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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Rare Volume


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When a Maori king was first talked of, the idea was laughed at by both Maori and pakeha. Few believed it would ever become a fact. Men acquainted with native history, and knowing the enmity that existed between various tribes in consequence of former wars and frequent reprisals, said: "Those old feuds will effectually prevent any extensive union taking place." And those who knew anything of native character said: "The pride of the Maori chiefs will never allow them to submit to the dictation of a chief of another tribe, nor will their love of independence permit them to become the subjects of a Maori king." Despite of all predictions that it would end in smoke or turn out "mahi tamariki" (child's play), the movement has gradually advanced. The advocates and promoters of the scheme were instant in season and out of season, carrying their flag to distant tribes, inviting them to accept it and join the league. Tomo denied, at the great meeting the other day, that they had done so, and wished it to be understood that the tribes who had joined them had done so unsolicited; but Hetaraka, of Waingaroa, confronted him and reminded him that they had sent invitations to Waingaroa again and again, and in fact had sent their flag and their emissaries far and wide to collect subjects.—(See his speech, p. 51.)

Land squabbles between different tribes or between subdivisions of the same tribe often presented a good opening for recommending the scheme and for obtaining adherents. Such occasions were carefully watched and sedulously improved. When any dispute arose, a party of king's men were sent to tender their kind offices as mediators, and having effected a reconciliation between the contending parties they generally wound up their mission by proposing a union with their league. They said: "Disputes will never end under the present system of holding our land, nor can there be any security against 'hoko tahae' (clandestine sales) until all the land is placed under the control of one runanga; we never have been able to manage these things, and never shall be on the old system, therefore join us and hand over your land to the league: then the cause of your quarrels will be removed, your land will be secured for your children, and peace will reign among the tribes." This view of the subject took with many parties, and drew many into the scheme.

A meeting was held at Waiuku in March last, which was attended by the Waikato and Manukau tribes, and resulted in the issue of the following proclamation by Potatau, which was printed and circulated among the natives:—

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"The Proclamation of Potatau to all the tribes residing East, West, North, South, and in the interior.

"On the 14th day of March, at 7 o'clock in the evening, Potatau spoke to the people and to the chiefs.

"This is Potatau's request that he spake:—' Hold fast Christianity,—hold fast love,—hold fast law: what is the worth or advantage of all other work? Christianity is not a wealth we have purchased;—it is wealth that has been freely given to us, and wealth for which we have made no adequate return.

"'Maories, your former god was Uenuku the man eater. You have a different God now, the great God of Heaven: therefore let war cease in New Zealand among both Maories and Pakehas.

"'Let all the evils that may arise, great and small, be judged by the law. Here we rest till the Evil Spirit comes to spoil our work.'"

This meeting appears to have had the effect of diminishing the opposition of the Lower Waikato tribes to this movement, and, in fact, of inducing many to join it who had hitherto stood aloof.

During 1859 two or three deputations visited the South and left the Maori King's flags at Taranaki, and with the Ngatiruanui. It is said that William King, Te Rangitake, refused to receive the flag or to join the movement, but in the Autumn of the present year a deputation from the Ngatiawa and Ngatiruanui tribes visited Waikato, entrusted with the important duty of presenting the allegiance of those tribes to the Maori King, and of handing over their lands to the league of which he is the recognised head.

The deputation consisted of about sixty picked men, chiefly young men. They arrived at Ngaruawahia on the 10th of April, accompanied by Ngatimaniapoto from Kawhia, Rangiaohia and Upper Waipa. They marched up to the flag staff, three abreast, wearing favors to distinguish the respective tribes.

On reaching the flagstaff one stepped forward, and with a clear distinct voice said, "Honour all men, love the brotherhood; Fear God; Honour the King;" then turning to the train he said "Honour the King:" all responded by uncovering and kneeling. The leader of the Ngatiruanui then read from a memorandum book an address beginning, "O King, live for ever: thou art bone of our bone, and flesh of our flesh; thou art a saviour for us, our wives, our children," &c., &c., and went on to pledge their allegiance. The leader of the Ngatiawa then read a similar address : "Honour the King" was again demanded, and a low salaam, and a general cry of hear, hear, hear, was the response. A native Teacher then stepped page 29 out of the ranks and gave out a verse of the Maori Hymn beginning "Ka mahue i Ihipa," &c. "We have left Egypt the place of bondage, we seek another land, a land of rest," &c. The verse was sung, then prayer was offered for God's blessing on their King and on the people. This ended, they retired, facing toward the royal presence, then wheeled round and marched off to the place appointed for korero.

During the visit of this deputation to Waikato the Taranaki war broke out, the murders were committed by the tribes to which these men belonged, the battle of Waireka was fought and several principal Chiefs of those tribes, near relatives of these men, fell on the field. This intelligence gave a more serious aspect to affairs, and gave a warlike tone to their deliberations.

As there is such frequent reference to the Taranaki war in the speeches delivered at the Meetings held in connection with this King movement it may be necessary to notice its origin. When His Excellency the Governor visited New Plymouth in March 1859, a block of land situated on the south bank of Waitara was offered for sale by a Chief named "Teira," supported by his friends who were joint claimants. The Governor accepted the offer, provided that the ownership of the land was undisputed, and Teira laid at His Excellency's feet a Parawai (a Taranaki Mat) as a symbol that the offer was accepted. William King was present, but did not take away the Mat, as he should have done according to Native custom if he wished to deny Teira's right to sell the land, nor did he condescend to assert in a becoming manner any claims on his own behalf, but in an insulting and defiant tone arose and left the room saying, "I will not permit the Sale of Waitara to the pakeha. Waitara is in my hands, I will not give it up; Ekore, Ekore, Ekore. (i.e. I will not, I will not, I will not) I have spoken."

Eight months elapsed between the first offer and the final acceptance of the land, during which period every opportunity was given to adverse claimants to prefer and establish their right. On the 29th November, 1859, the District Commissioner called a public meeting of both Natives and Europeans to witness the payment of the first instalment of the purchase money; King and his people were present. A document was read setting forth the boundaries of the block, and also a declaration on the behalf of the Governor, that if any man could prove his claim to any piece of land within the boundary described, such claim would be respected, and the claimant might hold or sell as he thought fit. No such claim was put forward. The question was put to King by the Commissioner, "Does the land belong to Teira and party?" He answered "Yes, but I will not let them sell it."

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The case being so clear, the transaction was ratified. To this course the Governor was bound by his own engagement. In his address to the natives at New Plymouth he had pledged himself to two principles : First, "That he would buy no land, the ownership of which was matter of dispute." Second, "That he would allow no man to interfere or prevent the sale of any land by the rightful proprietor thereof." The customary survey of boundaries was therefore ordered, the surveyors commenced their work, and King sent his women to take up their chains and prevent the survey being carried on. What then was to be done? Either this resistance must be submitted to, or means must be taken to protect the surveyors in their work. A military force was therefore ordered to the ground for the latter purpose. William King then offered armed resistance, and built a pa on the land in declaration of his determination to oppose the survey of it by the Government. On him therefore must rest the onus of the war.

The difficulty has been complicated by the atrocious murders that were committed by the Southern tribes on five defenceless settlers. Though King denies having been in any way accessory to that foul deed, yet it must be obvious that it was connected with the war which he had commenced, and was prompted by the spirit of the land league of which he was a leading member. Those tribes were on their way to assist him, and were meditating the destruction of the European settlement, when they came into contact with the troops, met with the retribution they merited, and were prevented from carrying out their diabolical plans. They could have no pretext whatever for taking up arms except their connection with the land league. They are obviously fighting for the principles of that league.

Nor can the Waikatos find any other reason for interfering in the quarrel. If they take up arms in William King's defence it cannot be on the ground of injustice done to King or to themselves. In reference to Waitara, they well know that King's "mana" was all taken away when they conquered his tribe, and that the laud was then lost to him. They also know that Potatau received a sum of money from the Government in 1842 in extinction of the claims of Waikato as the conquerors of that land. King's mana was gone, and they who had taken it away sold it to the Queen. On what plea, then, can Waikato support him in his unjust attempts to prevent the sale of Teira's property? If they enter into this war, it can only be because they are resolved on carrying out the principles of an unlawful confederation, or because, they desire a casus belli. The party who have gone to page 31 King's assistance are most probably influenced by the latter motive, but the main body of the Waikato tribes are not disposed to commit themselves to such a course.

The following Speeches were delivered during the visit of the Taranaki deputation at Ngaruawahia:—

Tapihana, (Ngatihikairo,) said: I begin not with the events of to-day. I go to the words with which Potatau set out :—To Whakapono, te Aroha, to Ture (Religion, Love, Law). 1st. Religion. This is your work, Pakehas and men of religion, walk in the ways of God, and pray for peace upon all men. Our 3rd motto is Law. This is our work, let us take care of this and work it out. If, Governor go on to a piece of land I shall follow his steps; if he open roads I shall be there; if he shed blood I shall be there as well as he. I seek life for the people. I say save the land, and the paths for your children. Our 2nd motto is Love. Our forefathers lost this by their wars, we seek to restore it. These are the mottoes for all the world. I mourn for the blood of Te Rangitake.* My blood is the blood of Te Rangitake. I shall go and seek Rangitake and Kukutai at once. I am but one, but I shall go. If I fall it will be good, never mind that.

Karaka Tomo te Whakapo, from Rangiaohia; You are right, those are our mottoes. Let there be no evil of any kind, no war among the Pakeha, and no war among the Maories. But let us build our Pa, let us complete it. Let it be quite finished. I do not consider it completed yet Leave the other things, the war at Taranaki for the Evil Spirit to carry on. Twice he has turned upon us, and twice we have forgiven. Let us abide by our three mottoes, and wait to see if he will be strong and persevere. Our Pa stands broken, listen William, Takarei, Wetini, listen, I consider that our pa for our wives and children is not yet complete, let us finish it, dig the trenches, throw up the breast-work and bind the fences. Look at his (the Pakeha's) work in other lands, never too late, never behind time (alluding to the prompt movements and careful preparations of the Europeans)—therefore I say quickly build our Pa.

Tapihana replied: What pa is that you are building? we have built our pa, and it is broken down and stained with blood. The wealth we had collected into our bag is scattered, it is thrown out into the fern, who shall gather it up again? (alluding to the men who had fallen at Taranaki.)

Tomo Whakapo replied: You may say that our pa is finished, but I do not. As for our blood Christianity had stopped its flow, but we ourselves opened the wound, (alluding to Maori quarrels.) I shall not hastily see the correctness of your proposal; should I consent now we shall all be ruined at once. The Governor has been to Taranaki and has returned to "Whangaihau" (i.e., to sing and exult over the slain): my thought is "How often shall my brother sin against me and I forgive? "

Wiremu Hikairo: We have two things to think of, our king and our blood. I am in pain. My foot is pierced either with a fern or wood. It is said that the king is to protect us. I want to see it. I have not seen it yet. What has he done for me? You are clearing your own paths and spreading your own mat, talking about Whakapono, but I am cold, a door has been opened to let in the wind, and it has blown directly upon me. You think you are providing a covering, but there is an opening made in it.

Tomo replied again: I do not condemn what you say, but I cannot see the wisdom or utility of it If I could I should instantly consent and say our work is complete, but I consider our pa at present unfinished. Come, let us finish what we are now at.

Wiremu Hikairo replied: You, Tomo, are holding us back, you are hiding the thing. Your words may be correct, but what shall I do? Son, our intention will be carried out, whoever may oppose, but you are alone in your unbelief.

A Waikato: Think not that I am grieved or dark because of the doings of my friend the Governor. It is only what they (the pakehas) have done elsewhere. They

* The Maori name of William King.

page 32 have conquered and taken other islands, and they come to do the same with New Zealand. Let not the Pakeha bring war to this land, let him return to his own lands and fight there. How often shall my brother sin against me and I forgive him? Let him cease here and all will be well. He did not attack me in front openly, he came on me unawares behind, but I am not dark about it, it is all good (this was ironical).

Paetai, of Kihikihi: Great is the truth of your words my son Tomo, be strong to maintain yours. These are my thoughts for your question "How often, &c." I will answer it— Sin the 1st. Te Rangihaeata (Wairau) Sin the 2nd. Hone Heke Sin the 3rd. Whanganui (the war there) Sin the 4th. Auckland, the Waikato native that was murdered Sin the 5th. Tauranga Sin the 6th. Te Rangitake.

The Pakeha committed all these; if we had sinned as often we should have been punished long ago. Be strong. Tapihana, for what cause do you propose to take your gun to Taranaki? is it not because the Governor has made war? Murder is talked of, but it was not murder, it was only a thing joined or added to the war already begun (he apiti). Tell me was it murder? No, he apiti (loudly replied the Ngatimaniapoto), according to the law of Christianity it was murder, but according to the Governor's it was "he uru whakaara" i.e., a part of the battle which Governor had begun.

Te Wetini. (Ngatihua): There was a time when I was strong toward the Governor, for when I was thirsty he gave me drink, or naked he clothed me; now they have taken away the water and the garments. What can be the thoughts of the men that have done this? What? Potatau is a pakeha, let us do nothing else, let Potatau be our work at present.

Ta Karei (of Kawhis): Talk away: this is the pa, this is the house for us. We thought there had been a union of the black skin and the white one, but the white was only white outside, it was black inside; the black was black only outside, it was white inside. They put forth the strait law and praised it, but blood has been shed, not by the black skin, but by the white; they have gone to shed blood, and have trodden underfoot the law that was right. Friends, the blood of the black skin has been shed, has it not? (The Ngatimaniapoto responded, "Ae").

Wiremu Te Ake (Ngatihikairo): We see our error, New Zealand. The fathers came first with the word, "Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature." I was sitting under their wings when the first Governor came. He said, here am I—I have come to see you. We asked, have you come to take our land? He said, No. After this we went to Remuera to attend the great feast and about 300 of us met at Government House. We said to Governor, We do not intend to part with our land. He replied, You may go and keep your place: hold it fast for yourselves: then he returned. After this we began to see the intentions of our fathers (the Missionaries) and the Government, and the result is, that blood is flowing. You (Waikato) have shown us one thing, show us the other. What can we do, they have strangled the child, they have pursued us along our path. It is the Governor that has committed the wrong. Is it not? (Again Ngatimaniapoto shouted "Ae;" the question repeated, the same reply given).

Te Kihirini—Te Kanawa: The work is not mine. I have done none at all. Listen to me, Pirongia (a mountain) is great, and Taupiri is great. My blood has been blackened at Taranaki before, and if it is to be blackened again let it be at Taupiri (meaning, Don't let us go away to fight, but wait till we are called to defend our own land).

Wiremu Hikairo: What go you mean? If the house be standing it is with the roof but partially covered, and all broken below; come let us repair the place that is broken.

Hari (Ngatimaniapoto of Kawhia): We were made one by Christianity. Our union commenced when we heard the name of Christ—but I am looking at what page 33 Tapihana said—it is right. Yours is blood that was shed in one day not in two days—and my word is to Tapihana, Let us arise and go. The Ministers who reside with the pakehas have not been strong to exhort their people against war. They have removed my pillow from under me. When Missionaries came first they had two ploughs, one for heaven and one for earth; the one for heaven was keeping going before our eyes, the other was kept out of sight they did not inform us. (meaning Missionaries were but pioneers who came to prepare the way for taking their land).

Te Tamuhuia (Waikato): If I lift my heels I shall have no strength in my knees. I am not dark, if I desire to go, I shall go without speaking of it. I mourn for the people (Taranaki); formerly we were divided by the wars of our fathers, now we are one, therefore I mourn for them.

Hoani Papita (Rangiaohia): I do not see the wisdom of this talk. The zeal of Tapihana is the one thing, that is wrong; it is boast or bounce of his, and he has brought it to us, but his proposal falls to the ground. Rather let us keep to our point and not be drawn aside (the King movement); don't let us be divided; if we consent to Tapihana, we shall be all wrong, don't let our talk go after William King, let us keep to our point. This will do at present, let our talk end for this day.

[The Natives of the Ngatimaniapoto tribe were no doubt encouraged to make these revolutionary proposals and to use the strong language contained in their speeches, by the speeches of two Waikato Chiefs, Te Wetini and Karamoa, who spoke the preceding day, when the Ngatiruanui and Ngatiawa presented their allegiance to Potatau.]

Wetini said: Welcome strangers. Come to us and bring the raupo and thatch that is to finish our house. This is the completion of our work (alluding to the fact of those distant tribes now joining formally the King party). Come, he said, the work is now finished. The house that God hath joined and made one is split, it is broken to pieces (referring to the collision between the Natives and Europeans at Taranaki); "Take my love to Kukutai," (a Chief that was killed at Waireka).

Karamoa followed in a similar strain, saying, Welcome, come and see me, I am pained, I have received a wound. Alas for me! my affliction is great. I have talked about land till I am weary, now I sit in grief, my very vitals move, I shake like the leaves of the weeping fern tree for my children. Come you and tell us of death. You have come from the scenes of death. Bring your grief to us, pour out your sorrow. Come to Waikato to the house we have built, let us hear all about it, our ears are listening to the intelligence of death.

He recited a Native waiata, expressive of his feeling—

Kokirikiri ai te ao kapura
E rere mai ra kei te moana
Kiko nei an, mihi atu ai
Tangi atu ai ki aku tamariki
Ehara i te tangata
Ko te whata toto, o te ngakau motuhia
Putunga mahara i a au, e, i.

The clouds are coming up from the sea (for the soldiers),
I am here, sympathizing with and weeping for my children;
Am I not a man?
The very fountain of blood in the heart will burst With the depth of my feeling within me.

This Meeting was mainly composed of the Kawhia and Rangiaohia people, (Ngatimaniapoto,) a part of the tribe that advocates extrema measures, and forms the war party. Hence the revolutionary character of their speeches. Potatau peremptorily forbad them to go armed to Taranaki, but they page 34 disregarded the prohibition, took arms, on pretence of conducting the Taranaki deputation (whom they also armed) back to their homes, but really with the intention of joining King in the war, declaring they should not return till they planted the Maori Flag on the Waitara land. The result of their expedition has not yet transpired. It is but just to record the honourable course pursued by them in the case of Mr. Parris. He met the party at Pukekohi in order to conduct the Taranaki men safely through the war district, and these men wickedly conceived a plot to take his life. But the Ngatimaniapoto divulged their treachery, took Mr. Parris under their protection, formed a guard around him, and conducted him safely beyond the point of danger, when they knelt down, engaged in prayer, and commending him to the care of Divine Providence, sent him on. Their conduct presents a striking contrast to that of the Taranaki men, who could so coolly conceive the idea of butchering one who had periled his own life to protect theirs.

The great meeting of the Waikato tribes, which was intended fully to establish the Maori Kingdom, was held at Ngaruawahia in the month of May of the present year. Great preparations were made, and expectations entertained of a very large and influential gathering. But the meeting was not so large as it was expected to be. It was principally composed of the tribes of lower Waikato, Manukau, Waipa, Rangiaohia, Matamata, and Taupo, with Representatives from Waingaroa, Aotea, Kawhia, Mokau, Tauranga, and Auckland, in all about 3000 souls, about 1400 males and 1600 women and children.

The Native Secretary Donald McLean, Esq., the Superintendent of Auckland J. Williamson, Esq., Mr. Kogan of the Native Land Purchase Department, Mr. Smallfield, of the "New-Zealander," Mr. Armitage, Bishop Selwyn, and Rev. Messrs. Morgan, Buddle, Wallis, Reid, Garavel, and several other Europeans were present during the meeting.

On the 18th May, the Superintendent, by appointment, had an interview with Potatau in the presence of several chiefs, when he directed his attention to the present disturbed state of the country, to its causes and its remedy. His Honor wished Potatau to understand that lie did not come to him as a representative of the General Government, but as the representative of the settlers, and feeling mnch concerned on account of the disturbed state of the native mind, he had sought page 35 this opportunity to assure him that the wish of the Europeans throughout the country is that the same peaceful relations and friendly feelings that have so long existed between the races may be still maintained and perpetuated. He also reminded Potatau of the great advantages the natives had realized from colonization, and the rapid progress they had made in those things which so materially contribute to their comfort and happiness as a people. He said he was very sorry to hear of the proceedings that had taken place lately amongst some of the tribes; and that he could see no good reason for the jealousies and suspicions that appeared to be entertained. Good-will toward the Maories had always been shewn by the Queen, by her Governors, and by her loyal people; the Queen's Government had been established with the consent of the natives, and ever since that time the Maori's rights and privileges were as carefully protected as those of the white man; the markets had been as free and open to them for the sale of their produce as to the Europeans, and when they wished to buy they were charged no more than the white man had to pay; the Courts of Justice were as accessible to them as to the pakeha, and in order that they might have confidence in the impartial administration of the laws, some of their own picked men had been appointed by the Governors to sit on the same bench with the Queen's Magistrates to try cases in which natives were concerned; Maoris had gone away from home to distant countries, and they had there enjoyed the protection of the Queen's flag when they were likely to suffer injury from foreigners; so long as they remained under the shadow of that flag they were safe, but the flag they proposed to set up could afford them no protection, and if they were so foolish as to persist in erecting it, they would most certainly bring evil upon themselves, and much confusion would follow. He expressed a hope that nothing would be permitted to destroy the good that was going on in the country.

Potatau listened attentively, occasionally indicating his approval by saying "korero tonu," (talk on—it is all true). He referred to the three principles on which they had set out, and declared his intention to abide by them; but, he said, "the people have added a fourth and a fifth, and may add more."

Karaka Tomo interposed and began to speak of the wars that had taken place between the Go page 36 vernment and the Maories, in a strain that betrayed a wish to cast reflections on the Government as the aggressors, when Potatau stopped him, saying, "The Maories only were to blame for the whole."

Takarei Te Rau took part in the conversation, and said "the first thing to be done is to get peace restored." he was told that the Governor had done all he could do to prevent the war, and now he would expect William King to ask for peace.

On the 21st, the tribes that had arrived announced, by a volley of musketry, their intention of visiting the king. Ngatihaua, with William Thompson at their head, came first. They numbered 150 men, all armed. They saluted the flag, and Wetini addressed the King thus, "O King! live for ever; thy Kingdom, thy mana, live for ever." "Honour the King," he said to the people : they all uncovered, made a low bow, and then retired.

The Ngatihinatu, Ngatihapakura, and Ngatimauiapoto came next, about 70 in all, 50 being armed. Hohepa, from Tauranga, gave the address, which was very revolting. "King, live for ever. Thou art not a man but a spirit. Thou didst not spring from earth but came down from heaven. Thou art a god. Thou art like Melchizedek, without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days nor end of life."

The two parties then met at the encampment of Ngatihaua, to deliberate the question of peace or war; and to lay their plans for the great meeting.

The following korero (conversation) ensued:—

Tarei (Ngntimaniapoto) : While men lived (i.e. before the war broke out), we could talk about plans. Now we have nothing to say (i.e. our course is clearly indicated). They say, I have transgressed (referring to his friends who have gone to the war). I have done no wrong. Pakehas are deceitful above all things. Our Ministers are negligent, I was asleep and they permitted me to sleep on (i.e. they did not warn). Now let us arise. Had we arisen in the beginning I should not have been here to talk.

Pairoroko: One word. Life for all. But let us wait for the sharp swords that are coming from Waikato. Let not the elders speak words that direct the way to evil; leave them inside, do not speak them out here. Words that incite to good accept them while they are being delivered. Let there be sincerity, but wait for Waikato, or the talk will be one-sided.

Porukoru of Kihikihi: "I have erred (referring to his people who plundered the stores at Rangiaohia). but then I erred from love. My word was pledged to my relatives, they are my blood, our blood is one. Hold fast New Zealand. Hold it. O Epiha (his friend absent at Taranaki). I salute thee, my son, who art gone south. Abide there, rest there. Let no memento be sent here, it would defile this place. We cast thee off" (a stroke of irony at those who condemned the expedition while at heart they approved its objects).

Paora Te Huatahi: You call New Zealand to rise. Are you placing it on a right foundation? Is it a foundation of truth? Loose her bonds and she will page 37 stand firm. Do not serve her with eye service as menpleasers. How shall New Zealand be preserved? Not by war, but by the patience of her people. Let your patience be like Job's. Be a friend, an imitator of Job (meaning don't be tempted to take up arms). You say you intend to hold New Zealand and its mana. I say it will not be retained by going to war. But we are like Jews who, after they had received the Gospel, returned to the law of their fathers. We are looking toward the customs of our ancesors.

Patara: Fear not man, but do what is right. Never mind the sin of those who have gone, put that in your garments out of sight. Patience ! It is our patience that has kept us quiet so long. But for patience we should not have held out to this day.

Eruere: Sleep there, young man, upon the bed you have made of new customs, but lay up in the storehouse that human thigh or the dogs will consume it. (A cannibal figure for the land).

Huituara: I came here in my darkness. I came to Waikato at the call of the bell. Let us seek a refuge from the fierce dogs that fly upon us to tear us.

Tomo: Let us quietly search out the origin of this war. If the land be Taylor's, let him have it. Wetini says let us sympathise with W. King; let us hold the land. Thompson says, let us enquire into it, and see whether it is King's, and if partly Taylor's and partly King's divide it. The end of all is let us look to God. Wetini has opened this path to preserve our land.

Wetini: Send a letter to the Governor and request him to accompany William Thompson to Taranaki to investigate the matter What disturbs me is, that the Governor did not send as his first army the Magistrates and Missionaries; but he sent the army of destruction that made Taranaki a battle field. His thought was not the right one. We must not consent to Thompson going there. Let us have our house built. I am an advocate for going; I do not say to fight. In fact, we have gone so far as our thoughts are concerned.

Tomo: We are preparing for the arrival of Waikato. Waikato has not yet seen us. Let us not be divided. Leave it to the decision of Waikato; though we are the majority, yet if our words be swallowed up by theirs, so let it be.

Henari: We are not divided. Let not our leaders go astray. The evil that has been done is traceable to our leaders.

Tomo: We are all leaders in turn. We sent messengers to Tapihana and Epiha and Waitere to detain them, but they would not be detained. If the Governor says Wm King must be destroyed, and the flag must come down, and the roads must be opened, I say No, no.

Tumuhuia: Two sticks had been planted, one for the flagstaff and one for Taranaki. Tomo had thrown down the latter, indicating that it was not to be entertained. Tumuhia restored it, and said, "if this be cast away, let the other come done also": meaning our flag and our league bind us to support W. King, and if we do not, let us cast away this our flag.

William Thompson: I am disturbed by the letter received from Wm. King. I wish to understand the case, but do not see it. They (the Europeans) have forsaken the right way, they have become deranged like the King of Babylon who was turned into the forest. But let us not take up arms in an unrighteous cause. Ahab coveted Naboth's vineyard, and because Naboth would not give up the inheritance of his fathers Ahab was greatly disturbed. Jezebel his wife saw his trouble and said, I will give it thee. She brought Naboth to death by falsehood, and took it, but God avenged the deed. I do not forget some of the Kings of Judah who engaged in unrighteous war, how they perished in their sin. Therefore I hesitate, and say let us see our way. Wm, King says the land is his; Taylor says it his. I say let us find out the owner. Do not make haste lest we make a mistake. I do not condemn the Governor for I not informed. As for the Queen she is the minister of God, and the minister of God is not supposed to do wrong. If wrong be done it is the fault of the Executive (te Kaihapai). I also remember the words of Paul, "Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers, for there is no power page 38 but of God; the powers that be are ordained of God." I do not say, let us find out that the Governor is right, that I may join him : nor am I idle or unwilling to go to war if necessary, but let me have a just cause. I have heard, but I have not seen. Do you ask what shall be done if my proposition be accepted to go and investigate? If the Governor say that this (the Maori King), is the cause of the war, I see through it. If he say that it is the land, I see through that also. But I do not speak it, that is a matter not to be spoken here, it is a hidden word that is to be kept in the heart. We intend to keep our land, and if the Governor come to take another piece after this, then we shall have war.

Hoani Papita, of Rangiaohia: When Tamati went to see the Governor, the Governor told him he would hand over Waitara to Te Wherowhero. When Takarei visited the Governor he said that he must have Waitara, and that the murderers must be given up. But Maories will not consent to these demands. I do not condemn Tapihana (the leader of the Kawhia party, gone to Taranaki). And if the Governor demand the land, or the murderers, I say no, I shall keep my own. If he say Ngatiruanui shall be destroyed, and we consent, then he will do the same in other places, and land after land will go, but if he take another step, then we rise.

Wetini: I took away the stick that represented the Queen, because they took up arms after Christianity had been accepted and professed. I want to know whether the Governor paid his money before this movement of ours; if not, then I say what has been joined together cannot be put asunder. I had scarcely lighted my lamp and set it up before war was declared against us.

Kaperiera: I accompanied Wi Tako on his return from Waikato. I wanted to have an explanation about the Parawai (the mat that Teira presented to the Governor). We intended to see W. King, but on reaching Waitara we heard that war had commenced, that pakehas had been killed, so Tako would not visit King. We saw Ihaia and Teira. Teira asked—For what purpose have you come? We replied—To enquire about the mat and to take the truth back to Waikato. He said—The piece is small, the greater portion of Waitara is King's; mine is in the centre Then came the news that Waikato was about to attack Auckland. I went to King and said—I have come to enquire about the mat. He replied—"The report is correct. I looked on in silence." I said—"That was your error, you ought to have taken it away." "I did not," he replied, "I simply threw a word at the Governor, and said to him 'I will not give yon my land; I did not take up the mat, but I spake my word. The pakeha wants our land, but this war is about your Maori king. Dont listen to the pakeha, but bring your flag to Waitara. Go back and clear them out; send them all back to England.'"

Porokoru: I agree with Wetini and Thompson. Our three principles have been trodden down. Christianity is dead. The weight of the burden will fall on Hoani and myself. We shall have the consequences of the war expedition to meet. It cannot be helped. Hoani's words are correct.

Paora: Don't think us unwilling to take our share of the burden, only let us see that it is right.

Katene: I have some questions to ask. The Governor and W. King have been at war some time, and blood has been shed. Now, should you find that King is wrong, and that he persists in his wrong, what shall we do? One replied, "Take Waitara ourselves." If Governor demand the murderers, shall we give them up? If it were but the beginning and no war had taken place, we might see our way; but it is dark.

Patara: If W. King be wrong, we shall say, Give to the Governor the land he has bought, but don't give up the men. If the Governor be wrong, then let the land return to Rangitake. Let us not get our fingers bitten at that place. About the murders: that murder was committed is not clear to me. It was "uru maranga"—(carrying on war begun); therefore I will not give up those men. The Governor came first; if those deaths had been first and war after, I should say surrender them.

Heta (Ngatihaua): Make haste to hold the land—though it was Teira's, hold it.

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Kohura (Tawhaki): Ihaia is the murderer. Yet he is the Governor's friend. Ihaia's conduct was not displeasing to the Governor—he did not look on lhaia's work as murder, and we do not call such things murder here.

Katene: We all know, and the Pakehas all knew, that our King was elected and the kingdom set up when they bought the land. What I want to know now is, what we shall do if we find that William King is wrong, and that he persist in his wrong

Timoti: We have heard all that can be said on both sides, and now I say, leave that piece of land as an Aceldama, a field of blood—leave it.

Wetini laid down several branches of manuka to represent the places that had received Christianity. Moving them all he said. See, they are all disturbed; the doings of the Governor has made them creep. I do not call the work at Taranaki murder. It was the Governor's work, not the work of this land. I call the death of* Hemi a murder, and the death of the woman was murder: the Pakeha has been guilty of murder. If I invite a Pakeha to see me on pretence of showing him kindness and then when he is in my power kill him, I call that murder. Now when they attack us, either above or below, we shall not forbear.

Te Raihi: Leave it all alone. Why should we take it up? Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind, and do what he likes with his own land. If he choose to sell let him sell. If he wish to hold let him hold his own.

On the 24th of May, the Oraki, Manukau and Lower Waikato Natives arrived. They had pulled within three miles the day before, but according to Native etiquette would not enter Ngaruawahia in the evening, they therefore encamped by the river side. At early morning a discharge of musketry announced their approach. The settlement was all excitement, the men drawn up in front of Potatau's house, in in the old style of Maori warfare, firing at intervals, and flanked by nearly 200 women, dressed in European clothing, having their heads decked with feathers, waiting to sing the song of welcome.

About 11 o'clock a flotilla of about 15 war canoes rounded a point of the Waikato that opens the Settlement, and slowly approached. The canoes decorated, the flags flying (not the Union Jack as at former Meetings but the Maori flag) the men dressed in gay attire, some with spear in hand chanting a Maori canoe chant and beating time for the paddles, presented altogether an interesting picture, as they floated on the waters of the noble Waikato, under the wooded mountains which cast their shade over the scene. As they approached a Maori ngeri was heard issuing from the canoes, chanted by many voices, and expressive of their determination to hold their land.

Ka Ngapu te whenua
Ka haere nga tangata Kihea?
E Ruaimoko
Purutia tawhia, Ki aita.

* A native who met his death by a blow from a European.

A native woman murdered by Marsden, who was executed for the deed.

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(Free Translation.)
Like creepting thing The Land is moving,
When gone, where shall man Find a dwelling?
Oh, Ruaimoko!*
Hold it fast
Retain it firmly
In thy grasp
And bid it stay.

The army on shore responded by another ngeri, signifying the Maori flag shall hold it.

E Tama, te uaua E
E Tama te Maroro E
Na hoki ra, te tohea, te uaua na,
I taku ringa e mau ana, e tn na
E tu nei te aroaro o Parutanaihi
E tu nei

Son, here is sinew,
Son, here is strength,
Hence this strife.
The weapon's held
Within my hand.
There you stand
And here am I.
In presence of Parutanaihi
We stand.

The women chanted the usual welcome, and Potatau stood on the hill saluting his friends thus, "Come my fathers, come my brothers, come on the waters over which your ancestors pulled their canoes. Come on the Waikato. Welcome, welcome!

The visitors landed amid the wildest demonstrations of joy, and the parties joined in a war dance, in which men and women vied with each other in expressions of savage delight.

On the morning of the 25th a discharge of musketry from different parties, and military drill in some parts of the encampment, indicated another demonstration. About 10 o'clock the tribes turned out for a korero in the style of warriors rather than in that of politicians. They met near Potatau's house and repeated the war dance with great excitement. To thoughtful minds this second demonstration betokened evil. Wm. Naylor considered it as an indication of deep feeling against Europeans, and intended as an act of defiance. He evidently

* A legendary person.

A legendary person.

page 41 felt greatly disappointed that the Lower Waikatos were throwing themselves so decidedly into this movement. It was expected that they would throw the weight of their influence into the opposite scale, and was relying upon them for support. To his great surprise, and contrary to the expectations of many, they came fully resolved on planting the new flag staff, which act was to be regarded as the complete establishment of the Maori Kingdom; "Te wakaotinga o te pa," (the finishing of the pa). This greatly disturbed Naylor and being also informed that it was intended to insult him by bringing a woman to reply to him if he addressed the meeting, he resolved to leave at once and return to Raglan. This determination he would certainly have carried out, but his intention becoming known to some of the leading men, they sent Thompson to request him to remain and take part in the meeting promising him an impartial hearing; to this he consented. (See his address to Broughton, p. 44).

After indulging in this second demonstration they sat down for a korero, and the following speeches were delivered.

Iraia saluted the Waikatos—Welcome, welcome.

Wharepu: Call us; call us; bind the cord; make it fast; bind the tribes together; make fast the cords; hold them tight that the union be firm; it is not of yesterday, it is from time immemorial.

Tuhikitia: Come to us (mihi mai); drag out our canoe; paddle it hither; swim to us, (kau mai).

Patara and *Hori te Waru—Welcome (Haere mai).

Ruihuna: Call to us, call to us, Te Taniwha below; call to us, we float towards you; we are not of to day, Waikato is of old (o tua iho o era ra).

Te Paraone (Ngatipo): Call us, call us to land; let us see the finish—this is the finish.

"Ka ngapu te whenua," &c., as before.

Hone Papita: Come and fetch me; cut me, tear me in pieces for the sin I have committed against thee, O Waikato taniwa rau (with huudred Chiefs).

Tomo followed in the same strain, concluding by saying,—Ma te pakeha e toro mai. (Let the pakeha first lift his hand to us.)

Wetini (Ngatihaua): We have been divided into parties, lived in enmity; now we are again united, but the land is gone, it is in bondage; the Governor has disturbed it.

Te Kereihe: Your work will advance; we help it forward. Taupiri we salute thee. This is the canoe—the canoe for us. We come to support you; you shall live by us. You rise; by us you shall advance (referring to the Maori Kingdom).

Wiremu Te Rahurahu: Come up hither; descend to us; bring to me the living water; come to truth—come in uprightness; come directly to truth.

Horomona (a blind man), opposed the war party by chanting the following song:—

The wind blows keenly,
Its blast has sorely pierced me.
The stars are hidden from me;
And I tremble like the birds
That flutter, when dark clouds

* Dead since the meeting.

Dead since the meeting.

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Fly across their path.
Who has created this night of sorrow
That now o'erspreads the land?
Who is he, that conceived
This thought of war?
Why docs he not return
By the same plebeian path
That brought him here,
Nor dare to tread on sacred ground?
From the councils of the great ones
Has thou come
To break our long repose?
Whither would'st thou lead us?
End now thy strife
And leave us pure.
That we may rest in peace.
Who is the evil spirit
That prompts to war?
Bid him keep at distance,
Lest maddened by his wiles
We fall into the snare of Rongo,
The man who came to fetch us.
Withdraw thy stretched-out hand,
Return it to thy bosom undefiled—
Pollute it not.

Tamuti (Ngatipo) and Piripi Nanaia : Each uttered a few words of compliment in the usual style

Te Tutere (Ngatihaua): Listen ! Ascend, come up to us. We prayed to God, and asked him to send Potatau back to Waikato, and our prayers brought him back.

Te Munu: It is not right to leave it (the flag staff) on the ground; let us unite and rear it.

The korero was interrupted at this point by two men presenting a dish to make a collection for the King, at which many took umbrage, arose, and departed, and the meeting dispersed.

In the afternoon they met again, in a more quiet and subdued manner, and resumed the korero.

Heta commenced with a few words of salutation.

Porokoru : Waikato, come to us; although we are little among the tribes our fame travels (referring to the new movement), the Maori customs had separated us into units, but this unites us again.

Reweti (Ngatiwhatua): Call us; unite us; be strong; we swim to you. If your intentions and plans are straight I shall laugh (be pleased), if they turn out crooked I shall not; but I am in the whare-here-here (house of bondage); and therefore, have nothing to say.

Te Heu Heu (Taupo): Como up here; ascend to us; give us living water; I was dying; the water that was given to me was bad; now I live, for I have obtained living water (referring to the new thing); come, join us in this work; if the land die, (i.e., if it be alienated) the power of man will perish with it.

Hone Kingi: Here we come to you, to that which is right; be strong to work it out.

Lo this is the fortress!
And the sentinel keeps watch;
Vines from the forest bind its spars,
And I am safe within. Oh! oh!

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Iraia Ngatikoroki: Here is the work for us; come to it all you men who know how to make canoes; this is the pa; this is the sentinel; we have forsaken the customs of our ancestors; sleep on Tamnki; sleep on all the places; let not your rest be broken, we have no evil intentions.

Ihaka (of Pukaki): Here am I; I was here yesterday; I am here to-day to work at that which is good; evils have befallen me; I have gone wrong; you talk of your goodness, where is your goodness? If you ascend to that which is good all will be right; break up the house that stands before us; don't turn upon me to strike me, that is what I call good; my fathers don't strike me (meaning the Europeans, with whom he identified himself); let me strike the first blow (i.e. let Europeans strike first). Though I have been distant and unseen by you, I have been acquainted with your proceedings. He kuri patete tenci ekore e mutu (this is a dog that barks often and does not end—meaning the Europeans). My fathers, work at it, work at it.

Ruihana: Look here, you talk of being good, your good is like this (holding out his hand and presenting the palm) there is good there to-day, to-morrow it is turned to evil (turning the palm of his hand downward); talk about goodness, kindness, love ! But my korero will not please you; I say let this good be more than talk; let it be real; let it be confirmed; take it into your breasts, and button it up in your shirts close up to the throat; if good prevail over the present evil, I shall be saved in these times of trouble; then I shall believe it is good you mean; but if not where is our goodness; if good be seen then I shall be able to worship God in peace the rest of my days. Onenuku was once my God; I have forsaken him and Christ is now my God.

Wiremu Te Ipu: Work away my friends, I also will work with you. Let your work be one; let it be in accordance with Christian law. The Maori talk to which we have listened for so many days is no good; let your energy be given to that which accords with Christian precepts.

Te Tutere: Work! pursue the path that leads you to that which is good. This is the house—New Zealand rise (for the flagstaff), if thou art left on the ground, the people decline, New Zealand is lost.

Ruhana: Clear the paths, let there be light (meaning speak out that we may understand your movements); as for the flagstaff that will go up. What of that? The stick is nothing; it is the things that are beneath it; bring them out; throw your plans down before us that we may see what they are like.

Hori Rakaupango spoke angrily to Wiremu Te Ipu. Guns have first been given to us, and afterwards we are exhorted to be good. Has he not given us cause (i.e. Europeans)? We have done no wrong this time, if any, it was in ignorance. You are talking about peace, nothing but peace. Let us not be mocked. I am not going to talk deceitfully about being good, when I have already done wrong.

Ruhana: I must persevere in asking you to clear the way. What is the utility of that stick? It is what is inside we want to see. What does it mean? What is it to accomplish?

Paora: The object for which I came here and left my wife and children at home is the thing that lies on the ground. This is the object for which I came up from Waikato (referring to the flagstaff).

Iraia: I am weary with replying to objections from the other side. I have been toiling at it for years; perhaps they (the Waikatos) have more light upon the subject, but I do not know what they mean.

Pakaroa: I did not come here to talk about anything but one. Come, now, let us be united; the sea is troubled, but though agitated now, our union will put it to rest. Como and find rest on your ocean, though stormy, come and see it. I did not invite you here to obstruct my plans, or to put down my work.

Apihai Te Taua: Though I am but little, of no name or note, I do not intend to join you or take up your plans. Where will it end? in what place will it finally rest? If I could see what is meant, I should return enlightened. My desire is to maintain unity, Christianity, friendship, truth, and peace.

page 44
Kiwi (an old chief of the Tainui tribe): I am a bird from the ocean. I am surrounded by the Pakehas. I am their friend; they are my friends. I intend to remain their friend. He then sought to draw out the intentions of the war party by the following song:—

The dwellers on the hills and in the vales
Keep faithful watch toward the coast;
The dwellers on the shores washed by the tides
Guard closely every pathway from the land.
Like those who suddenly aroused,
We start amazed, and watch
With long and anxious looks
To find a clear untortuous course.
Hush, Tu! *we bid thee sleep.
Rongo, awake! command the rivers;
Withhold them not, my son,
But bid them flow to ocean bed,
Straight as a tree, that boughless, shoots on high;
Then men will say, How noble!
When Rongo marks the path,
And leads the way.

Te Wetini (Ngtihaua) : "My remarks are in reply to those of Te Taua." (Planting three sticks in the ground, he pointed to the first, and said) "This represents the Queen, the middle one God, the third the mana of New Zealand; "taking a piece of flax he tied them together, intimating they were once united; breaking the flax, he remarked : "the love has been cut, the union exists no longer, the Governor has severed it." (Throwing down the stick that represented the Queen), "that, he said, we have thrown away, now only God and the Maories remain. You (Ngatiwatua) have nothing to say. Rewiti spoke truth yesterday. You are in the house of bondage, but I am determined to maintain my mana (sovereignty or power); therefore I turn my back on pakehas and my face to Taranaki, my mana rests on that land, and I go to defend it."

Paul (of Oraki); Turn your face again this way and look on the man you have so much admired (meaning pakehas); have you just now discovered a new and better way? Don't cast me behind you; I am the man who can teach you what is good and right; here it is.—love both races, both the white skin and the black skin; be kind and loving to all. I will set up the stick you have thrown away (stepping forward and re-erecting it). The wrong has been done by the Maori—my brother. I do not think the blame belongs to the pakeha.

* God of War.

Father of the Kumera