Other formats

    Adobe Portable Document Format file (facsimile images)   TEI XML file   ePub eBook file  


    mail icontwitter iconBlogspot iconrss icon

The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 83

[24th September, 1878.]

[24th September, 1878.]

1. As far as practicable, the work of the Public School Inspectors shall be so arranged as to provide for two visits to every public school in every year, one visit for purposes of general inspection, and the other visit for the purpose of examination according to the standards hereinafter prescribed.

2. At every standard examination of a public school, all scholars in fair attendance shall be expected to pass one standard. No scholar shall be examined in a standard which he has already passed. A scholar who has failed to pass a standard at any annual examination may, at the discretion of the teacher, be presented at the next annual examination, either for the standard which he failed to pass, or for a higher standard; and at any annual examination a scholar may, at the teacher's discretion, be presented for a standard higher than the next to that which he last passed.

3. In all cases the scholars presented for any standard must be prepared to show proficiency in the work also of the lower standards.

4. As soon as possible after the examination of a school the head-teacher shall be furnished, in such manner as shall be ordered by the Education Board of the district, with lists of the names of the scholars who have passed the several standards; and thereupon the head-teacher shall issue to every scholar who has passed a standard at the examination page 46 a certificate, in such form as the Board shall prescribe, showing that he has passed such standard; and every scholar transferred from one public school to another shall be required to exhibit his last certificate to the head-teacher of the school, who shall not present such scholar for reexamination in the standard to which such certificate relates.

5. An annual return shall be made by each Public School Inspector, showing, with respect to each public school subject to his inspection, the number of children who have passed from a lower to a higher standard in the year.

6. The standards shall not be understood to prescribe to the teacher the precise order in which the different parts of any subject shall be taught, but as representing the minimum of attainments of which the Inspector will expect evidence at each stage of a scholar's progress. (For example, a teacher, who finds that in arithmetic he can produce the required results in the Fourth and Fifth Standards as well or better by teaching fractions before practice and proportion, is at liberty to follow his own course, but not to substitute fractions for practice and proportion.)

7. The following are the standards:—

Standard I.

  • Beading.—Sentences composed of words of one syllable, and common words of two syllables, to be read intelligently.
  • Spelling.—Easy words of one syllable.
  • Writing.—The small letters and the ten figures, on slate, at dictation.
  • Arithmetic.—Counting, and oral addition by twos, threes, fours, and fives, up to 100; numeration and notation to 999; addition sums of not more than three columns; multiplication of numbers not exceeding 999 by 2, 3, 4, and 5. [Note.—The numeration must be applied to the addition and multiplication, and the multiplication known to be a compendious method of addition.]
  • Object-lessons, Singing, Disciplinary Exercises, &c.—As prescribed in Regulation 9.

Standard II.

  • Reading and Definition.—Sentences containing words of two syllables, and easy words of more than two syllables, to be read intelligently, and the meanings of the words to be known.
  • Spelling.—Easy words of two syllables.
  • Writing.—Short words in copy-books, not larger than round-hand. On slate : Capital letters and transcription from reading book of Standard II.
  • Arithmetic.—Numeration and notation of not more than six figures; addition of not more than six lines, with six figures in a line; short multiplication, and multiplication by factors not greater than 12; subtraction; division by numbers not exceeding 12, by the method of long division, and by the method of short division; mental problems adapted to this stage of progress; multiplication tables to 12 times 12.
  • Geography.—Knowledge of the meaning of a ground plan and of a map; of the principal geographical terms; and of the positions of the continents, oceans, and larger seas.
  • Other Subjects.—As prescribed in Regulation 9.

Standard III.

  • Reading and Definition.—Easy reading book, to be read fluently and intelligently, with knowledge of the meanings of the words, and with due regard to the distinction of paragraphs, as well as of sentences.page 47
  • Spelling.—From the same book; knowledge of words having the same or nearly the same sound, but differing in meaning; dictation of easy sentences from the reading book of a lower standard.
  • Writing.—Longer words and sentences, not larger than round-hand; transcription from the reading book of Standard III., with due regard to punctuation and quotation marks.
  • Arithmetic.—Numeration and notation generally (one million to be taken as the number of which one billion is the second power, one trillion the third power, and so on); long multiplication and long division; the four money rules (excepting long multiplication of money); money tables; and easy money problems in mental arithmetic.
  • Grammar and Composition.—The distinguishing of the nouns (and pronouns used in the same way as nouns) and verbs in easy sentences; also of articles and adjectives (and pronouns used in the same way as adjectives); and very simple exercises in composition, to test the pupil's power of putting his own thoughts on familiar subjects into words.
  • Geography.—Knowledge of the chief towns of New Zealand, and of the principal features of the district in which the school is situated; of Australian Colonies and their chief towns; of the countries and capitals of Europe; and of the principal mountains and rivers of the world.
  • English History.—Knowledge of the chronological order in which the following periods stand: Ionian, Saxon, Norman, Plantagenet, Tudor, Stuart, Brunswick; and of a of the more interesting facts connected with each period.
  • Other Subjects.—As prescribed in Regulation 9.

Standard IV.

  • Beading and Definition.—An easy book of prose and verse.
  • Spelling and Dictation suited to this stage, as represented by the reading book in use; the dictation to exhibit a knowledge of the use of capitals and of punctuation, but (at inspection) to be confined to prose.
  • Writing.—Good copies in a hand not larger than round-hand, and transcription of poetry.
  • Arithmetic.—Long multiplication of money; reduction; the compound rules applied to problems in weights and measures; practice, and the making out of bills of accounts and receipts; tables of weights and measures; mental arithmetic to correspond.
  • Grammar and Composition.—The distinguishing of all the parts of speech in easy sentences; the inflexions of the noun, adjective, and pronoun; letter-writing on prescribed subjects; the addressing of letters and envelopes.
  • Geography.—Knowledge of the countries of the world, with their capitals, and of the principal seas, gulfs, mountains, rivers, lakes, capes, straits, islands, and peninsulas on the map of the world; geography of Australia in outline; and the drawing of rough maps of New Zealand, with one set of principal features (as capes, or towns, or rivers). [In this and the subsequent standards, scholars will be expected to know the situation of places mentioned in their reading books.] Mathematical Geography : The form of the earth, day and night, the seasons, the zones, meridians, and parallels; and climate in this connection.]
  • English History.—The succession of Houses and Sovereigns from 1066 A.D. to 1485 A.D., and the leading events of the period known in connection with the reigns and centuries to which they belong, and in their own page 48 character. [Precise dates will not be required, though a knowledge of them may assist in referring each event to the proper reign.]
  • Elementary Science, &c.—See Regulation 9.

Standard V.

  • Reading and Definition.—A book of general information, not necessarily excluding matter such as that prescribed for Standard IV.
  • Spelling and Dictation suited to this stage.
  • Writing.—Small-hand copies in a strict formal style, and text-hand; transcription of verse in complicated metres, and of prose exhibiting the niceties of punctuation.
  • Arithmetic.—Proportion; simple interest; the easier cases of vulgar fractions, and problems involving them; mental arithmetic.
  • Grammar and Composition.—Inflexions of the verb; the parsing (with inflexions) of all the words in any easy sentence; a short essay or letter on a familiar subject, or the rendering of the sense of a passage of easy verse into good prose; analysis of a simple sentence.
  • Geography.—Knowledge of places of political, historical, and commercial importance in New Zealand, in Great Britain, and on the European Continent; and the drawing of outline maps of New Zealand Great Britain and Europe. Physical Geography : Distribution of land and water? mountain and river systems; changes effected by the agency of water; and climate as influenced mountain and sea.
  • English History. The period from 1485 A.D. to 1714 A.D. treated as the former period is treated in Standard IV.
  • Elementary Science, &c.—See Regulation 9.

Standard VI.

  • Reading.—A book containing extracts from general literature.
  • Spelling and Dictation suited to this stage.
  • Writing.—The copying of tabulated matter, showing bold head-lines, and marking distinctions such as in letterpress require varieties of type (e.g., the copying of these printed standards, or of a catalogue showing division into groups).
  • Arithmetic.—Vulgar and decimal fractions; interest and other commercial rules; square root, and simple cases of mensuration of surfaces; mental arithmetic generally.
  • Grammar and Composition.—Complete parsing (including syntax) of simple and compound sentences; prefixes and affixes, and a few of the more important Latin and Greek roots, illustrated by a part of the reading book; essay, or letter; analysis of easy complex sentences.
  • Geography.—Knowledge of places of political, historical, and commercial importance in Asia, North America, and the British Possessions. Physical geography : Atmospheric phenomena, winds, rain, ice; distribution of the animals and plants of greatest value to man.
  • English History.—The succession of Houses and Sovereigns, and the leading events of each reign, from the earliest times to the present (precise dates not required); also the elements of social economy.
  • Elementary Science, &c.—See Regulation 9.

8. In the application of any standard to the case of an individual scholar, marked deficiency in all or most of the subjects, or serious failure in any two subjects, shall be reckoned as failure for that standard; but serious failure in any one subject alone shall not be so reckoned if it page 49 appear to be due to some individual peculiarity, and be not common to a large proportion of the class under examination.

9. Although the scholars will be allowed to pass the standards as defined in Regulation 7, the Inspector will inquire, and, if necessary, report as to the kind and amount of instruction in other subjects in the case of each class, as follows:—

Class Preparing for Standard I.

  • Object and Natural-History Lessons.—A syllabus of the year's work done to be given to the Inspector, who will examine the class upon some object selected from the syllabus.
  • Knowledge of the Subject-matter of the Reading Lessons.
  • Repetition of Easy Verses.—Syllabus and test as for object-lessons.
  • Singing.—A sufficient number of easy and suitable songs in correct time and tune, and at a proper pitch.
  • Disciplinary Exercises or Drill.
  • Needlework.—See Regulation 10.
  • Drawing..—See Regulation 11.

Class Preparing for Standard II.

  • Object-lessons, and Lessons in Natural History and on Manufactures.—A syllabus, as in Standard I.
  • Knowledge of Subject-matter of Beading Lessons.
  • Repetition of Verses.—Syllabus showing progress.
  • Singing.—Songs as before; the places of the notes on the stave, or the symbol used for each note in the notation adopted; to sing the major diatonic scale and the successive notes of the common chord in all keys.
  • School Drill.
  • Needlework and Drawing.—See Regulations 10 and 11.

Class Preparing for Standard III.

  • Knowledge of Common Things.—A syllabus as for object-lessons in the former standards.
  • The Subject-matter of the Beading Lessons.
  • Repetition of Verses.—Syllabus showing progress.
  • Singing.—Easy exercises on the common chord, and the interval of a second in common time and in 2/4 time, not involving the use of dotted notes; use of the signs p., f., cres., dim., rall., and their equivalents; songs as before, or in common with the upper part of the school.
  • Drill.
  • Needlework and Drawitig.—See Regulations 10 and 11.

Class Preparing for Standard IV.

  • Elementary Science.—See Regulation 12.
  • Recitation.—A list of pieces learnt, and one piece (or more) specially prepared for the examination.
  • Singing.—Easy exercise on the chords of the dominant and subdominant, and in the intervals prescribed for Standard III.; exercises in triple time; use of dotted notes; melodies, rounds, and part songs in common with the higher standards. [Note.—It will suffice if this class take the air of the songs, while the other parts are sung by the more] advanced classes, and it may be useful to let older scholars lead the parts in a round.]page 50
  • Drill.
  • Needlework and Drawing.—See Regulations 10 and 11.

Classes Preparing for Standards V. and VI.

  • Elementary Science.—See Regulation 12.
  • Recitation.—Of a higher order than for Standard IV.
  • Singing.—More difficult exercises in time and tune; strict attention to expression marks.
  • Drill.
  • Needlework and Drawing.—See Regulations 10 and 11.

10. All the girls in every public school in which there is a female teacher shall learn needlework, and, if the Inspector is satisfied that the instruction in this subject is thoroughly systematic and efficient, he may reduce the minimum number of marks for passing the standards by 10 per cent, in favour of the girls as compared with the boys. The classes for needlework shall be approximately the same as those for the standards, but such changes of children from one class to another in this subject may be made as shall be found necessary to insure the passing of every child through the different stages in the order here stated.

First.—Threading needles and hemming. (Illustration of work : Strips of calico or a plain pocket-handkerchief.)

Second.—The foregoing, and felling, and fixing a hem. (Illustration : A child's pinafore.)

Third.—The foregoing and stitching, sewing on strings, and fixing all work up to this stage. (A pillow-case, or woman's plain shift, without bands or gathers.)

Fourth.—The foregoing, and button-holing, sewing on buttons, stroking, setting in gathers, plain darning, and fixing. (A plain day-or night-shirt.)

Fifth.—The foregoing, and whipping, a tuck run, sewing on frill, and gathering. (A night-dress with frills.)

Sixth.—Cutting out any plain garment and fixing it for a junior class; darning stockings (fine and coarse) in worsted or cotton; grafting, darning fine linen or calico; patching the same; darning and patching fine diaper.

If Knitting is learnt it shall be in the following order: A strip of plain knitting; knitted muffatees, ribbed; a plain-knitted child's sock; a long-ribbed stocking.

11. The order of instruction in drawing shall be as follows:—
  • Standard I. Freehand outline drawing from blackboard exercises (on slate).
  • Standard II. The same, but more advanced, and with some use of drawing-book.
  • Standard III. Freehand outline drawing in drawing-book (from copies).
  • Standard IV. Outline drawing from models and other solid objects.
  • Standard V. Practical geometrical drawing.
  • Standard VI. Practical perspective drawing.

[Note.—Solid models for Standard IV. can be made by any carpenter; cost in London, 24s.; in Now Zealand, 30s. Tate's Practical Geometry (price 1s.) is a good textbook for Standard V., and J. C. Dicksee's Perspective (4s.) for Standard VI.]

12. The teaching of elementary science for Standards IV., V., and VI. shall embrace elementary physics, a small part of elementary chemistry, elementary mechanics, and elementary physiology; and shall be sufficient for and applied to the purposes of illustrating the laws of health, the page 51 structure and operation of the simpler machines and philosophical instruments, the simpler processes of agriculture, and the classification of animals and plants. The head-teacher of each school shall prepare a syllabus showing the distribution of these subjects over a three-years' course, having regard to the amount and order of the information contained in the reading books used in the school. The Inspector will see that the syllabus is sufficient, and examine each class in that part of the work with which the class has been engaged during the year. The syllabus shall present a suitable arrangement of the matter contained in the following programme (the portions enclosed within square brackets being, however, optional) :—

Conditions of matter—solid, liquid, gaseous; force—gravitation, heat, chemical affinity, electricity, magnetism; properties of solids—compactness, porousness, comparative hardness, brittleness, toughness, &c.; forms of bodies; inertia of rest and motion; comparative density and specific gravity; centre of gravity; acceleration; the mechanical powers; pressure of liquids and gases; pumps, barometers, hydraulic press, &c.

Vibrations; velocity of sound and light; reflection, refraction, &c.; the magnifying glass and the prism; heat expansion, convection, conduction, radiation; thermometer; ventilation; steam; mechanical mixture and chemical combination; [oxygen; hydrogen; nitrogen; chlorine; carbon; sulphur; phosphorus; lime; iron;] composition of water and of air; combustion; [acid and alkali].

[Characteristics of saccharoids; of oils and fats; of fermentation products; of albuminoids; fractional and voltaic electricity; the electric machine; the battery; currents;] the build of the human body, and names and positions of internal parts; constituents of blood, muscle, bone, and connective tissue; alimentation; circulation; respiration; [the kidneys and their secretion;] animal heat; organs of sense; principal divisions of the animal kingdom, and of the vegetable kingdom.

[Note.—The extent of the knowledge indicated by this programme is intended to be not greater than the ground covered by the ten popular lectures contained in Parts II., III., IV., V., and VI., of "Science made Easy," by Thomas Twining, price 1s. each part; published by Chapman and Hall, London. The "Science Primers," entitled respectively "Introductory," "Chemistry," "Physics," "Physiology," "Botany," price 1s. each, published by Macmillan and Co., will be useful to teachers, but they go beyond the programme. "Health in the House," by Mrs. Buckton, price 2s., published by Longmans, is a very useful illustration of the application of elementary science to the practical concerns of common life; and Johnston's "Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry," price 1s., published by Blackwood and Sons, should be studied, especially by teachers of country schools.]

13. Standard IV., as defined in these Regulations, shall be the standard of education prescribed under "The Education Act, 1877," section ninety, subsection four.

14. These regulations shall come into force upon the date hereof; but the examinations of schools at any time earlier than the first day of July, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-nine, shall be regarded as merely preparatory to the complete observance of the standards as herein defined.