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Lore and history of the South Island Maori

Kaiapoi — (Kaiapohia)

page 34


The Kaiapoi Native Reserve (No. 873) comprises 2,640 acres of the best agricultural land in Canterbury. Judge Alexander Mackay in a report on the lands set apart as native reserves in the South Island comments on the good fortune of the Kaiapoi natives. Many of the native reserves in the South Island are useless land, which in some instances was set apart on the request of the Maoris themselves for sentimental reasons.

When W. B. D. Mantell, Land Purchase Commissioner visited Kaiapoi in 1849, Wereta Tainui, Tipora and eight others were dwelling on the south bank of the North Branch of the Waimakariri River, and about a dozen Maoris of the Te Rangi-whakaputa hapu had their abode in two small kaingas on the Cam River near its junction with the North Branch. Mantell made a small native reserve at the mouth of the Kaikainui Stream, and the junction of the one-time South Branch with the North Branch below the present Kaiapoi Borough.

The Kaikainui Native Reserve (No. 877) contains 5 acres. In 1867 there were thirty-five Maori farms on the Kaiapoi Reserve. During the sixties, in common with North Canterbury European farmers, the Maoris lost nearly all their cattle by a plague. During the season in which the crops in Canterbury suffered loss by rust, the Maori farmers headed the crop averages. The wheat crop threshed out on the Kaiapoi Native Reserve during February, 1879, according to an official return was 87 bushels of wheat to the acre.

Only about two Maoris work their land to-day in 1950. Restrictions on alienation were removed by the Native Land Act of 1909 and subsequent Acts. Practically all land has passed to Europeans by sale or long terms of leasehold.

The old pa of Kaiapohia situated a mile or so to the south of Waikuku township was built by Turakautahi, the second son of Tuahuriri by his wife Hine te wai about the year 1700 A.D. at the Tairutu Lagoon. The name translated briefly means "food depot". In a recent publication the Rev. J. W. Stack has been accused of using North Island "swank" in calling the old pa, Kaiapohia instead of Kaiapoi. The Rev. Stack in his book printed in 1893 distinctly says, "Kaiapohia was always used in formal speeches." Watere Kahu of Arowhenua page 35used the unabbreviated name. Long before the arrival of the so called "First Four Ships", Edward Shortland, Protector of Aborigines, used the term Kaiapohia. There is good reason to use that name, if only to distinguish the old pa from the modern European borough of Kaiapoi, which is built on a locality formerly known as O te Mate. Pita Te Hori born of all the leading strains of Ngai Tahu was the Rev. J. W. Stack's principal informant.

The last person of the Maori community of North Canterbury who could be considered an authority on native history was a halfcaste Thomas Eustace Green of Hine Matua blood, who died on September 2nd, 1917. Through the courtesy of Mr Te Aritaua Pitama the writer has been shown a few notes by T. E. Green. Someday Mr Pitama may publish the whole of those papers himself.

At the close of the year 1828 Te Rauparaha arrived with 150 warriors at Kaiapohia, his hands still red with the blood of the Ngai Tahu of Kaikoura and Omihi in Marlborough, who had been caught completely off guard. Te Rauparaha and his fellow chief Te Rangihaeata professed peace to Te Maiharanui the principal chief of Kaiapohia. Fugitives from Omihi had told their misfortune and the Ngai Tahu were suspicious.

There are three accounts given why the North Canterbury Maoris decided to strike the first blow. All three reasons are probably correct. At anyrate the statement made by Stack that Hakitara a Nga Puhi warrior in the northern ranks heard the proposals being made for an attack on Kaiapohia, and passed the information on to the Ngai Tahu, has never been seriously questioned.

Te Rauparaha in another account caused a Kaiapohia chief to hand over a slave girl to make a juicy meal. A remark that more meat would be required, coming on the top of the knowledge that Te Rauparaha's force had dug up the corpse of Te Ruaki, an aunt of Te Maiharanui at Tuahiwi, washed and cooked it at the Little Ashley decided the action of the Ngai Tahu to strike first.

When Te Rauparaha's leading chiefs were within the pa bargaining or more likely "commandeering" the greenstone, the Ngai Tahu struck. Te Pehi-tu-a-te-rangi, Te Pokaitara, Te Rangikatuta, Te Ruatahi, Te Hua Piko, Te Aratangata, Te Kohi and Te Kohua all trusted companions of Te Rauparaha were slain. As the majority of Te Rauparaha's force had returned from Kaikoura and Omihi to Kapiti Island previously, the northern leader had no option but to retire to his canoes at Waipara Mouth, and head for the north. Te Pehi-tu-a-te-rangi, the leading chief slain, received his first wound at the hands of a warrior, Te Paa. Te Paa figures in another chapter and is the ancestor of a very old Maori friend of the writer Wiremu Rehu Te Paa (now deceased) of Tuahiwi. Te page 36Rauparaha had his revenge two years later when he captured Te Maiharanui and desroyed Takapuneke Kainga at Akaroa.

At the close of 1831, Te Rauparaha came south to Kaiapohia with a force of 600 of his best warriors made up of the following tribes:—Ngati Toa, Ngati Awa, Ngati Raukawa, Puketapu, Ngati Kura, Ngati Koata, Ngati Tama and Ngati Maru. The main hapus of the Ngai Tahu in Kaiapohia at that time were the Ngati Tuteahuka and Ngati Hikawaikura.

A section of the attacking forces went overland to the attack via Tophouse and Hanmer, the others went around by sea in canoes. The Ngati Kuia were forced allies of Te Rauparaha.

Had the northerners attacked on arrival the pa would have fallen quickly as it was then thinly garrisoned. Taiaroa came back with a force to help, but such relief being insufficient, he emerged again to gather a relieving taua from Otakou. Delay occurred and the memorable siege of Kaiapohia commenced.

There is little doubt, lack of cohesion in the Ngai Tahu Tribe resulting from the ill feeling caused during the Kai Huanga Feud, plus lack of pakeha fire-arms (which Te Rauparaha possessed) caused the fall of the pa, quite as much as the burning down of its palisades. The northerners had placed brushwood against the defences. When a nor'-wester was blowing a chief Pureko set fire to the tinder to get rid of the menace, but unfortunately the wind changed and blew the flames against the palisades. Some of the Ngai Tahu escaped by way of the Huirapa Gate and the Tairutu Swamp and reached safety, some at Maungatere (Mount Grey), others went south to Wai a te ruati Pa near Temuka, which Te Rauparaha wisely did not attack.

Of the thousand men, women and children in the pa, a portion escaped, some were slain, and the rest taken prisoners. A lad Paura was captured but escaped. His descendants live to-day as the Pitama family of Tuahiwi, and the Kini family of Wairewa. The late Mr Kini of Wairewa was quite a character to be seen on the Little River Railway Station with all his garments patched with flax. Perhaps those pakehas who made ungracious remarks little knew that in his blood ran the bluest strains of the Ngai Tahu Tribe and that he was wellversed in history.

Te Rauparaha despite the fact that he was responsible for the deaths of several thousand persons of the Maori race in both Islands, did not however lack some redeeming qualities. During the siege of Kaiapohia, Hakopa Te Ata-o-Tu slew in single combat Te Pehi Tahau, one of Te Rauparaha's noted fighters. When the pa fell, Hakopa Te Ata-o-Tu (Old Jacob) was taken prisoner; but instead of putting him into the oven page 37Te Rauparaha congratulated the Ngai Tahu chief on his bravery, and gave him a trusted duty at Kapiti Island. Old Jacob eventually returned to Canterbury and became an outstanding member of St. Stephen's Anglican Church at Tuahiwi under the Rev. J. W. Stack. The great-grandson of Te Ato-o-Tu served in the Maori Battalion during the World War, and now lives at Tuahiwi.

When Kaiapohia Pa fell, Tuahiwi and some half-dozen kaingas within marching distance were destroyed by Te Rauparaha's army along with the aged or infirm inhabitants who had been unable to escape.

Wiremu Te Uki of Tuahiwi giving evidence before the Royal Commission of 1879 (Mr Nairn, Judges Smith and Young) stated:—"We left Tuahiwi because it became sacred." "We built a new pa over on the sandhills named Tioriori." "It was fear of the deities that made us remove from Tuahiwi to Tioriori." "We were induced to locate ourselves again at Tuahiwi by the Rev. J. W. Stack."

When H. T. Kemp came in 1848 the Maoris were not dwelling at Tuahiwi.

On September 21st, 1848, Mr W. B. D. Mantell, the Commissioner appointed to complete the Kemp's Purchase at Akaroa guaranteed the Maoris that the site of Old. Kaiapohia Pa would be made a reserve that would be sacred to Maori and Pakeha for ever, and no person would dwell there. The Rev. J. Raven, the Anglican clergyman of Woodend, and one of the oldest settlers near the old pa, gathered together all the human remains he could find, and re-interred them reverently in a common grave.

Through the exertions of the Rev. Canon J. W. Stack, sufficient money was raised to erect a Memorial on the site of Old Kaiapohia Pa. The reverend gentleman laid the foundation stone on October 20th, 1898, before a large assembly of both races. The Memorial was unveiled by the Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, Premier, on April 3rd, 1899. Mr T. E. Green of Tuahiwi was the chairman of the Memorial Committee. The Memorial Tiki is 28 feet in height and was erected by Messrs Graham and Greig.

The site of Kaiapohia Pa was raised to the status of a full Native Reserve on July 10th, 1868, as Reserve No. 898. The Tairutu Lagoon was made a Native Reserve in May 1899, as Reserve No. 873a, and the custody of both reserves was placed under the control of five trustees. Notwithstanding the pledge given by Mr W. B. D. Mantell in 1848 that the place would be held sacred, an application was made in recent years to have the area dug up systematically for curios. Needless to say, the request was refused, and the Judge of the Native Land Court present concurred with the decision of the trustees.

The Old Pa was visited by sixty members of the Christ-page 38church Workers' Educational Association on September 19th, 1925. Mr Henry Uru, m.p., enlightened the gathering concerning the history of the place. The New Brighton W.E.A. paid a visit on June 13th, 1931, Mr W. D. Barrett being the speaker. A few years later on July 28th, 1934, the Christchurch W.E.A. again visited Kaiapohia, when the address was given by Mr I. W. Karaitiana.

On October 7th, 1929, the Canterbury Automobile Association resolved to erect a direction sign at the Main North Road. On October 25th, 1931, the Centenary of the Siege was held. Religious services were held at St. Stephen's Anglican Church, Tuahiwi, by Archbishop Julius and Bishop Bennett. The Ratana services were held at the Runanga Hall. On October 26th, 1931, Lord Bledisloe visited Kaiapohia Pa, escorted by Maori horsemen. Mr Tuiti Makitanara, m.p., for Southern Maori with several other members of Parliament, clergy and leading citizens were present among the assembly.

On August 9th, 1935, the Maoris of North Canterbury with the approval of the Kaiapohia Pa Trust Board sought the assistance of the Rangiora County Council in erecting a model pa on the site. The proposal was, however, after due consideration, rejected as being too costly.

Tuahiwi makes its first appearance as a place associated with the pakeha on June 1st, 1852, when G. W. Metehau (George Williams) wrote to Mr John Robert Godley of the Canterbury Association offering to sell timber at Tuahiwi and allowing Europeans to dwell there at a rental payable to himself as owner of the locality. The letter is too lengthy to give in full. His grandfather Te Aritaua with his wife Te Hiwai went and dwelt at Tuahiwi. "When they reached Tuahiwi, Tane the chief stood up and said: "Thou art come to thy place, for thee is all this place and land all Tuahiwi." Metehau mentions the other chiefs Pikai, Rapa and Kaitupuku, then goes on to say: "When Aritaua dwelt at Tuawhiwi the chieftainship fell to Aritaua, afterwards came Tuhakararu. Tuhakaruru and Aritaua paid backets and mats for Tuahiwi to Tane." The son of Aritaua was Pakipaki, and his sons were G. W. Metehau and Pohau Wangahoro. Their father had a carved house called Te Huinga and a food store named Hikurangi.

Alas the offer so kindly made for Europeans to dwell at Tuahiwi called forth a letter of protest to the Agent of the Canterbury Association, as the result of a meeting held by the North Canterbury Maoris. The letter was written by Henry Fletcher, schoolmaster and is dated June 22nd, 1852:—"I am instructed by the Maoris of Kaiapoi to state that the only piece of land possessed by G. W. Metehau or his brother at Tuahiwi is 20 feet square on which formerly stood a house and whata belonging to Tuhakaruru, for which he gave two page 39mats and two pokekas in payment to Tane. There is no wood on it, he cannot let or lease without the consent of the parties. Therefore let no white man be led astray. Unless the majority of the Kaiapoi Maoris are consulted, no person whatever will hold any land belonging to them in peace."

When Mr W. B. D. Mantell visited Kaiapoi on September 2nd, 1849, dealing with Kemp's Purchase, Metehau evinced good common sense when he apprised his fellows that the conditions were harsh, and land and money totally inadequate. However he lost his temper and endeavoured to kill the Commissioner with his mere. Aperahama Te Aika and Wi Te Paa saved Mantell's life, and in reward received the Puharakekenui Native Reserve (No. 892) at Lower Styx in 1868.

The mere which Te Aika used during the siege of Kaiapohia formerly belonged to his grandfather Te Hau. For a period it was in the possession of Karatia of Old Waikouaiti. The first occasion the mere was on public exhibition was at a Curio Show of the Rangiora Presbyterian Church on September 11th, 1934. A few years ago Eruera Te Aika presented the weapon to the Canterbury Museum. It is probably the best specimen of a mere in New Zealand.

The following persons have occupied the office of chairman (Chief) of the Tuahiwi Runanga from the year 1860 up to the present time (1945):—Pita Te Hori, Poihipi, Te Aorahua, Tare Te Ihoka, Wi Naihira, Taituha Hape, T. E. Green, Te Hau Korako, E. Te Aika and W. D. Barrett.

The original Runanga Hall which was called Tutekawa, narrowly escaped destruction by fire, but the Maori bucket brigade made a good save on April 14th, 1872. The carvings which once adorned that hall are now stored in the Canterbury Museum. The first hall was replaced by another building which was opened on June 17th, 1880, when the speakers were the Revs. J. W. Stack and H. C. M. Watson, Messrs Tare Te Ihoka and Hone Paratane. This hall was named Tuahuriri and cost £300. The hall Tuahuriri was lifted off its foundations by a gale on August 20th, 1880. Replaced, it functioned until the present Runanga Hall was opened. Acetelyne gas lighting was installed in the hall Tuahuriri on May 8th, 1909.

At a meeting held in the hall Tuahiriri on March 21st, 1918, it was resolved to erect the present hall, which was declared open by the Hon. J. G. Coates. The dedication service was conducted by Archbishop Julius, assisted by the local vicar. Judge Rawson of the Native Land Court, several members of Parliament and leading people were present when the ceremony took place on August 3rd, 1922. The hall is named Mahunui, after the canoe used by Maui, an ancestor of many hundred years ago. The cost of the building and fittings was approximately £3,000.

page 40

Kaiapohia, until its destruction by Te Rauparaha in 1831, was the capital of the Ngai Tahu lands. Tuahiwi, on the Kaiapoi Native Reserve, for nearly a century has enjoyed that distinction. Notable visitors are invariably welcomed at Tuahiwi. The proceedings take the form of speeches by the chairman of the Runanga, a few of the native elders, schoolmaster and clergyman, and needless to say a sumptuous feast follows. A gift of some Maori article is usually given to the guest (or guests). The Maoris of Tuahiwi do not lack the art of extending hospitality.

The following in the briefest of language are some of the functions which have been held:—Visits: Sir George Grey, Governor, February 9th, 1867; Members of the Arawa, Ngati Rangi, and Tuwharetoa Tribes under Poihipi Tukairangi on February 10th, 1867; Sir George Bowen, Governor, January 14th, 1869; Hon. William Rolleston, Superintendent of Canterbury, October 22nd, 1874; Hon. J. Sheehan, the first New Zealand-born Minister of Native Affairs, April 30th, 1878; Sir Arthur Gordon, Governor, December 26th, 1881; Sir William Jervois, Governor, February 9th, 1885; Hon. John Ballance, Minister of Native Affairs, March 1st, 1886; Hon. E. Richardson, June 16th, 1884; Bishop Harper, January 25th, 1885; Lord Onslow, Governor, on November 14th, 1889 and December 18th, 1891; Archbishop Julius, May 25th 1890; Captain G. A. Preece, a veteran of the Maori Wars, on July 10th, 1891; Lord Glasgow, Governor, January 20th, 1893; Kotahitanga Rugby Football Team, August 7th, 1896; Lord Ranfurly, Governor, June 16th, 1898, November 1900, and April 7th, 1904; Hon. E. Mitchelson, Minister of Native Affairs, December 10th, 1889. Hon. A. J. Cadman, who took every chance possible to give assistance in providing land for landless natives, when Minister of Native Affairs, December 19th, 1892; Wikitoria, daughter of Major Kemp, loyalist native chief, December 23 rd, 1900; Officers of the Antarctic exploration ship Discovery, December 11th, 1901; Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, Premier, April 8th, 1902; Members of the Arawa, Ngati Toa and Ngati Rawakana Tribes, July 3rd, 1905; Hon. Sir James Carroll, August 15th, 1906; Hon. A. T. Ngata, May 8th,1909; Officers of H.M.S. New Zealand, May 16th, 1913; Hon. Sir James Carroll, who was an outstanding orator, January 30th, 1918; Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, author, December 17th, 1920; Chief Judge Jones of the Native Land Court, January 19th, 1925; New South Wales Rugby Football Team, August 1st, 1925; Bishop Bennett, first visit as a Maori bishop, May 25th, 1929; Chief Judge R. N. Jones and the Hon. A. T. Ngata, June 4th, 1929; British Rugby Team, July 8th, 1930; Right Hon. G. Forbes, Premier, May 30th, 1931; Mr D. G. Sullivan and others Mayors, February 5th, 1935: Indian Hockey Team, June 23rd, 1935; Right Hon. Michael Joseph Savage, Premier, page 41and the Hon. D. G. Sullivan, February 19th, 1937; Sir Cyril and Lady Newall, November 29th, 1944. Besides these official receptions numerous conferences relating to Ngai Tahu welfare (especially land questions and the Ngai Tahu Claim) have been held at Tuahiwi from time to time.

To deal fully with all resolutions and other proceedings of conferences held at Tuahiwi would call for a large work, dealing entirely with the Ngai Tahu Claim. The gathering held during March 1874 occupied three weeks. The principal speakers were H. K. Taiaroa, Horomona Pohio and Matiaha Tiramorehu. Another lengthy hui took place during May 1882. The korero held for several weeks of September 1883 was concerned principally with raising funds to enable the Maoris to fight for the Claim by legal means. During September 1885, the merits of the Claim were again well ventilated.

In August 1922 yet another discussion took place under the chairmanship of Mr J. H. Ellison. The sale and lease proposals in connection with the Greymouth Reserve were also considered.

So far as an investigation by Government appointed Royal Commission is concerned that carried out by Mr Nairn, Judges Smith and Nairn was thorough. The Commissioners of 1879 had every support from the Hon. J. Sheehan, the Native Minister, but his successor in that office the Hon. J. Bryce stifled the final result. The latter gentleman as his statements printed in Hanzard show, had little love for the Maori people.

Judge Alexander Mackay in two Royal Commissions brought a just consideration of the Claim before Parliament. Messrs J. Strauchon, J. Ormsby and Judge R. N. Jones as a Royal Commission on November 30th, 1920, settled the compensation on the very lowest estimate at £354,000. The Claim was considered by the Maoris at Tuahiwi during August 1920; Mr J. H. W. (Billy) Uru being the principal speaker. Over six hundred Maoris were present during the month of January 1925 when the allocation methods were discussed.

Two committees were set up, each with opposite ideas. One was led by R. M. Taiaroa, the other by W. T. Pitama. One favoured a general distribution to all who could trace Ngai Tahu descent from owners in the Block at the time of Kemp's Deed. The other was more concerned for the interest of those who could produce several succession orders. Feeling ran high, and even some wahines danced a haka and went into action. For a time it appeared no compromise or decision would be arrived at. Finally Mr W. T. Pitama allowed that even Ngati Mamoe land occupiers' descendants would be considered.

Chief Judge R. N. Jones on January 20th, 1925, held a whakapapa (genealogy) day. Descent was further investigated by the Native Land Court during June and November, 1926. page 42Chief Judge Jones with the Hon. A. T. Ngata, and Tuiti Makitanara, m.p., on June 4th, 1929, suggested whatever money was voted by a Government should be funded into a Trust and the money used in a more general way, than outlined by the Ngai Tahu under its distribution under three headings.

A Trust Board was formed. Sums of £50,000 and £100,000 during the depression years offered by the Government were declined. To the late Tuiti Makitanara, m.p., is due the credit of having accomplished an official acknowledgement of the Claim.

On December 15 th, 1944, the Labour Government pruned the Royal Commission award (a low estimate) down to £300,000, and the means adopted by which finality is reached in thirty years' time can only be described as shrewd.

Education of the natives first appears in the days of the Canterbury Association, when a native school was in operation at Kaiapoi during the years 1851 and 1852. Henry Fletcher was the schoolmaster. Pita Te Hori, later a Native Assessor was one of the pupils. The school pupils roll is still in existence. On the closing of that school the Maoris were left to shift for themselves.

On September 10th, 1859, Bishop Harper, the Revs. Jacobs and Cotterell together with Mr John Hall (later Sir John Hall) arrived at Tuahiwi, and with the aid of Pita Te Hori, the Anglican missionary James West Stack was introduced to the Maoris, and on the following day a site for a mission school was selected. Paora Tau, Wiremu Te Uki, Hakopa Te Ata o Tu and Ihaia Tainui accorded the welcome.

On May 10th, 1862, the Anglican Church brought down from Auckland, at a cost of £40, a native school teacher Ruinui and his wife. Though the Maoris appreciated the establishment of a place of Christian worship in their midst, they were suspicious of the influence of a school, and three years elapsed before that project was properly launched. The Maoris gave 20 acres of land and half an acre of timber, labour and £62 towards the erection of the Mission building and guaranteed £150 per annum, stipend and expenses. Selling firewood in Lyttelton and Christchurch was the means by which the Maoris raised the necessary money.

The Rev. J. W. Stack was admitted to Holy Orders on December 19th, 1860. There is a large amount of correspondence by the Rev. Stack to the Provincial and General Governments from 1860 to 1865 requesting subsidies in the archives. The authorities did not have the revenue available to the extent they did in the seventies.

In November 1863, the Tuahiwi Mission School was ready to commence operations in a small way. However it was not until August 1865, that the first pupil was enrolled. In April 1866 the roll increased to 15 scholars. The school hours were page 439 a.m. to 12 noon and 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The fee per child was 1/- per week, which besides learning, included board and clothing. Miss Rebecca Taylor was the schoolmistress at £75 per annum.

On December 4th, 1864, the Rev. J. W. Stack stated to the Provincial Secretary of Canterbury that £750 had been the cost of the building, which had been met by grants, and Maori and Pakeha subscriptions. The land donated by the Maoris for Anglican School and Church purposes was gazetted by the Governor on September 6th, 1861. The Rev. J. W. Stack and Mr H. J. Tancred were gazetted as trustees of St. Stephen's Church land on December 30th, 1870.

On May 5th, 1870, at 10 a.m. the school, mission building and the Rev. J. W. Stack's residence adjoining were destroyed by fire. The loss on the building was £800, on the furniture, and personal effects £280. So ended the Tuahiwi Mission School. The Provincial Government having withdrawn grants to denominational schools, and taken the administration of education into its own hands, the Crown Grant of Section No 91 of 20 acres standing in the name of the Anglican bishop was recalled and the area reduced to 16 acres, the remaining four acres being set aside as Section No. 91a.

The Tuahiwi Native School was opened in 1872, with Mr and Mrs Henry Reeves as its teachers. The school was continuously under their charge from 1872 until Mr Reeves died in 1899, except during the year 1886 when Mr and Mrs Reeves had a change to a North Island native school. Mr and Mrs W. A. Leech were the teachers during the year 1886.

Mr David Cossgrove took control in 1900. L. J. Armitage in 1915, S. H. Andrews in 1916, G. Holmes in 1919, R. McSporran in 1922, and Alexander Dempsey in 1923. Several short-period teachers followed on, until Mrs Philips took charge. She has had to date at least one successor.

Tuahiwi Native School enjoys the distinction of having been the first Maori school in the South Island to send pupils forth to Te Aute College on Makarini Scholarships (Sir Donald McLean memorial awards). In February 1883, Hoani Uru won the honour; in May 1894, W. D. Barrett (the present head of the Tuahiwi Runa0nga), and Edward Sherboard in February 1896.

On July 27th 1909, the school buildings of the Provincial era were destroyed by fire. The present school was opened on August 10th, 1910, when speeches were delivered by Messrs H. Langford, Taituha Hape and the Rev. Fraer.

The foundation stone of St. Stephen's Anglican Church, Tuahiwi, was laid by Governor Sir George Grey on February 9th, 1867, assisted by Bishop Harper, Rev. J. W. Stack, Messrs Pita Te Hori and Koro Maitai, and the church was opened on September 11th, 1867, by Dean Jacobs, and the Revs. Stack, page 44Willock and B. W. Dudley. The vicarage of St. Stephen's was dedicated by Archbishop Julius on September 6th, 1906.

The Anglican Maoris of North Canterbury during May 1903, gathered in force in the Tuahiwi Runanga Hall and voiced a strong protest to the Anglican Church authorities at the discontinuation of the South Island Maori Mission, and also voiced objection to the St. Stephen's Church congregation being attached to Rangiora or other European parishes. Feeling ran high on what the natives considered (rightly) a breach of faith, seeing the land was handed over so gratuitously for a specific purpose. A direct appeal was also made to Archbishop Julius.

Half the former Anglican Maori families in Canterbury can now be counted members of the Ratana sect. St. Stephens in 1945 was merely a branch of Rangiora parish, and has been so for many years. Prior to 1903 the ministers were Revs. J. W. Stack, G. P. Mutu, Woodthorpe, W. Ronaldson and W. Blathwayt. From 1904 to 1917 the Rev. Fraer did yeoman service for the Tuahiwi Maoris; 1918 to 1919 Rev. E. Webb and the Rev. E. Chard 1928 to 1930.

Four acres of land was set aside in the sixties by the Maoris for the Wesleyan Church, but was never used by the Rev. James Buller who always acted as far as possible with the Rev. J. W. Stack, the Anglican missioner. On September 30th, 1893, the Maoris requested the Native Land Court to be allowed the rental to be used for charitable purposes. The rents in 1945 were payable to the Tuahiwi Runanga.

During the sixties the Maoris used to hold annual horse race meetings near the kainga. Near the Tutaepatu Lagoon at Waikuku on February 1st, 1893, the Maoris held a general sports gathering. A feature was the eel-spearing contest which was won by H. Pohio.

The Tuahiwi Post Office was opened on January 1st, 1900. The first meeting of the old Mahunui Maori Council was held at Tuahiwi on September 11th, 1902, Mr Taituha Hape presiding.

On October 18th, 1922, the Maoris considered erecting a Great War Soldiers' Memorial at a cost of £800, but on reflection were content with the Roll of Honour in the Runanga Hall which had been unveiled by Mr Te Aika on June 14th, 1916. A flag was presented to H.M.S. New Zealand on February 4th, 1917, and its duplicate was dedicated by the Rev. Fraer at St. Stephen's Church on June 10th, 1917.

On December 10th, 1866, Pita Te Hori raised a Maori Rifle Volunteer Corps, but it did not carry on through the strenuous opposition of the elders led by Hakopa Te Ata o Tu.

Roading through the Kaiapoi Reserve was sanctioned by the Maoris on August 19th, 1855. On November 6th, 1873, the Rangiora and Manderville Road Board paid compensation page 45and the Maoris permitted the Church Bush Road and Revell's Road to be formed. On February 10th, 1911, the Maoris of Tuahiwi raised £100 and with a £2 for £1 subsidy from the Government prevailed on the Rangiora Road Board to recondition the roads within the reserve.

The Native Reserve in the early days had several large patches of bush, the timber sold providing the Maoris with considerable revenue. Several thousand pounds loss was occasioned by the bush fire which broke out on October 12th, 1859. A similar happening occurred during April 1866.

The Native Reserve was fully surveyed in 1859, sections set out in 1860, allotments issued May 1861, and the Grown Grants delivered on September 19th, 1865. On April 27th, 1873, the Maoris decided on laying out a township.

The Tairutu Lagoon at Kaiapohia was partially drained during July 1861.