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A Leaf from the Natural History of New Zealand

Part III

Part III.


The Natives count time by nights, moons, and stars, and instead of distinguishing the days by names, they confer that honor on the nights; different tribes rather vary in their names and order, but there is a general resemblance between them, as will be seen by the following list, in which four different names, in use among the different tribes, are given to each lunar night respectively. The first three names are those of the nights when the moon is invisible:



Nonihape kamate, Nonihape, Nonihape, Noniape


Takatakaputeikeiraro, Takatakaputei, Takatakaputei, Takatakaputei ngaromuia


Witikirawekakitea, Witikiraua, Witikiraua, Witikiraua


Mawetu, Ohata, Ohata, Ohiro


Tuhahi, Owenguku, Ohiro, Ohawata hetireo


Wakapou, Mawetu, Ohowata, Owenguku


Hehotama, Tutahi, Tuhahi, Mawetu tamatea


He pa, Wakapou, Mawetu, Tamateatuatahi


He ari, Pa, Wakapou, Pa tamateawakapa


He huna, Ari, Pa, Hari


He mowaru, Hua, Ari, Huni


He hua, Huna, Huni, Mawaru


He atua, Mawaru, Mawaru, He hua


He otu, Atua—full moon, Hua, Atua


He maure or Mahure, Otu, Atua, Otu


He oturu, Mahire, Otu, Oturu


He rakaunui, Rakaunui, Oturu, Rakaunui

page 59

He rakaumatoke, Rakaumatohe, Rakaunui, Rakaumatohe


Takirau, Takirau, Rakaumatohe, Takirau


Te ohika, Ohika, Takirau, Ohika


Korekoretutahi, Korekoretahi, Ohika, Korikorituhahi


Korokorowakapou, Korekorewakapou, Tangaroa, Korikori wapou


Tangaroa amua, Tangaroa amua, Tangaroa amua, Tangaroa amua


He Roto, Roto, Tangaroa a roto, Tangaroa a roto


Kiokio, Kiokio, He kiokio, Kiokio


He o tane, Otane, Otane, Otane


He Rongonui, Rongonui, Rongonui, Rongonui


He Mouri, Mouri, Mouri, Mouri

He Oho mutu, Ohomutu, He Oa mutu, O a mutu.



He Noniape, invisible


He Ngaromuia, he Ohowata


Witiki rawa, he tireo


He Oenguku


He Okoro


Tamatea tutahi


Tamatea tuarua


Tamatea Wakapa


He Ari


He Hua


He Hune


He Mawaru


He Whiro


He Otu


He Atua


He Turu. He Rakaununui


He Matohe


He Takirau


He Oeke


He Korekore, he korehe


He Korekorepiri




Tangaroa amua


Tangaroa a roto


Tangaroa a kiokio


He Otane


He Rongonui


He Mauri

He Mutu

There appears also to have been a kind of division of the nights into decades, as ten nights to the full moon, ten to its disappearing.

The native year commences with the first new moon after the star Puanga is seen in the morning, which is in June:

June, moon 1. Puanga*

July, moon 2. Wakaau* The karaka flowers

Augt. moon 3. Wakapoupoto*Mangere* Kaiwaka*

Sept. moon 4. Te wa taka- page 60 pou* i te wai Oetahi.* The Hou flowers, also the Kowai, Rangiora, Kotukutuku; the month for planting the kumara

Oct. moon 5. Te Rima takapoupoto

Novr. moon 6. Ono. The Rewarewa and Rata flower

Decr. moon 7. Witu, Wakakumu; the karaka is ripe

Jany. moon 8. Waru, Uruao*

Feby. moon 9. Iwa iti, Rehua.* This star is the great sign of Summer as it shines during the whole of it. Iwa nui, Matiti.* Te Marama ka pau te wai; the dry month. Ko te pake o matiti

March, moon 10. Ngahuru. Te Kahue rua; the kumara ripe

April, moon 11. Tuma, Ngahuru tuarua, Mahu and Ko te pae nga wawa, Haratua

May, moon 12. Ko tetahi pipiri, Kai waka, Matariki te marua roa,* Patutahi, Watutahi

Moon 13. Tahi ngungu, grumbling month, little food, bad weather, smoky houses, watery eyes, constant quarrels.

N.B.—The names marked with an* are stars.

The signs of the approach of Summer are the flowering of the following trees and plants:


The Pikiarero, clematis


The Kotukutuku, fuschia


The Pukapuka. Syn. with Warangi


The Ho


The Kowai


The Rewarewa, the Rora


The Pohutukaua


The Rata.

The Winter months are distinguished by the rising of the following stars:


Puanga, in May


Matariki, in June, and Te ra o Tainui


Kopu and Tautoru, in July


Wakaau and Mangere, in August.

Matariki shines all the winter, and is therefore called the great Winter star, as Rehua, which shines all the Summer, is called the great summer star.

The sign that Summer has commenced, and that the Kumara are ripe, is the arrival of the two birds of passage, the page 61 New Zealand Cuckoos, the Kohaperoa, or Koekoea (fascialus Forst.) and the beautiful little Pipiwawaroa (cuculus nitens) which arrive about Christmas, and mark the potatoe harvest; they only remain about six weeks.

The names of the four seasons are:

Ko Toru, Ko Tahi, Ko Takarua, Spring—September, Oct., Nov.

Raumati, Summer—characteristically named from the fall of the leaf, the trees now shedding their old foliage—Dec., Jan., Feb.

Ngahuru, Autumn—March, April, May

Hotoke, Makariri, Winter — June, July, August.

The Summer months are called Waka au nguku, or the season when the sun begins to warm the ground. They are also distinguished by the following names:

Waka au nguku

Waka ahu rangi

Waka ahu Tau

Waka ahu Papa

Waka ahu kerekere tai, tapu ki Hawaiki

Time, (in continuation)

Ahiahi, evening

Ahiahitanga, time of evening

Aianei, to-day; directly

Ake, onwards, either in time or space

Akeakeake, Akenei, henceforth

Akengokengo, to-morrow

Akenoi, until

Akuanei, this evening; presently

Amua, Amuri, hereafter

Anamata, hereafter

Ao, day; light

Aoake, next day

Aoinaake, day after to-morrow

Aongaake, following day

Aotea, when the sun has been up some time

Apopo, to-morrow

Arohirohi, fine day: the quivering heat of the sun when it shines on a clear summer's day; mirage

Ata, morning

Atahapara, break of day

Atapo, before it is light

Atarau, moonlight

page 62

Atatu, break of day

Atetahi ra, day after to-morrow

Awaki, day after; two days after to-morrow

Awaki nui atu, three days after to-morrow

Awatea, daylight; noon

Hinakipouri, quite dark

Hotoke, winter

Huaki, dawn

Hutoke, winter

Inaianei, to-day; just now

Inakuara, a little while ago

Inamata, formerly; quickly; immediately

Inanahi, yesterday

Inangeto, quickly

Inaoake, three days ago

Inaoakenui, four days ago

Inapo, last night

Inatahi ra, day before yesterday

Ina tetahi ra, three days ago

Ina waki, four days ago

Ina waki nui atu, five days ago

Ite awatea, at daybreak

Ka tu te ra, noon

Kua po, the day is ended

Kua riko te ra, the sun has waned

Kua titaha te ra, the sun has declined

Maruao, dawn of day

Maru po, midnight

Meake, soon; presently

Nomua, before; formerly

Nonaianei, to-day

Nonakuara, little while ago

Nonamata, long time ago

Nonanahi, yesterday

Nonao ake, day before yesterday

Nonaoakenui, three days ago

Nonapo, last night

O mua, formerly

Parawea, noon

Po, night; also a season

Po hotoke, winter season

Po raumati, summer season

Puaotanga, time of dawn

Ra, daylight; a day

Raumati, summer

Rehurehu, to decline, as the sun

Riko, to wane, as the moon

Rikoriko, dark; twilight

Takiri, dawn of day

Takurua, winter

Taro, short time; soon

Tau, a year

Tetahi wahi, moment

Tirakiraki te hua, full moon

Toene, to set; as the sun

Toenetanga, act or time of sitting

Wa, time; season

Wawe, suddenly

The Heavens, Stars, &c.

Aokai, star

Arohirohi, radiation of the sun on a hot day

Atutahi, star; ruling over September

page 63

Auroa, star; a comet; he tohu kai, he tohu tapatupatu; a sign of a fruitful season or war

Autahi, star, ruling over September

Auwahiroa, comet

Haereahiahi, evening star; ka nohomai i tai ko mata i umu

Haereiti, star

Hawiorangi, te toke o Turi

He umu hau, circle round the moon; halo; sign of wind

Hihi, ray of the sun

Hua, full moon

Ka hoki pouri, Ka hinaki pouri, E haere ano ki te mate—no moon

Ka hua te marama, full moon

Kahui, star

Kaiwaka, star, presiding over August

Kaiwaka, star which appears in April and May

Kaiwaka, star, presiding over August

Ka iti, new moon

Ka iti haere te marama, the moon wanes

Ka mate, no moon

Ka mate te marama, ina hoki e tarakau, one rim only of the moon is seen

Kamohani, Kanuihaere, 2nd quarter

Ka puta atamai, increasing moon

Kariko, Ka tino nui, 3rd quarter

Karipiripi, star

Kawitiwiti, star

Kirikiri, star

Kokopu, bright morning star

Komaru, sun

Kopuanga, star

Koteuanui, star

Kotiri, meteor; a falling star

Kowiti, to appear as the new moon

Kukumi, cock crow; morning star

Kuru a auia, star

Kuru a wewinga, star

Mahutonga, star

Mamaru, sun

Mangatawa, star

Mangere, star

Marama, moon; if the moon appears more than usually surrounded with stars, when an enemy approaches, it is a sign the pa will fall; the moon represents the pa, the stars the enemy

Matakokiri, falling star

Mataoturoe, star

Mataka, star

Matiti, star; sign of summer

Matitikura, star

Matariki, star which appears in June, and continues the whole of the winter; it disappears in the spring; it is the great sign of winter

Matitire, star

Matititerauangina, star

Mauhuia, star

Meremere, morning star

Mongoroiata, milky way; when distinctly seen, it is page 64 a sign of a fruitless season; the milky way is thought to be a large fish god, who has a large canoe on the other side of the heaven called Kanetaka, having a man on board named Pupuki

Ngahuihui, star

Nga kawainga, star

Nga tapuwai, star

Ngawata, this star belongs to Nga tuke; a Taitoru, nana i takiri te ra te marama—presides over April

Oetahi, star, presiding over September

Pae, horizon

Patutahi, star, which rules over May

Pioreore, lesser Magellan cloud; it is known by its appearance from what quarter the wind will blow

Pipiri, star

Pipiwarauroa, large white cloud extending across the heavens, commonly called Noah's ark—a sign of strangers coming

Pongoihoro, blue sky

Ponoitaratahi, star

Puanga, star which presides over June and ends the year

Puhera, red color of Mars

Purehurehu, luminous cloud

Ra, sun

Raotainui, star in the constellation of Tainui

Rangawenua, star

Rangi, heaven

Rangiatea, clear atmosphere

Rangimatanuku, greater Magellan cloud

Rauatapatu, star

Rauawehea, star

Rangiwiu, upper regions of the atmosphere; the heavens

Rehua, star which shines during summer, and is, therefore, a sign of summer

Reinga, Hades

Rereahiahi, evening star

Reua, star

Roke, star

Ruamahu, star

Takiara, very bright morning star

Takiri, dawn of day

Takurua, star

Tapupua, star

Taraka, star

Tareao, evening star

Taumanga, star

Tautoru, bright morning star; part of the constellation of the rapa in the waka of Tamarereti

Tawera, morning star

Tawitorangiuru, star; the father of Matariki

Tioreore, star

Tukapotewahi, star

Tuke-o-mawe, constellation in form of an elbow

Uamakau, star

Uanui, star

Uaroa, star

page 65

Uatutuki, star

Wakaahu, star, presiding over July

Waka o Tamarereti, three stars in the East forming a constellation of a canoe

Wariwari. Syn. with Pipiwarauroa

Watutahi, star

Wetu, general name for star

Wetukokiri, falling stars

Wetukura, star; when it appears the natives commence their planting

Weturaka, starry firmament

Wetuteme, star

Wetuwero, star; Mars

Wewengu, star.


Ahi, fire

Aniwaniwa, rainbow

Anu, cold misty air

Ao-ma, white clouds

Aonga, light

Aopango, clear blue sky

Au, Auahi, smoke

Awiouro, whirlwind

Hahana, to shine as fire

Hungurunguru, rumbling noise; the human voice at a distance

Haruru, rumbling noise

Hatete, fire

Hau, air; wind

Hauhunga, ice

Hauku, dew

Haunui, dew

Haupapa, ice

Haurahi, dew; frost

Haurutu, dew

Hautoru, dew

Hehengi, to blow

He rangi tukupu, cloudy day, without rain

Hihi, hissing of boiling water

Huka, cold

Hukapapa, Hukarere, snow

Kanaku, fire

Kapa, sea clouds

Kapua, cloud

Kapura, fire

Kopaka, ice

Kopata, dew

Korakora, spark

Korohu, Korowanake, steam

Maeke, Makariri, cold

Maku, wet

Mamaha, Mamaoa, steam

Mapura, fire

Marama, light

Maru, to melt

page 66

Mataotao, Matoke, coldness

Ngunguru, echo

Oro, echo

Pahunu, fire

Paina, Painaina, to warm

Paki, fine; fair

Paorohine, Paorooro, to tingle

Parikarangaranga, echo; a calling precipice

Pouri, dark

Puaheihei, rainbow

Puhi, to blow

Puia, boiling spring; the noise of escaping gas

Rangi, sky

Rangirangi, to scorch

Rewa, to melt

Taituri, dew

Tokawakawa, dew

Tomairangi, dew

Totoraurau, dew

Tutapue, to rain

Ua, rain

Uira, lightning

Wai, water

Wakatau mai, echo

Watitiri, thunder

Watu, hail.

Of The Water.

Aio, calm

Akau, sea side

Amai, swell

Au, current or rapid

Auha, to jump out of the water

Auhoki, backwater; an eddy

Awa, river

Heru, to flow, as the tide

Honu, water

Huka, foam

Ia, current

Iho, general name for when the current runs through a weir

Kare, ripple

Karekare, the break on a bar

Kauanga, ford

Kere, wetness

Koriparipa, whirlpool

Kuao, squall

Makau, to be low water

Maku, Makuku, wet

Marangai, gale

Marino, Marinoto,

Marinotokitoki, calm

Mata, face of the sea

Matapuna, fountain head

Matahawai, clear transparent water

Matatara, dam

Matawai, source of a river

Marinoke, quite calm

Miru, bubble; a rill of water

Moana, the sea

page 67

Ngae, swamp

Ngaru, wave

Ngongi, pure water

Ngote, water

Parata, spray, or breath of the sea

Pata, drop

Pokaka, squall

Pokaretanga, ripple

Puna, spring

Purorohu, current in the sea

Ranga, bar; shoal water

Repo, swamp

Rere, waterfall

Reto, deep water

Rire, deep water; the deep

Roma, current; the wake of a ship

Roto, lake

Taheke, a rapid

Tai, tide; salt water

Taikatoka, tide flowing

Taimate, calm

Taipakoa, Taipakokorawa, dead low water

Taipari, tide coming in; high water

Tairaki, gentle current in the sea

Tairikiriki, neap tide

Taita, obstruction in a river of wood, &c.

Taitimu, ebb tide

Taitutuki, high water

Tangangao, to be calm

Tawi, to ebb

Tepangatai, beginning of flood tide

Tepuna, a spring

Toro, to spread, as the tide

Torere, an abyss

Tuatea, waves

Tukituki, high water

Tutaki, dam

Waikawa, bitter, or brackish water

Waikauau, running water

Waikeri, rivulet or drain

Waikowetaweta, thick muddy water

Waimaori, fresh water

Waimatao, cold water

Waiparariki, iron water, filled with red ochre

Waipouri, thick or dark water

Waireka, good water

Wairere, water fall

Waitowari, clear as crystal

Waiwera, hot water.


Aheu, changeable wind from the South West

Auru, S. wind

Autui, N. W. wind

Awa, storm

Awanui, W. wind

Hauarahi, W. wind

Hauatui, N. W. wind

page 68

Hauaruru, W. wind

Hauaurunui, S. wind, fine

Hauaurupuapuawai, W.wind; bad for the kumara

Haumoana, sea breeze

Haupa, beating wind

Haupai, N. E. wind

Haupake, S. wind

Haupapa, N. E. wind

Hauparo, long beating wind

Haupurorohu, eddying wind

Hauraro, N. wind

Hauroro, long wind

Hautunu, head wind

Hauwenua, land wind

He parau anake, false wind

He puhi, when it only rains

He tiu, rainy blowing wind

He tupuhi, contrary wind

Kotieu. Syn. with Aheu

Kotiu, N. W. wind; very changeable and rainy

Kotengitengi, gentle wind

Marangai, E. or N. E. wind

Ori, gale, a wet and windy quarter

Pakia, N. W. wind

Parera, N. W. wind

Putongamarangai, S. E. wind

Taparaki, S. W. wind

Tonga, S. wind

Tongamoananui, cold S. E. wind; a cold frosty wind

Tongapai, S. S. E. wind

Tuaraki, N. W. wind

Tukipoho, head wind

Urupuapai, wind

Wakarua, sea breeze

Wakaruhe, windy

Watihu, wind.

Of the Land.

Ahuriri, heap of stones

Akau, sea beach

Akeaka, sloping side

Ana, cave

Arapawa, name for the Middle Island

Aria, promontory

Apiti, precipice

Awaawa, valley

Haupapa, gravelly

Horo, land slip

Hu, promontory

Kakata, cracks in the ground

Kapiti, Kaputi, double precipice

Kaweku, ridge on the ascent of the hill

Keokeonga, peaks of a mountain

Ko papa, name of the earth

Kurae, promontory

Kurutongia, thin soil

Maheno, island

Mania, grassy plain

Mata, face of the earth

Matatatanga, chasm

page 69

Maunga, mountain

Motu, an island

Pahiki kura, red land

Pairoa, Middle Island

Papa, ledge of rocks

Parae, plain

Pi, sand spit

Puke, hill

Pukeamoamoa, barren hill

Rae, promontory

Rao, plain

Raorao, flat land

Raro, applied to the North

Reoreo, plain

Ru, an earthquake

Runga, applied to the South of these islands

Taiororua, valley

Tairua, sea sands

Taituauru, West coast

Tahatika, a coast

Tahora, plain

Tahuna, sea beach

Tahunga, sand banks

Tapokopoko, bog

Tarua, valley

Tatahi, sea beach

Te hinga o Mawe, name of the North Island; literally the fishing of Mawe

Titore, fissure, crack, chasm

Toitoi, summit

Tokerau, Eastern coast

Topito, end or extremity

Toropuke, hill

Torouka, a point

Tuauru, Western coast

Tumu, a point

Tupoa, steep

Uta, shore, land

Wai Pounamu, name of the Middle Island

Warekauri, Chatham Isles

Waroa, valley.

Manufactured Substances, Apparel, &c.

Aho, string; cord; the cross threads of a mat

Aronui, mat

Aute, band for the hair made from the bark of a tree

Hakihaki, worn out mat

Hakuku, to scrape flax

Hana, mat

Hanahana, garment besmeared with red ochre and oil

Haro, flax scraped with a shell

Haronga, short garment for rough weather; a garment made from the coarse part of flax

Hei, ornament for the neck; a chain of beads

Heitiki, ornament for the neck, made of greenstone

page 70

Heru, comb

Hitau, a small narrow mot for the waist

Hou, feather worn as an ornament in the hair

Hukahuka, strings of a mat

Huru, dogskin mat

Hutihuti, a rope

Ihupuni, dogskin mat

Itau, garment worn round the waist

Kaha, rope

Kahu, garment

Kaitaka, bordered mat

Kaka, Kakahu, garment

Kapara, comb

Kapeu, an ornament of green stone

Karau, comb

Karawai, knot of thread

Karure, to twist flax

Katekate, small mat to cover the shoulders

Kauko, side border

Koheuheu, fan

Koka, native mat

Koriranga, mat; strings of a mat which are not twisted

Koroai, mat with black tags

Korohe, large garment

Korohunga, mat

Kurupatu, border of a garment

Mapara, comb

Maro, small apron worn on the naked body in battle

Miro, thread

Miri, black mat

Moko, tooth of the shark; so called worn as an ear ornament

Muka, flax

Napenga, act of weaving; a piece of work which has been wove

Ngeri, rough native mat

Ngetangata, worn out mat

Ngore, mat. Syn. with Tatata

Paipairoa, mat with a border

Pake, rough mat made of flax leaves. Syn. with Haronga. Strings of a mat

Paki, small garment for the waist

Pakipaki, mat

Pakurakura, red garment

Para, mat

Parawai, mat

Pare, bandage for the head; an ornament

Pareare, Parekereke, Parengarenga, snow shoe; a covering for the sole of the foot; a sandal

Pata, native mat

Patai, garment worn round the waist

Patapata, strings of a mat

Patutu, garment, of which the inner part is wove flax, and upon this strips of prepared dogskin are sewed

Pauku, native garment

Pekapeka, ornament for the ear

Pekerangi, a mat

Pekerere, small garment for the shoulders

page 71

Pihepihe, small narrow mat for the waist

Pingao, belt, made from a plant of that name

Pingau, strings of a mat

Pohoi, bunch of feathers worn in the ear

Pokai, ball of twine

Pongi, native girdle

Porera, floor mat for sleeping on

Potae, covering for the head

Puihihi, strings of a mat

Pureki. Syn. with Koko. A rough outer mat with loose flax stalks outside

Pute, Putea, a bag; a basket

Puweru, native mat

Reke, top knot; the hair of the head tied up in a bunch

Reko, white dogskin mat

Remu, hem or border of a garment

Rena, to be stretched out as a garment

Repa, mat

Routu, comb; made from the wood of a tree of that name

Ruruku, girdle; a band

Taheha, small mat

Taniko, embroidered border of a garment

Tapa, thin cloth (qy. is it a N. Z. word?)

Tarahau, mat. Syn. with Haronga

Tatara, mat

Tatara, mat

Tatua, girdle. Syn. with Witiki

Tau, string; as of a garment

Taupiko, ornament of green stone

Taura, rope

Tihei, garment

Tihitihi, mat

Tihore, flax; scraped with the nail

Tiki, green jade ornament

Tipuna, knot

Titaha, mat

Toi, black rough mat; like the thatch of a house

Topuni, dogskin mat

Tuahau, rough mat. Syn. with Pake

Turuturuparawai, sticks to which the web of the mat is fastened in weaving

Ukiuki, hen

Waihinau, mat

Wakaewa, strings of a mat

Wakaheke, rope

Wakakai, ornament for the ear

Wara, mat; used as a carpet

Warariki, Wariki, mat; used as a carpet; a word applied to any covering of a floor, whether fern or grass, or branches of trees

Watu, web of the mat

Watunga, piece of work which is being wove

Uenu, loose, unwove threads

Werotaringa, rough mat. Syn. with Ngeri

Weruweru, garment of any kind

page 72

Weweru, garment. Syn. with Weruweru

Witiki, girdle; belt. Syn. with Tatua.

Of A Canoe.

E a, to be hauled on shore as a canoe

Haumi, piece of wood by which the body of a canoe is lengthened; the joint by which it is connected to the canoe

Hautu, a man, who stands in a canoe to keep time for the rowers

Honga, strip of wood on the side of a canoe

Hirau, paddle

Hoe, paddle

Hokai, stay or brace

Hutihuti, rape

Ihu, head of a ship or boat

Kaituki, captain of a canoe

Kaupapa, fleet

Kei, stern of a canoe

Koke, to go ahead, as a canoe

Kopapa, small canoe

Koki, small canoe

Komaru, sail of a ship or canoe

Konia, canoe

Kopapa, canoe

Kopiupiu, to swing, as a vessel to her anchor

Koporo, square sterned canoe or boat

Korea, small canoe

Kotokoto, sheet of a sail; the sprit

Mama, to leak

Mamaru, sail of a canoe or ship

Manu, to float

Moki, canoe, made of raupo; a raft

Neke, skid, upon which canoes are dragged into the sea; a canoe

Niao, gunwale of a canoe or boat

Noko, stern of a canoe

Oe, paddle

Pahua, board sewed on the body of the canoe

Paremata, stern of a vessel

Pinaku, war canoe

Pitau, war canoe with a carved stern

Punga, anchor; a stone used as an anchor

Purengi, stay for a mast

Puwenua, stay for a mast

Ra, sail of a canoe or boat; it includes the mast, which, separately, is called the rakau

Rahiri, rope

Rango, skid; a piece of wood laid upon the ground, over which boats or canoes are dragged

page 73

Rapa, stern part of a canoe; carved stern

Ranawa, side boards of a canoe. Syn. with Pahua

Rauwawa, boards sewed on the body of a canoe. Syn. with Pahua

Rere, to sail

Rewa, mast

Riu, interior of a canoe

Ta, vessel to bale water with in a canoe; also to bale

Ta, carved stern of a canoe

Takere, keel

Takotokoto, sprit of a sail

Tangere, keel of a ship or canoe

Tangi, to bale water

Tata, vessel with which water is baled out of a canoe

Tatai, to ornament with feathers

Tau, carved stern of a canoe

Taumaru, cross bars of a canoe

Taurua, double canoe

Tawai, canoe, without attached sides

Tete, figure head of a canoe; a war canoe

Tiheru, vessel with which to bale a canoe

Tiratu, mast of a native sail

Tirou, to steer a canoe by dashing the paddle into the water and drawing it towards one

Titoko, sprit of a sail

Tiwai, small canoe, having no carved stern

Tokai, strip of wood which covers the joint of the sides of a canoe

Toko, pole, to shove with

Tuki, song during the time of rowing a canoe

Tute, to shove with a pole

U, to arrive by water

Umere, song, repeated in dragging a canoe

Uruku. Syn. with Taurua

Urunga, Urungi, rudder, or steering paddle

Uta, to put on board a ship or canoe

Wahu, sheets of a sail

Waka, canoe

Wakaheke, rope

Wakarei, carved work, at the head and stern of a canoe

Wakarewa, to cause to float; to launch

Wakawito, sail for a canoe or boat.

Houses, &c.

Amohanga, elevated platform for food; the posts of a Wata

Anga, aspect of a house or garden

Arahanga, bridge or ladder

page 74

Arai, shade; a screen

Arawata, bridge; a ladder

Au, Awe, smoke soot; these two are added, as they are inseparable adjuncts to every native house

Hamoko, opening between the small bundles of raupo which form the sides of a house

Hangi, oven

Hapoki, potatoe house

Haurangi, verandah

Heke, rafter

Hereumu, cooking house

Herupe, top of a window

Hoka, screen, made of bushes

Hopekiwi, potatoe house under ground

Hopi, native oven

Hau, screen from the wind

Huahua, rails of a fence

Ikuiku, eaves of a house

Kaeaea, verandah; the image over the centre of the verandah

Kaho, battens

Kakaka, fern stalks, used in building

Kamuri, cooking house or shed

Kangatungatu, verandah

Karahu, oven

Karapi, sticks put crossways in building a house to keep the reeds or rushes in their places

Karawa, bed in a garden

Karupe, lintel of a door

Kauae, beam of a building

Kauta, cooking house or shed

Kawawa, palings of a fence

Kereteki, outer fence of a fortified village

Koaka, floor mat

Koihi, verandah

Kokonga, corner

Komanga, stage upon which food is kept in store

Konakitanga, corner. Syn. with Kokonga

Konao, oven

Kopa, oven

Kopae, house ornamented with carved work

Kopanga, inner corner

Kopuha, small house

Korere, funnel or spout

Kori, native oven

Koronae, stile

Koropu, house

Kotopihi, window

Kuhu, cooking house

Kuhunga, hiding place

Kukaware, soot

Kurupae, joist or sleeper of a house

Kuwaha, verandah

Mahau, verandah

Maehe, fence; verandah

Maihi, verandah; the facing boards of the roof of a native house

Marae, verandah; an enclosure in a pa belonging generally to one individual or family; properly the space before the Tohunga's house

Matapihi, window

page 75

Matatara, dam for water

Moa, bed in a garden

Nati, to tie up raupo in constructing the walls of a house

Nehe, rafter of a house

Ngawaewae, door posts

Nohoanga, seat

Okeoke, oven

Pa, fortified place; a name taken from the fence which surrounds the village

Paenga, site to build upon; a boundary

Paepae, threshold

Pahoka, screen from the wind

Pahuki, shade or screen

Pakahokaho, skirting board of the verandah

Pakitara, walls of a house

Pakorokoro, stile; fence

Pakuka, screen from the wind Syn. with Pahoka

Paparahi, stage upon which kumara are dried

Pare, carving above the door

Paru, coat of raupo on the walls of a house

Pataka, store house raised upon posts; a stage upon which food is laid up in store; an enclosure

Patakitaki, dividing board inside

Patengitengi, house wherein kumara are kept

Patu, wall of a house

Patutu, screen

Pehipehi, sill of a door frame

Pekirangi, outer fence of a pa

Pihi, watertight; as a house

Pikitara, house

Poro, to be flat, as a roof

Poti, inner corner, as of a room

Pou, post for a house or fence

Poupou, side posts of the house

Poutahu, middle post inside

Poutokomanawa, centralpost of the verandah

Puni, shed for a taua or hakai

Raihi, small enclosure; a pig stye

Rara, stage

Ri, Rianga, screen

Roau, rail

Rona, to put mangemange upon the roof of a native house

Ropa, fortified village

Roro, verandah

Rua, storehouse

Ruakoauau, kumara store

Ruatahuhu, potatoe store

Ruatirawa, store, the floor of which is excavated

Rueke, verandah

Taepa, fence

Tahu, Tahuhu, ridge pole

Taiepa, fence. Syn. with Taepa

Takipai, rails of a fence

Takapau, floor mat

Takitaki, fence. Syn. with Taiepa

page 76

Tangotango, rails of a fence

Tapatu, to roof a house

Tapi, oven

Tara, walls

Tarahu, oven

Taraware, storehouse for kumara

Tata, Tatara, fence

Tatau, door

Tatauhauhunga, window

Taumahi, small tower of a fortified village; facing boards of the roof of a house

Taura, little piece of wood which fastens the window

Tautari, to tie up reeds to the side of a house

Tawaha, bed in a garden

Teki, outer fence of a pa

Tekoteko, figure placed at the top of the gable end of a native house

Tia, peg

Tienga, floor mat

Tihokahoka, shed

Timanga, stage upon which food is placed. Syn. with Wata, Pataka

Toko, side post of a window

Tuahau, sacred house

Tuanui, roof of a house

Tuaroa, Tuarongo, back part of a house

Tuhi, stitching of the reeds

Tumatakihou, smaller side posts between the large ones

Tumatapu, small binding batten

Tumu, Tumutumu, posts

Tuparuparu, to build with raupo

Tupuni, to build up the sides of a house. Syn. with Tuparuparu

Tutaka, carved ridge pole of the verandah

Tuturu, door post; to leak, as through the roof

Tuwaru, stuffing of the walls

Tuwatawata, fence

Uhi, to thatch

Ukiuki, verandah

Urupa, fence round a grave

Waitoka, doorway

Wakairo, carving

Wakamahau, verandah

Wakamarumaru, screen from the wind

Wakaporo, tops of the posts of the pa cut to represent the heads of their enemies

Wakarawa, fastener for a door

Wakaruru, screen

Wana, upright sticks of a fence; battens

Wao, nails

Warariki, mat used as a carpet

Warau, temporary sleeping shed

Ware, house

Warekohuku, house with a gable end

Warepuni, good house; a warm house; a sleeping house

page 77

Waretuturu, house with a hipped roof

Wareumu, cooking house

Warewarau, shed

Wata, stage on which food is kept. Syn. with Timanga

Watitoka, doorway

Wawa, fence.

Implements, &c.

Aho, string; cord

Amo, bier or platform on which a sick man is carried

Arawata, bridge; a ladder

Aropaua, double net for small fish

Aruaru, small hand net

Atamira, bed

Auau, basket of seed potatoes

Hake, bowl

Hako, spoon

Hamaru, part of an implement for digging upon which the foot is pressed

Hanganoa, small basket for cooked food

Hangere, basket half full

Hangohango, implement for digging

Hani, implement of war

Hao, basket in which cockles are collected

Hapainga, basket of food carried in the hand

Haronui, large adze, requiring to be used with both hands

Hawe, that part of a net which is last in the water, and completes the enclosure

Hemanga, basket half full

Here, spear for birds

Heru, comb

Heu, razor

Hikirewa, crate for holding food

Hinaki, basket in which eels are caught

Hipoki, lid or cover

Hirau, paddle

Ho, spade

Hoanga, stone to sharpen tools

Hoe, paddle

Hoto, wooden spade

Hua, handspike

Huata, long spear

Hukihuki, stick upon which is put fish, &c., to be roasted

Ipu, calabash

Kahaka, calabash

Kahaki, ropes or straps by which a load is carried on the back

Kahararo, rope of the under side of a net

page 78

Kaharunga, rope of the upper side of a net

Kaheru, digging implement

Kaikohure, smaller of two sticks by which fire is procured

Kairawaru, spear in its rough state

Kaka, fishing net

Kakapu, basket of cooked food

Kakau, handle of a tool

Kani, saw or file

Kapu, adze

Karaha, calabash

Karau, comb

Karehu, spade

Karewa, buoy

Karo stick to parry off blows

Kauati, stick with which fire is procured

Kauhoa, native palanquin

Kaukau, spear

Kaukau, spear

Kawe straps by which a load is carried

Kete, native basket

Kia, calabash

Kimi, calabash

Kiwe, handle of a basket

Ko, spade

Koaka, calabash

Kohaohao, basket of food

Kohna, even excavated in the ground

Kokiri, spear

Koko, spoon

Kono, small basket for cooked food

Kopere, sling; a bow

Korere, funnel or spout

Korotete, basket

Korou, channel

Kota, knife; scissors

Kotaha, sling

Kuku, pair of pincers; a pair of muscle shells

Kukuti, net

Kumeti, native bowl; a basin cut out of solid wood

Kupenga, fishing net

Kutikuti, scissors

Mahanga, snare

Mahe, sinker for a fishing

Maihea, line

Makahi, wedge

Manana, fishing rod

Mapara, native comb

Mapu, squirt

Maripi, knife

Mata, point of a spear; a bullet, lead; meshes of a net

Mataora, wedge

Matata, pad for the back

Matau, fish hook

Matia, spear

Matika, Matikara, fish hook

Matika, to carry on a litter

Mekameka, chain

Mere, implement of war made of stone

Mowiti, hoop of a cask

Nape, fishing line

Ngutu, brim of a vessel

Noni, fish hook

Oka, stick used as a fork

Oko, bowl; an eating vessel made of wood

page 79

Ora, wedge

Paepa, native basket; a piece of a calabash

Pahaka, calabash

Pahai, basket used in catching fish

Pake, small triangular implement of war about 18 in. long

Panehe, small war hatchet; a small adze used with one hand

Panekeneke, small edge tool

Paoi, implement to pound fern root with

Papa, back of the fish hook

Papapa, calabash

Paparahua, kind of table from which food is eaten

Papari, crate for food

Paraharaha, small iron implement; an edge tool

Pate, stick used by natives to make fire

Patiti, hatchet

Peketua, basket half full, carried on the back in addition to the one that is full

Pepepe, basket

Pewa, snare for birds

Poha, native basket

Poneke, sledge

Popoia, handles of a basket

Pooti, long basket for cooked food

Poukoro, long net

Pouwerawera, basket to catch small fish

Pu. gun

Puapua, shield

Puka, spade

Pukoro, small net

Pukororoa, large basket

Pukorutuna, eel basket

Pukupuku, close made met, wetted and tied round the arm as a shield

Punga, anchor; a stone used as an anchor; a basket used for catching eels

Pupuhi, bellows

Purou, fork

Puru, plug or cork

Purupuru, chisel

Pute, bag; a basket to contain clothes

Putea, bag; a basket to contain clothes

Rahu, basket. Syn, with Kete

Rakuraku, implement to scratch with; a rake; a small hoe

Rama, rozor or torch

Rapa, flat part of a spade or paddle

Raro, implement with which cockles are collected

Rawi, basket

Reti, snare

Ripi, stick to kill eels with

Rohe, hand net for fish

Roherohe, torch

Rore, snare

Rori, basket in which cockles are gathered under water

Rou, implement by which cockles are collected

Rourou, basket for cooked food

Rohutu, comb

Rukuruku, basket half full

Ta, hammer or mallet; a vessel to bale water with in a canoe

page 80

Taha, calabash

Tahe; calabash

Taiaha, implement of war; also used as a walking staff. Syn. with Hani

Takekenga, mesh of a net

Tao, spear

Tapakuri, basket

Tara, spear head of the Here; a point, a thorn

Tare, snare for birds

Tareke, very small edge tool

Taruke, basket for catching cray fish

Tata, vessel with which water is bailed out of a canoe; a small net

Tatari, sieve

Tau, handle, as of a bucket

Taukoro, large basket

Taupoki, lid; a covering

Tauwatu, fishing net

Tawa, calabash

Tawiti, trap for rats; not unlike our mole trap in construction, but more ingenious

Teka, part of a digging implement, called Ko, upon which the foot is pressed

Tetere, trumpet

Tia, stake; a peg

Tiheru, vessel to bale a canoe with

Timati, short spear

Tirau, peg; a small stick

Tirou, fork; a pointed stick used as a fork

Titaha, axe

Titi, nail

Toeke, rope tied round each ankel, by the assistance of which trees are climbed

Toemi, hand net

Tohake, basket

Toki, axe; an edged tool

Tokotoko, walking stick

Toroai, implement of war made of wood, flat at one end and pointed at the other

Tu, part of a fishing net which is first in the water

Tumere, weapon of war

Tupe, snare for birds

Turupou, walking stick; a post upon which anything is put

Umu, oven made in the earth

Urunga, pillow; a rudder or steering paddle

Urungi, rudder or steering paddle

Wahaika, warlike instrument made of wood

Wai, calabash; bag of a fishing net

Wairu, file

Wakahaehae, any thing to frighten; a scarecrow

Wakapipinga, work which is constructed in a regular manner, by placing one thing upon another, as in masonry

Wakaturi, pad to defend the back when a load is carried; a covering to keep off wet and dirt

Wakarapa, fish basket

page 81

Wakatomo, large basket

Wakatungangi, stile

Wakamurakau, cloth wrapped round the arm as a defence

Wakawai, fishing net

Wana, bent stick which forms part of a rat trap

Wao, nail

Wiri, gimlet

Witi, hoop

Wiu, whip.


Araporaka, stilts

Haka, dance

Kahu, native kite; made in shape like a bird, of reeds stitched together

Kaihora, whippingtop; much the same as the European one, only rather longer

Kaihotaka. Syn. with Kaihora

Kanikani, dance of a jeering character

Kokiri, pole: flattened on the top for a person to stand on, and inclined over deep water; a favorite amusement to run up to the top, and then jump into the water

Kopere, to sling by a stick with a piece of string tied to the end of it

Kotaha, sling

Mawi, game something like cat's cradles; the cord being made to assume the form of houses, canoes, and men; Mawi was its author; it appears to be connected with ancient tradition

Meke, pugilistic game

Morere, swing; a lofty pole with ropes attached to its top

Moto, to fight with the fist

Mu, draughts: an introduced game

Neti, game of skill, in which young men try who can dart a fern stalk to the greatest distance along the surface of the ground

Ngaoreore-tamaiti, nursery song

Pakau, Pakaukau, Syn. with Kahu

Patere, dance in a canoe

Piu, to skip; a skipping rope

Poi, ball, with a string appended, with which it is played; a game with the hands also

Ponokawakawa, game

Porotiti, game which consists in twirling about a small oval piece of wood

page 82

Potaka. Syn. with Kaihora

Pouturu, stilts

Raratuna, game

Rorekiore, game

Ruriruri, native play of singing in chorus

Ta, whip for a top

Takaro, general name for play; also, to wrestle

Tureureu, game

Tau, game

Tauramaki, game which is played in deep water, by two persons trying who can keep the other longest under water

Ti, game played with the fingers

Tutukai, played with a number of stones; a game consisting of the opening and shutting of the fingers and bending the arm in a certain manner, and uttering the whole of the following words at a breath:—Ka tahi tikarua, ka haramai tapati tapato reka rau ua ka noho te kiwi ka pohe wa tautau topi topa ka huia mai ka toko te rangi kai ana te wetu kai ana te marama o te tui e rere ra runga o te pera peka o hua kauere turakina te are to wiwi wawa ke ke ke te manu kei Taupiri

Tutungarau, to dance the war dance.