, 7 Hymns, Sydney, E. Eager, King-street; 4 Catechisms—1 Church of England, 2 Watt’s 1 General Assembly’s. Sydney 1833
Portions of Scripture, parts of Prayer-book. Sydney 1835
4to., contains part Genesis and Four Gospels, Morning and Evening Services, Occasional Services and Hymns. Sydney 1835
Church Missionary Society Press:—
The Gospels, each published separately. Paihia 1835
New Testament, complete. Missionary Press, Paihia 1837
Kupu ui mo te Kura. Paihia 1839
Primer (he pukapuka waka ako). Paihia 1839
Ko te Pukapuka Kauwau o te Pihopa. Paihia 1839
Four Catechisms. Paihia 1840
Prayer-book, complete, Te Inoi. Paihia 1840
Isaiah, Daniel. Paihia 1840
Genesis, Exodus, 12 chapters of Deuteronomy. Paihia 1840
Almanacs from 1841, annually to 1845. Paihia. Pukapuka Waka ako Ki te reo Pakeha 1843
Wesleyan Press:—
Two Catechisms, Selections of Scripture. Mangungu 1840
Morning and Evening Service of the Church of England. Mangungu 1841
Book of Job and Malachi. Mangungu 1841
Service of Church of England, 60 Hymns, and Occasional Services of Church of England. Mangungu 1845
Re-printed on speculation by Revan the Kupu Ui, Wanganui, 1841, a te Ra; Ditto Morning and Evening Services, reprint, Wanganui a te Ra 1841
page 306
Church of Rome:—
Ako Marama. Kororarika 1842
Ko te ako, me te Karakia o te Hahi 1847

Government Maori Publications.

“Te Karere o nui Tireni,” No. 1, Akarana Hanuere 1, 1842, a monthly publication. “He pukapuka ra tenei kia mohio ai te tangata Maori Ki nga tikanga me nga ritenga o te Pakeha; Kia mohio ai ano hoki te Pakeha Ki nga ritenga o te tangata Maori.” This is a book to teach the Maori the laws and customs of the English, and the English those of the Maori; not very likely to benefit the latter, as it was solely in Maori; it continued four years to the end of 1845.

“The Maori Messenger,” Auckland. (No. 1), January 4, 1849.

“Te Karere Maori,” folio, English and Maori, a very copious and interesting journal. It terminated with Governor Grey’s stay. Another paper succeeded it after Governor Grey’s departure, called “The Maori Messenger.”

“Te Karere Maori,” January 1st, 1855, Auckland; it continued until the return of Governor Grey, having dwindled down to nothing; this seems to be the last Maori publication with official notices from the Government to the natives, except Gazettes.

Twelve numbers of “Government Communications,” of new laws, battles won, and Maories killed.

“Te Kai Whakamata ara o nga iwi erua na te tika i toa ai Turei,” Huni 6, 1848. Te utu etoru pene, 3d. Williamson and Wilson, Auckland.

“Te Whetu o te Tau,” Akarana, Huni 1, 1858.

“He Nupepa Maori, Ko te ao marama,” or, New World. Port Nicholson, September 20, 1849, English and Maori, printed by “Wellington Independent.”

“Te waka o te Iwi.” Akarana, Oketopa, 1857.

“Te Hokioi e rere atuna,” Ngaruawahia Tihema, 1862.

Ko te Kaimahi kia wiwi ki tona utu etoru pene tan e Whakarite ai, the last number seen, dated February 15, 1863. The Maori King’s paper, entirely conducted by the natives, and printed at their press, 3d.

“Te Pihoihoi mokemoke Taunga i te Tuanui,” Pep 2, 1863.

page 307

Otawhao i taia Ki te perehi o te Kura, 1863, a Government opposition paper to the Maori one.

“Te Karere o Poneke.” Taete, 17 o Hepitema, 1857, it terminated mane 27 o Tihema.

Sir George Grey published “Robinson Crusoe,” in Maori, 1858, “Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress,” and several other works, for the natives.

New Zealand Press.

“The Bay of Islands Observer,” Kororarika, June 15, 1840, printed and published every Thursday morning, price 1s., by G. A. Eager and Co., proprietors. The first newspaper published in New Zealand.

Eager and Co. addressed the subscribers of the “New Zealand Advertiser and Bay of Islands Observer,” December 15th, 1840, stating that the Government were determined to fetter the Press, or suppress it :—“One thing has now become manifest, the Government of the British Colony of New Zealand does not wish for a Free Press, while, on the other hand, our feeling is, ‘a Free Press, or none at all.’ Resumed “Bay of Islands Gazette,” February 24, 1842. The intervening period being occupied by the “Government Gazette,” February 12, 1841. About this time appeared a skit on Willoughby Shortland, entitled, “Rules for Reducing a Prosperous Colony to a state of Insignificance, Poverty, and Distress, (taken from an old author) and dedicated to the Prime Minister of the Cannibal Islands,” no date or name of printer.

“Gazette Extraordinary,” New Zealand, December 30, 1840; Paihia, printed at the Press of the Church Missionary Society.

“The New Zealand Government Gazette,” No. 1, Kororarika, Bay of Islands, February 12, 1841, gratis, G. A. Eager, printer; went through 19 numbers.

“New Zealand Advertiser and Bay of Islands Gazette.”

Kororarika,” New Zealand, Thursday, February 24, 1842; it reached No. 36, October 27, 1842, succeeded by the “Auckland Chronicle” and “New Zealand Colonist.”

Auckland Chronicle and New Zealand Colonist.” New Series.

“New Zealand Herald and Auckland Gazette,” price 9d.

Auckland Times,” printed and published by Henry Falwasser, page 308 sole editor and proprietor. The Government having got possession of the press, Mr. Falwasser carried on the “Times” for a short period by means of a mangle, consequently it is printed only on one side. It appears that the Government at this time endeavoured to rule the Press; this occasioned a strong pamphlet to appear from Dr. Martin, who then left the colony and went to Tahaiti.

“The Southern Cross” commenced about the year 1843, which still survives, and flourishes as a daily journal (1866), of very large dimensions.

“The New Zealander” appeared 31st May 1845, and expired 1866, printed and published by J. Williamson.

“The New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator,” published every Wednesday and Saturday morning, printed and published by Samuel Revans.

“New Zealand Colonist and Port Nicholson Advertiser,” printed and published every Tuesday and Friday for the proprietors, by E. Catchpool, commenced about 1840.

“Wellington Independent,” published every Wednesday and Saturday, still flourishing (1867).

“New Zealand Spectator and Cook’s Straits’ Guardian,” printed and published by Robert Stokes, Wellington, from 1842 to 1866.

“The Wellington Advertiser.”

“The Wanganui Record,” Wednesday, November 16th, 1853; printed by F. Watts, Victoria Avenue, Wanganui, New Zealand.

“Prospectus of the Wanganui Chronicle and Rangitikei Messenger,” June 1856; Rutland Hotel, Henry Stokes.

Wanganui Chronicle,” 15th October 1856; printed and published by Henry Stokes, sole proprietor; succeeded by a Company, Mr Wicksteed being the editor, and Mr. Parkinson printer; then Mr. James Urquart Taylor, and lastly Mr. Hutchinson, 1866.

“The Wanganui Chronicle and Rangitikei Messenger,” Wanganui, New Zealand, Thursday, March 12th, 1857.

“Hutchinson’s New Zealand Pioneer of General Literature and Colonial Progress,” Saturday, October 6th, 1866, to December 22nd, 1866.

Wanganui Times,” August 1, 1865, Tuesdays and Fridays. Walter Taylor.

page 309

“The Evangelical and Christian Advocate,” Wellington, Aug. 12, 1853, price 4d., short duration.

Taranaki Punch,” October 31, 1860, price 6d., very primitive.

“Canterbury Punch,” April 8th, 1865, pretty fair.

Hokitika—“The Despatch,” daily, every evening; “The Hokitika,” daily; “The West Coast Times,” daily.

“The Okarita Times,” Wednesday and Saturday.

“The Grey River Argus,” Greymouth, Wednesday and Saturday.

Nelson and Dunedin have each had papers from their commencement. Canterbury possesses two—“The Press,” and one published at Port Lyttelton. Taranaki has long had two papers. Napier and Marlborough, Timaru and Invercargill also. This is a very imperfect account of the New Zealand Press, but it chiefly refers to its commencement, and will thus assist other writers on this interesting subject.

Census taken 1864. *
Provinces. Population.
Males. Females. Total.
Auckland 25,686 16,446 42,132
Taranaki 2,872 1,502 4,374
Wellington 8,342 6,645 14,987
Hawkes Bay 2,456 1,313 3,770
Nelson 6,706 5,204 11,910
Marlborough 4,032 1,487 5,515
Canterbury 18,931 13,345 32,276
Otago 32,692 16,327 49,012
Southland 4,806 3,279 8,085
Chatham Isles 56 30 86
General Total, exclusive of the Military and their families 106,579 65,578 172,147
page 310

The increase for half-year ending 30th June, 1865, by immigration over seas, was—

Males, 5,640, females, 3,865, total, 9,505.
By births, males, 1,697, females, 1,633, total, 3,330.
Total increase, males, 7,337, females, 5,498, total, 12,835,

After deducting the decrease in immigration (over seas) and death.

* The following tables are taken from a new and valuable work, entitled, “The New Zealand Directory,” printed at Melbourne, 1867.

The Total Number of Acres in the possession of Europeans under Crop in the Several Electoral Districts in December 1864.

Town of Wellington 908
Mangonui 984
Bay of Islands 6,430
Marsden 8,295
Northern Division 14,229
City of Auckland, East 120
City of Ditto Auckland, West 310
Parnell 657
Newton 646
Pensioner Settlements 2,758
Onehunga 1,047
Franklyn * 23,786
Raglan * 27,885
Grey and Bell 6,833
New Plymouth Island 273
Omata 2,611
Wanganui 36,785
Rangitikei 18,926
Porirua 16,113
Hutt 10,498
Wairarapa 12,185
Napier Island 5,712
Clive 16,168

* Unimproved.

Middle Island.

Collingwood 1,505
Motueka 9,043
Nelson Island 1,444
Suburbs of ditto 3,974
Waimea 15,322
Town of Picton 1,978
Wairau 5,846
Cheviot 15,349
Kaipoi 12,561
Avon 16,000
Heathcote 15,709
Ellesmere 1,867
Christ Church, Town 1,290
Lyttelton 100
Akaroa 3,293
Timaru 3,591
Hampden 8,503
Bruce 31,914
Dunedin, suburbs 5,524
Wallace 9,931

The number of Acres in the possession of Europeans under Crop in the several Provinces in December 1864.

Wellington 95,416
Auckland 87,556
Taranaki 9,769
Hawkes Bay 21,880
Canterbury 68,727
Otago 48,373
Nelson 32,068
Southland 9,549
Marlborough 8,189
page 311

Customs Revenue at the several Ports for Quarter ending 30th June 1865.

Auckland 49,938
Russell 608
Mangonui 470
Hokianga 11
New Plymouth 4,512
Wanganui 5,492
Wellington 14,694
Napier 5,359
Collingwood 85
Nelson 9,241
Picton 562
Havelock 518
Wairoa 668
Lyttelton 20,195
Akaroa 381
Timaru 1,889
Hokitika 3,162
Dunedin 54,909
Molyneaux 21
Oamaru 705
Invercargill 5,050
Bluff 157
Riverton 425
Total £179,052

Value of Exports for the several Provinces during the Quarter ending June 30 1865.

Auckland 21,140
Taranaki nil
Wellington 6,450
Hawkes Bay 14,305
Nelson 29,533
Marlborough 27,230
Canterbury 198,909
Otago 287,869
Southland 14,184

Number and Tonnage of Vessels cleared outwards at the several Ports during the Quarter ending 30th June 1865.

Auckland 69 vessels, 25,887 tons.
Russell 3 vessels, 952 tons.
Mangonui 1 vessels, 400 tons.
Hokianga 1 vessels, 163 tons.
Waikato 3 vessels, 644 tons.
New Plymouth 5 vessels, 1,294 tons.
Wanganui 12 vessels, 2,141 tons.
Wellington 15 vessels, 5,578 tons.
Napier 3 vessels, 840 tons.
Nelson 17 vessels, 5,429 tons.
Lyttelton 9 vessels, 4,156 tons.
Hokitika 7 vessels, 752 tons.
Dunedin 37 vessels, 17,818 tons.
Invercargill 5 vessels, 709 tons.
Total 187 vessels, 66,763 tons.
page 312

Revenue of the Provinces for the Quarter ending 30th June 1865.

Auckland £57,913
Wellington 22,798
Taranaki 5,386
Hawkes Bay 6,230
Nelson 11,000
Marlborough £2,557
Canterbury 31,483
Otago 64,131
Southland 7,315
Total £208,813

New Zealand and Australian Tariffs.

The following are the Tariffs of New Zealand, Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, and Western Australia, compared as to principal articles:—

New Zealand. Victoria N.S. Wales. South Aust. Queensland. Western Aust.
s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d.
Brandy and Gin per gal. 12 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 12 0
Rum and Whisky per gal. 12 0 10 0 7 0 10 0 7 0 12 0
Cordials per gal. 12 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 12 0
Perfumed Spirits per gal. 12 0 10 0 7 0 10 0 7 0 12 0
Other Spirits per gal. 12 0 10 0 7 0 10 0 7 0 12 0
Tobacco—Manufactured per lb. 2 6 2 0 2 0 1 6 2 0 1 9
  Unmanufactured per lb. 2 6 1 0 1 0 1 6 1 0
Sheepwash per lb. 0 3
Cigars per lb. 4 6 5 0 3 0 4 0 3 0 2 6
Molasses and Treacle per cwt. 9 4 3 0 3 4 2 0 3 4 3 0
Tea per lb. 0 6 0 6 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 2
Coffee per lb. 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 2 4 0*
Sugar per cwt. 9 4 6 0 5 0 3 0 5 0 3 0
Refined & Candied per cwt. 9 4 6 8 6 8 4 0
Unrefined per cwt. 9 4 5 0 5 0 3 0
Wine—In Wood per gal. 4 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0
  In Reputed Quarts per doz. 10 0 6 0 4 0 6 0 4 0 4 0
  In Reputed Pints per doz. 5 0 3 0 2 0 3 0 2 0 2 0
Beer—In Wood per gal. 0 9 0 6 0 1 0 6 0 1 4 0
  In Bottle per gal. 1 6 0 6 0 1 0 6 0 1 4 0
  In Reputed Quarts per doz. 3 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 8 0
  In Reputed Pints per doz. 1 6 0 6 0 1 1 0 0 1 4 0
Gold (export) per oz. 2 6 1 6 1 6 0 6
Cocoa and Chocolate per lb. 0 3 0 1
Cider—In Wood per gal. 0 9 0 6 0 3 0 6 4 0
  In Bottle per gal. 1 6 0 6 0 3 0 6 4 0
  In Reputed Quarts per doz. 3 0 1 0 0 6 1 0 8 0
  In Reputed Pints per doz. 1 6 0 6 0 3 0 6 4 0

It is evident that wine, spirits, beer, &c., are charged higher on account of Western Australia being a convict island.

page 313

* Per cwt.

Bank Returns, Quarter ending 31st March, 1866.

Notes out. Bills out. To other Banks. Deposits. Total Liabilities.
Bank of New Zealand £414,401 £40,794 £65,518 £1,300,460 £1,821,177
Union Bank of Australia 168,094 26,694 2,510 781,114 978,414
Bank of New South Wales 170,347 595 9,047 646,182 826,173
Bank of Australasia 20,017 3,625 nil. 84,479 108,123
Bank of Otago 28,524 1,052 18,535 114,775 162,888
Commercial Bank of New Zealand (Limited) 6,695 nil. nil. 38,113 44,809
Bank of Auckland 10,065 4 9,643 30,740 50,454
Coin. Bullion. Bills, &c., of other Banks. From other Banks. Landed Property. Other Securities. Total Assests.
Bank of New Zealand £267,886 £108,976 £6,186 £28,298 £18,828 £1,851,904 £2,282,083
Union Bank of Australia 312,554 15,908 6,288 12,462 17,000 895,102 1,259,316
Bank of New South Wales 275,105 32,403 4,721 23,011 13,650 783,486 1,132,381
Bank of Australasia 50,996 25 423 nil. 19,300 318,784 389,530
Bank of Otago 32,730 3,211 1,058 259 19,197 434,695 481,054
Commercial Bank of New Zealand (Limited) 7,200 nil. nil. nil. 4,887 97,704 109,793
Bank of Auckland 10,432 nil. 19 nil. 2,158 81,578 94,190
Capital and Profits.
Paid up. Rate per Annum of last Dividend. Last Dividend. Reserved.
Bank of New Zealand £ 499,983 17 per cent. £ 42,500 £178,529
Union Bank of Australia 1,250,000 17 per cent. 106,250 385,739
Bank of New South Wales 1,000,000 15 per cent. and bonus of 5 per cent 99,691 336,854
Bank of Australasia 1,200,000 14 per cent 68,250 354,065
Bank of Otago 187,883 6 per cent. 5,868 2,773
Commercial Bank of New Zealand (Limited) 60,000 10 per cent. 2,749 5,000
Bank of Auckland 44,192 10 per cent. 1,824 1,500
page 314

Gold Exports from 1861 to 30th November 1865.

Year. Ozs. Value at £4 per oz.
1861 187,695 750,780
1862 397,602 1,590,408
1863 580,233 2,320,932
1864 455,927 1,823,708
1865 220,689 882,756
Grand Total 1,842,146 £7,368,584

Revenue of Otago from 1861 to 30th September 1865.

Years. Customs. Miscellaneous. Territorial. Gold Export Duty. Total.
1861 £93,199 £14,423 £72,963 £23,461 185,009
1862 168,090 34,507 138,768 49,870 391,236
1863 258,579 41,049 77,449 76,362 453,441
1864 154,218 94,813 167,734 44,995 461,762
1865 200,349 70,476 121,532 33,762 426,121

Latitude and Longitude.

Latitude. Longitude.
D. M. S. D. M. S.
North Cape 34 25 7 172 9 45
Mangonui 35 0 20 173 33 35
Bay of Islands 35 10 30 174 49 10
Auckland 36 50 5 174 49 10
Tauranga 37 36 25 176 11 10
Wakari 57 30 0 177 11 45
Ahuriri 39 28 44 176 55 10
Wanganui 39 57 20 175 1 0
New Plymouth 39 3 35 174 4 58
Wellington 41 16 40 174 47 53
Nelson 41 15 35 173 16 58
Port Cooper 43 36 42 172 44 17
Otago 45 46 55 170 44 58
Bluff 46 36 17 168 21 55
Stewart’s Island, West Cape 47 17 0 167 30 15
Snares Isles 48 6 43 166 28 40
page 315

Quantity and Value of Gold exported from 1st April 1857, to 31st March 1865.

Auckland 10,816 ozs.= £33,745
Nelson 94,284 ozs.= 353,706
Marlborough 27,075 ozs.= 103,911
Canterbury 23 ozs.= 91
Otago 1,724,436 ozs.= 6,682,188
  Total £7,173,641

Live Stock in the Possession of Europeans in the several Provinces in December 1864.

Horses. Asses. Cattle. Sheep.
Auckland 7,482 113 42,294 73,151
Taranaki 737 0 4,229 12,350
Wellington 7,356 90 49,200 411,502
Hawkes Bay 2,780 9 14,552 537,094
Nelson 3,597 16 15,825 341,281
Marlborough 2,735 16 7,483 456,374
Canterbury 10,868 62 45,263 1,567,320
Otago 11,267 30 56,945 1,311,345
Southland 2,579 3 13,230 235,056
  Totals 49,401 339 249,021 4,945,473

Receipts and Expenditure of the ordinary Revenue for the Quarter ending December 31st 1865.

£. s. d.
Auckland 42,304 0 0
Taranaki 5,091 16 11
Wellington 23,068 13 9
Hawkes Bay 7,143 3 11
Nelson 12,245 1 9
Marlborough 2,171 0 0
Canterbury and West Coast 64,724 7 7
Otago 55,997 7 9
Southland 7,982 12 0
  Total £220,728 3 8
page 316

Total Expenditure was £171,035. 6s. 8d., leaving £71,720. 15s. 9d., to be paid to the Provinces.

The total Revenue for the half-year was £424,494 13 5
Total Expenditure 261,693 13 2
Paid to Provinces 130,830 2 10
Making together £392,523 16 0
£. s. d.
Loan of 1863:—Suppression of the Native War—Colonial Forces—Pay and allowance 50,166 0 4
   Forage 908 17 0
   Stores, Clothing, Bedding, and Equipments 2,269 15 10
   Arms, Ammunition, and Accoutrements 147 1 11
   Rations 12,044 12 2
   Allowances to Families 565 10 9
   Transport 2,572 9 10
   Hospitals 840 4 9
   Miscellaneous 1,692 2 1
   Block Houses, Defences, &c. 2,861 11 9
   Maori Prisoners 881 9 11
   Miscellaneous War Expenses 330 13 2
   Sea and River Service 3,143 18 5
    Total £78,424 7 11

Governors of New Zealand.

1.James Busby, Esquire, was British resident at the Bay of Islands, from 1836 to 1840. He was the first British officer stationed in New Zealand. *
2.Captain Hobson, R.N., came in February 1840, and died in Auckland, September 10, 1842.
3.Lieutenant Shortland, R.N., Colonial Secretary, Acting Governor fifteen months.
4.Captain Fitzroy, from December 1843 to November 1845.page 317
5 & 6.Sir George Grey, from 1845 to 1854, (made Governor-in-Chief, with Mr. Eyre, from 1847, as Lieutenant-Governor.)
7.Colonel Wynyard, Acting-Governor, from January 1854 to September 1855. The New Zealand Constitution.
8.Colonel Gore Browne, from October 1855 to September 1861.
9.Sir George Grey, from September 1861.
Mr. Enderby had the title of Lieutenant-Governor of the Auckland Isles conferred upon him, but his reign was short and destitute of interest. He commenced a settlement in one of the Auckland Isles in 1850, as the head of a Whaling Company.

* Being totally without means of maintaining his authority, the natives compared him to “a man of war without guns.”

The Waitangi Treaty,
Feb. 6, 1840.


HER MAJESTY VICTORIA, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, regarding with Her Royal Favor the Native Chiefs and Tribes of New Zealand, and anxious to protect their just Rights and Property, and to secure to them the enjoyment of Peace and Good Order, has deemed it necessary in consequence of the great number of Her Majesty’s Subjects who have already settled in New Zealand, and the rapid extension of Emigration both from Europe and Australia, which is still in progress, to constitute and appoint a functionary properly authorized to treat with the Aborigines of New Zealand for the recognition of Her Majesty’s Sovereign authority over the whole or any part of those islands. Her Majesty, therefore, being desirous to establish a settled form of Civil Government with a view to avert the evil consequences which must result from the absence of the necessary Laws and Institutions alike to the native population and to Her subjects, has been graciously pleased to empower and authorize me, William Hobson, a Captain in Her Majesty’s Royal Navy, Consul, and Lieutenant-Governor of such parts of New Zealand as may be, or hereafter shall be, ceded to Her Majesty, to invite the confederated and independent Chiefs of New Zealand to concur in the following Articles and Conditions.

Article the First.

The Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand, and the separate and independent Chiefs who have not become members of the Confederation, cede to Her Majesty the Queen of England, absolutely and without reservation, all the rights and powers of Sovereignty which the said Confederation or Individual Chiefs respectively exercise or possess, or may be supposed to exercise or to possess, over their respective Territories as the sole Sovereigns thereof.

Article the Second.

Her Majesty, the Queen of England confirms and guarantees to the Chiefs and Tribes of New Zealand, and to the respective families and individuals thereof, the full, exclusive, and undisturbed possession of their Lands and Estates, Forests, Fisheries, and other properties which they may collectively or individually possess, so long as it is their wish and desire to retain the same in their possession; but the Chiefs of the United Tribes and the Individual Chiefs yield to Her Majesty the exclusive right of Pre-emption over such lands as the proprietors there of may be disposed to alienate, at such prices as may be agreed upon between the respective Proprietors and persons appointed by Her Majesty to treat with them in that behalf.

Article the Third.

In consideration thereof Her Majesty the Queen of England extends to the Natives of New Zealand Her royal protection, and imparts to them all the Rights and Privileges of British subjects.

W. Hobson,

Now, therefore, We, the Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand, being assembled in Congress at Victoria, in Waitangi, and We, the Separate and Independent Chiefs of New Zealand, claiming authority over the Tribes and Territories which are specified after our respective names, having been made fully to understand the Provisions of the foregoing Treaty, accept and enter into the same in the full spirit and meaning thereof: in witness of which, we have attached our signatures or marks at the places and the dates respectively specified.

Done at Waitangi, this sixth day of February, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty.

Maori Version

KO WIKITORIA, te Kuini o Ingarani, i tana mahara atawai ki nga Rangatira me Nga Hapu o Nu Tirani, i tana hiahia hoki kia tohungia ki a ratou o ratou rangatiratanga, me to ratou wenua, a kia mau tonu hoki te Rongo ki a ratou me te ata noho hoki, kua wakaaro ia he mea tika kia tukua mai tetahi Rangatira hei kai wakarite ki nga tangata maori o Nu Tirani. Kia wakaaetia e nga Rangatira maori te Kawanatanga o te Kuini, ki nga wahi katoa o to wenua nei me nga motu. Na te mea hoki he tokomaha ke nga tangata o tona iwi kua noho ki tenei wenua, a e haere mai nei.

Na, ko te Kuini e hiahia ana kia wakaritea te Kawanatanga, kia kaua ai nga kino e puta mai ki te tangata maori ki te pakeha e noho ture kore ana.

Na, kua pai te Kuini kia tukua a hau, a Wiremu Hopihona, he Kapitana i te Roiara Nawa, hei Kawana mo nga wahi katoa o Nu Tirani, e tukua aianei amua atu ki te Kuini; e mea atu ana ia ki nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga o nga Hapu o Nu Tirani, me era Rangatira atu, enei ture ka korerotia nei.

Ko te tuatahi,

Ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga, me nga Rangatira katoa hoki, kihai i uru ki taua Wakaminenga, ka tuku rawa atu ki te Kuini o Ingarani ake tonu atu te Kawanatanga katoa o o ratou wenua.

Ko te tuarua,

Ko te Kuini o Ingarani ka wakarite ka wakaae ki nga Rangatira, ki nga Hapu, ki nga tangata katoa o Nu Tirani, te tino Rangatiratanga o o ratou wenua o ratou kainga me o ratou taonga katoa. Otiia ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga, me nga Rangatira katoa atu, ka tuku ki te Kuini te hokonga o era wahi wenua e pai ai te tangata nona te wenua, ki te ritenga o te utu e wakaritea ai e ratou ko te kai hoko e meatia nei e te Kuini hei kai hoko mona.

Ko te tuatoru,

Hei wakaritenga mai hoki tenei mo te wakaaetanga ki te Kawanatanga o te Kuini. Ka tiakina e te Kuini o Ingarani nga tangata maori katoa o Nu Tirani. Ka tukua ki a ratou nga tikanga katoa rite tahi ki ana mea ki nga tangata o Ingarani.

William Hobson,
Consul & Lieut.-Governor.

Na, ko matou, ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga o nga Hapu o Nu Tirani, ka huihui nei ki Waitangi. Ko matou hoki ko nga Rangatira o Nu Tirani, ka kite nei i te ritenga o enei kupu, ka tangohia, ka wakaaetia katoatia e matou. Koia ka tohungia ai o matou ingoa o matou tohu.

Ka meatia tenei ki Waitangi, i te ono o nga ra o Pepuere, i te tau kotahi mano, ewaru, rau, ewa tekau, o to tatou Ariki.