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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 70

Appendix E. — Table showing Approximately the Number, Description, and Value of the Water Races. Tail Races, Dams, and Ground Sluices in Operation during the Year ending March 31st, 1891

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Appendix E.

Table showing Approximately the Number, Description, and Value of the Water Races. Tail Races, Dams, and Ground Sluices in Operation during the Year ending March 31st, 1891.

Mining District. Water Races. Tail Races. Dams. Reservoirs. Ground Sluices. No. Length in Miles. No. of Sluice Heads. Approximate Cost. No. Approximate Cost. No. Approximate Cost. No. Approximate Cost. Approximate Cost. Approximate Cost. £ £ £ £ £ £ Auckland 37 28¾ 162 30,200 5 72 7 935 31,207 Marlborough 86 60 146 10,000 60 3,000 25 500 16 360 13,860 Nelson 1,388 1,366¾ 5,964 316,400 1,455 105,274 1,790 55,327 4 3,015 80 3,000 483,016 Westland 1,761 1,295 3,527 128,470 1,366 36,630 1,303 18,940 34 8,500 143 2,372 194,912 Otago 2,060 5,523 7,942 419,025 1,635 52,082 986 42,110 42 1,400 239 4,525 519,142 Totals 5,332 8,273½ 17,741* 904,095 4,521 197,058 4,111 117,812 96 13,275 462 9,897 1,242,137 *This is stated as 17,743 in the return of the Mines Department but there is an error in the addition.

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Mr. J. McCosh Clark (London) said that his remarks would be confined to the question of mining in the Auckland district of New Zealand, He would make them, not as an engineer, nor as a scientist, but merely as a business man, who for the last thirty years had been engaged in gold-mining in the north of New Zealand, being one of those who when he fancied any particular mine, bought an interest in it and endeavoured to work it to advantage. The paper which had been placed in the hands of the members had been very carefully prepared, and as one acquainted with a great many of the facts referred to in the paper, he would say that there was very little to find fault with, and very little to criticize; but there was one point which he regretted very much he could not agree upon with Mr. Binns—that was the reference he had made to the volcanic series of mines in the Auckland district, viz., "it was the opinion of scientific men well acquainted with the fields that, as operations were continued to a greater depth, the supply of gold would not only be kept up, but would probably be increased."* He regretted very much to say with reference to those mines that it had not been his experience that the lodes had maintained their richness as they were followed down. As a rule the richest parts had been found at the outcrop in the brown and oxidized quarts. Generally speaking, that class of quartz was carried down from 80 feet to 100 feet from the surface, and after that they got into blue quartz with sulphides, and then almost invariably the yield became less. There were a few exceptions, and perhaps notable exceptions. The Caledonian claim distributed £500,000 in dividends in ten months being one; their rich lode occurred about 300 feet below high-water mark. It was something like fifteen years since that dividend was paid, and no dividend had been paid since; and the papers received by the last mail in London showed that the company had been liquidated and their mine sold. One curious feature of these mines was the almost entirely barren levels, There was one particularly at a height of 25 feet above high-water mark, which made it very awkward to test the country, Between that level and the 250-feet level some very rich deposits had been discovered; and between 300 feet and 6-10 feet the lodes were almost always poor. There were, however, two notable exceptions; the Kapanga Mine at Coromandel, and the Queen of Beauty Mine at Shortland. The Queen of Beauty Mine had not been worked lately, because the company divided the profits up to the last farthing, and when they got into difficulties with water they could not raise sufficient capital to keep the mine clear. Further attempts were at the present moment being made to work that country page 28 at a lower level, and there was sufficient encouragement given to induce the owners to persevere and test it, although, as he had said, the rule had been that the lower one went down the poorer the lodes became. There was one remark in the paper that he specially agreed with, to the effect that, generally speaking, the machinery in these gold-fields was of a class which compared very favourably with that in use elsewhere in the colony. He thought Mr. Binns was probably correct in that statement, and he might have added even, that it would compare favourably with that used anywhere else in the world. He did not himself think that as far as machinery was concerned in New Zealand that it could be much better; but at the same time the most was not made of the machinery which they had. He attributed that in great measure to the self-sufficiency of mining managers. The directors were not experts and were in their hands. The mining managers thought that they knew all about the working of the mines and mills, that they were doing the best that could be done, and they did not seem to care to learn more. He would give one or two instances of this In America fine gratings had gradually been introduced in the stamp mills; they were frequently now used as fine as 1,600 holes to tie square inch, and sometimes even 2,500 holes. In New Zealand, they still worked with comparatively speaking coarse gratings, seldom exceeding 200 holes to the inch. Three years ago an American mining expert was superintending the construction of some machinery for the Te Aroha Gold Mining Company, and in temporary charge of the whole operations—when he took charge he condemned the coarse gratings in use, and imported and fitted into some of the boxes some much finer gratings. He did not remember the exact figures, but in the case of some low grade fairly free-milling ore, the yield was increased about 50 per cent. He himself was a local director of the company at the time, and therefore knew what was going on, and took care to bring the matter before the directors of the various mining companies in Auckland. He went himself to the principal importer of mining requisites, showed him patterns of the finer gratings and urged that some be imported, but notwithstanding the foregoing favourable result, to the best of his knowledge, no proper steps were taken to test the question, the mining managers being quite satisfied to work with the coarse gratings. Again, mining managers did not care much about assays; he did not mean assays of samples of ore, which as a rule were of little value, but assays of tailings, by which they could work out the percentage they were saving of the assay value of the ore being treated. The Te Aroha Company erected a smelting furnace for the lead process, and page 29 were prepared to buy any ore which would bear the cost of smelting. They were also desirous of purchasing concentrates to assist in fluxing dry ores, and with the view of promoting the production of such material they offered to treat parcels of two or three tone free of cost, the company even paying the carriage. These parcels were to be put carefully over the concentrators, and returns given showing the assay value of the tailings, the percentage and assay value of the concentrates saved, and the amount which the company were prepared to pay. This would have enabled the directors of companies to judge whether it would pay to add concentrators to their stamp mills. Various mining managers were instructed to supply such samples, they did not refuse to do so, but they always had some excuse for not doing so, in fact they did not want to; and in one case in which samples were sent they were so poor that they only assayed six shillings and sixpence per ton, while the average yield of the ore treated by the battery process was over 1 ounce, say, £2 10s. per ton. The manager must have gone out of his way to send tailings from the poorest stuff in the mine. He would only detain the members by giving one other instance. He had seen in the papers the report of a trial crushing of heavily mineralized ore, the yield by the battery process being over 1 ounce to the ton. He called upon the legal manager (secretary) and congratulated him upon the result, and asked an order for a portion of the tailings to treat in the manner he had explained. He got the order, went himself to the mine, and found that the tailings had been washed out to sea, and not even an assay sample saved. From the description given of the ore he was satisfied that not more than one-fifth of the assay value was saved, but the amount that was lost the manager had taken no steps to ascertain. Remarks might be made to the effect that this was not interesting to the meeting, but he thought it ought to be interesting because he looked to the members of such an Institution as the men to rectify what he complained of. In small gold-fields there were no mining engineers practising their profession, they had only mining surveyors, who did all the surveying, and made plans of the mines. They wanted mining engineers who would not only do what was now done by the mining surveyors, but would advise the directors as to the best machinery to erect, superintend its construction, visit the works periodically, to see that the machinery was doing its work, and sec that reports were given not merely of the yield per ton of the ore treated, but of the percentage saved of the assay value.

Mr. W. Cochrane (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) asked Mr. Binns whether the hydraulic system of dealing with the tailings, in which they are lifted page 30 to a height of 60 feet, first of all washing them down, and then lifting them up, to extract what quantity of gold there might be in them, and then depositing the refuse, was applied to washing: down rocks or other indurated material, or gravel deposits; and he would ask if that was as successful? He would like also to know whether the value of 1½d. per cubic yard meant the cost including any charge for the enormous plant required for the reservoirs, the lines of pipes, and also for wear and tear.

A Member asked Mr. Binns if he could give any particulars as to the results of working the cyanide-of-potassium process for extracting gold? In the last number of the Mining and Engineering Journal (New York) it was stated that the Casssel process was very varied in its results; that it was suitable for the extraction of fine free gold, but not for refractory ores.

Mr. S. H. Cox said, referring to the Thames gold-field, which Mr. Clark had spoken about, that there were some points that he thought worthy of mention. The gold reefs of the Thames field were worked in volcanic beds, but they were distinctly stratified volcanic beds. In these there were various gold-bearing belts; as well as other belts in which there was no gold. He believed that the fact that the Caledonian and adjacent mines cut out their gold at about 300 feet in depth, was simply due to the passage of these reefs from the auriferous to what are known as the non-auriferous belts of country. In passing from the Caledonian Mine to the Queen of Beauty Mine, which was at the other end of the field, several gold-bearing belts were met with. In the first place there was a wide belt which was below the Caledonian belt, and then the Prince Imperial belt, in which the Prince Imperial Mine and one or two other mines had been worked. It might be mentioned that the Prince Imperil Mine was worked to a depth of 500 feet, and the Queen of Beauty Mine to a depth of over 700 feet. In that mine they certainly had a lower belt than in any of the other mines. The consequence was that in sinking at the Caledonian end there was every probability of finding these belts of country in which the reefs would be as rich as or richer than at the Queen of Beauty, It was upon these grounds that the scientific information Mr. Binns had alluded to was based) that at the greater depth the mines would prove as rich or richer than at the surface. At the present time, the main drainage was only carried to a depth of 400 feet, because the owners did not care to pay the additional rates that would be necessary in going to a greater depth. The driving that had been done at the Caledonian end at a depth of about 600 feet was of a very limited description, and had not proved in any way that the county there was not going to be auriferous. He thought that Mr. Binns had page 31 perhaps attached too much importance to the refractory nature of the ores. There was no doubt that there were ores in the Thames district that were refractory, and required special treatment; but at the same time it was only within the last few years that any attempt whatever had been made to treat ores of that class. Since 1861 mines had been worked, and gold extracted from the free milling ores. The Caledonian Mine that Mr. Clark alluded to, paid its dividends from free-milling ore, without any concentrators, or saving anything but what could be got off the plates. However, there was no doubt a good deal of ore that required special treatment. Then, passing from the north to the south, having read Mr. Binns' paper through somewhat carefully, he was bound to say that the paper had not conveyed to his mind the fact of the very great wealth that existed in the South Island of New Zealand. Mr. Binns had alluded to the fact that some £46,000,000 of gold had been taken out of the country, and he had given the feet that there were alluvial workings and reef workings, but if Mr. Binns would inform his audience what were the comparative returns obtained from reefs and alluvial workings up to the present time it would be found that something like seven-eighths of the gold of New Zealand had come from alluvial deposits, and that some of those alluvial deposits had been enormously rich. Along the whole of the west coast of the South Island there were deposits, and some of them, as for instance at Brighton, a little south of Westport, had turned out something like £2,000,000 of gold from alluvial workings, and there was not a single reef working in the district. Then the Charlestown district turned out well without a single reef, and other fields had turned out something like £5,000,000, and there were no reefs worked in those districts. The conclusion he drew from these facts was that most of the gold arising from the alluvial workings must have come originally from reefs, and he thought the most important feature, that one could speak of when drawing attention to New Zealand, was the quantity of reef gold that mast yet be found in the gold-bearing rocks that lay in the north of South Island, and which, up to the present, had been developed to but a very small extent. With the exception of these remarks, he agreed entirely with what Mr. Binns had said, and he had only to add his thanks to him for having written so valuable a paper.

Mr. H. M. Becker (Singapore) said that he had no acquaintance with the particular fields in question. He would say, however, that he took great interest in the particular process of gold sluicing which had been discussed before them, and he thought the process must be applicable to page 32 similar deposits in other countries. He would like to hear what Mr. Binns would say in answer to the questions as to the total cost of working the mines, and whether the figure he had mentioned was only for wages, or included the cost of bringing in water, and maintaining water-supply, etc.

Mr. C. C. Rawliks said that he had just come from New Zealand where he had been interested in mining for some twenty years, and also in Australia. He was engineer to the Island Block Gold-mining Company in Otago, and he had visited all the different fields in Australia, There was one remark that he would like to call attention to, and that was the observation made by Mr. Clark that the Auckland gold-fields were supplied with some of the best machinery in the world for reducing ores in order to extract the gold; but in his experience he had never seen any battery which had not been supplemented with grinding power after the pulp had passed through the sieves. It did not make any difference, provided you ground the material afterwards in pans, and then passed it over to the concentrators. It did not matter whether or no the stuff went through fine gratings. When Howell's scheme was introduced at Wahi, he introduced the ore in a perfectly dry state through fine screens, but in every battery he knew of, it was passed through grinding pans, and then concentrated afterwards. The only difficulty that had ever been felt in the Thames district was being removed, and that difficulty was with regard to the tailings that were passed through the pans. Many years ago when the plants were not as good as at present the material was re-ground and the ore extracted by chemical processes. More could be extracted by a chemical process than by a grinding process, because, to a certain extent, the gold was held in suspension with minerals in a very finely divided state. At Wahi, they got over that difficulty by using perfectly dry stamps. A gentleman had asked a question with regard to the hydraulic mining plant (Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, Plate XLVIIL.). This plant was one which he himself had introduced at the Island Block Company's works. The whole of the plant was prepared in England, and taken out to New Zealand at a cost of about £16,000, That plant was now lifting material to a height of almost 80 or 90 feet perpendicularly from a level which under ordinary circumstances was filled with water in 4 hours to the level of the river flowing by-The whole of the material had to be lifted, including the water which was used in breaking it down. They used 30 cubic feet of water per second; half of which was used in bringing the material down the elevator and the rest was used as jet, which forced the material out through the tube up to the baffle-plate at the top before it entered the box. The cost to the Island page 33 Block Company, which had been calculated very carefully and cubed up, including the cost of labour, was about 1½d. per ton. He did not say that 1¼d. per ton covered the cost of the erection of the plant, but in cubing up at the end of the month that was, what it cost to put so many tons of material through, without including interest on cost of plant or interest on capital. Under ordinary circumstances he would say that it took three men to work one elevator for 8 hours, and that three men put on an average 500 tons of earth through in 8 hours. At the same time, an elevator had to lift perhaps 6 cubic feet of water-drainage and 3 tons of gravel, sand, and earth, so that it was easily understood that the whole of this labour was done by the water only. The height that could be lifted depended upon the head of water which was employed in lifting. At the Island Block Company's works they had 800 feet of perpendicular head on their pipes, which were made of solid steel with no joints or rivets in them. They were joined at the ends only by special joints, made in Wolverhampton. The force of the blow which was struck on the baffle-plate was enormous, and any material that was not broken in any other way was broken then. Even stones were smashed on it. There was one singular thing about it, and that was that the wear and tear occurred only in two places, that was immediately on the liners and at the top; there was about 4 feet of steel liners (made in Sheffield of ordinary steel), each one cost about £6, and lasted two months. The water passing up the pipe seemed to prevent the uptake pipe wearing out, it polished but did not wear it much. At the top was a baffle-plate, 4-inches thick, made of h æ matite iron, and that, even in a very few weeks, was broken altogether or worn completely through. When the material struck the baffle-plate it fell down into boxes having a fall of 8 inches in 12 feet. There was angle-iron on the bottom, and the material rushing down at a great pace, about 10 or 12 feet per second, kept eddying continually under the iron in which the gold sank down. The fine gold passing through the boxes would be all washed away, were it not for that fact. If it were at all flaky some of the gold would be lost. The average amount of gold got to the ton would be about a grain or a grain and a half, and not more than that in the best ground. The wash had to be taken from top to bottom, and the material had to be lifted from a place which was entirely covered with water, except when the elevators were at work. The pump was never allowed to stop, or else the place would be filled with water in a very short time, and it would have to be pumped out before operations could be resumed.

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Mr. W. Cochrane asked Mr. Rawlins whether the 800-feet head of water came from a reservoir?

Mr. C. C. Rawlins replied that they had two large streams supplying water to a reservoir. The average quantity of water in those two streams was about 5,000 gallons per minute. They had usually calculated on having 12,000 gallons of water passing through their pipes. The mains were 15-inch pipes, falling about 800 feet; the water was supplied from two reservoirs. These two streams ran into the reservoirs, and in time of flood filled them up. In addition to that they had the natural streams flowing into them, which were taken to the head of the pipe.

Mr. W. Kennaway said that he had no personal experience in gold-mining but he had been a director of a gold company in New Zealand, and he at present occupied the position of Secretary to the New Zealand Government in London, He came to the meeting at the request of the Agent-General for New Zealand (Mr. Perceval) to say that he was very sorry that he was not able to attend. Mr. Perceval had read Mr. Binna' paper to which they had just listened with great interest, and considered the subject was a very important one to the colony. The paper no doubt contained much useful information, and Mr. Perceval hoped to get copies of it for circulation in this country. With regard to his own personal experience, he (Mr. Kennaway) was led to agree with one of the gentlemen who had just spoken, who had referred to the South Island, and more especially to the alluvial diggings there. Many years ago, when starting a sheep station about 2,000 feet above sea-level, he had put up his hut at a small creek in South Canterbury, and two gold diggers came over from the Otago diggings. He gave these diggers quarters for the night, and they went down the next morning to dig on the banks of the creek. When they had done that he did not ask them the result of their labours, for they disappeared, and went off on the run. But towards evening they came back, and while they were eating supper he asked them the result of their labours. One of the men said that they had been digging down on the bank of the creek, and in a part of the run they had found the "colour" of gold, but it was so evenly spread over the whole country that it would only pay them 7s. a day each It seemed to him (Mr. Kennaway) that there might be an opening there, and if any gentlemen present liked to form a Canterbury gold exploration company, he would be glad to give them all the information he could on the subject. His old friend, Sir Julius Von Haast, the Government geologist, had often told him that in South Canterbury there was an enormous quantity of alluvial gold, but that it was very evenly spread, page 35 there being no pockets, and the consequence was that it did not pay to work; but surely when the gold diggers could make 7s. a day each, with nothing but their rough appliances, a company with capital might do very well there. Some two or three years ago the New Zealand Government issued instructions to the Agent-General to make enquiries with regard to the processes adopted in Germany and other countries, suitable for dealing with refractory gold ores of the North Island, and the printed reports relating to the subject could be seen at the New Zealand Government offices in Victoria Street.

Mr. R. R. Hunt (of New Zealand) said that Mr. Binns' paper was a most valuable one, and deserved the thanks of all present. He came from the province of Auckland like Mr. Clark, and with regard to the question of deep sinking, it seemed to him that Mr. Clark rather thought that after going to a certain depth the gold decreased. But that was scarcely the case, and he would mention a letter which he had received from Sir James Hector, head of the New Zealand Geological Department, saying that the "Thames reefs had only been scratched," and had hardly been worked at all. He further said there was no reason why the reefs as they went deeper should not be richer than they were at the surface. It was true that barren strata had to be passed, but in the case of the celebrated Queen of Beauty Mine, they went through barren and came to rich strata, and at a depth of 750 feet they found the gold as rich as before. With regard to another point Mr. Clark had touched upon, namely, that mine managers did not know how to treat the ore, and were very prejudiced. There was no doubt they had that failing, but he thought that the Schools of Mines in New Zealand were gradually correcting these errors, and if they had some scientific knowledge also from this side of the world, he believed that the reefs below water-level would give better results than ever. The mineralized ores of the deep mines were heavy and required special treatment, while those above the water-line, on the other hand, contained free gold, which was easier to get. There was a gold-field near the Thames which he would mention, where the gold was of so fine a nature that the battery only saved 40 per cent, of it, whilst 60 per cent. went down stream. That was at a place named Kuaotunu, which he had visited himself, and he thought that dry crushing and pan amalgamation would get over the difficulty, North of Auckland there was another field, called the Puhipuhi silver-fields, and that was also a case of free milling ore, and was several hundred feet above the water-line. New Zealand, he believed, would continue a gold-producing country, but they wanted capital, and till John Bull regained his confidence and put his hands into page 36 his pockets there was not much chance of getting capital, but when he did so they would show him places above the water-level where he would not be troubled with mineralised ores, and they as colonists would be glad to give him a very fair return for his money.

Mr. Emerson Bainbridge (Sheffield) said that Mr. Binns was quite right in regard to the number of misfortunes in the New Zealand gold-fields, but he spoke of those misfortunes as being due to over-capitalization. He might have said that many were due also to the want of capital. Most of the misfortunes were due to miners being on the point of discovering a rich vein, and at the moment when they were about to work it finding them-selves short of capital, thus being obliged to go into liquidation. He was not sure whether there was any connexion between the sluicing process and the process of liquidation, but there was another difficulty with regard to the water. He had tried to work out the power that it would take to lift the volume of water required for the sluicing process, and he found it amounted to about 1,150 cubic feet a minute, raised 400 feet high, and that would take 900 horse-power, without anything being allowed for friction. He believed Mr. Binns was quite right in assuming that it would be very difficult to find any river except an extremely large one which had motive power equal to so many horse-power, that would lift the water from the river-bed to the point where the pressure was needed. He would like to hear whether there were rivers of that capacity, because if there were that would be one very easy way of managing the water.

Mr. G. J. Binns, in replying, said that Mr. Clark's remarks as to the incompetency of mine managers would soon be answered by the Schools of Mines. Mr. Hunt had referred to them, and he could say they were gradually training up young men who would be able to deal with ever, question. These young men were trained, and very excellently trained, by the large scientific staff that at present existed in these colonies, and they would show Mr. Clark and other gentlemen the way to save their gold very efficiently, and to work their mines better than they had been worked in the past. He understood Mr. Cochrane to enquire whether the process referred to in the paper was used for elevating and for sluicing, when there was a free fell.

Mr. Cochrane—From natural rocks.

Mr. G. J. Binns—Natural rocks in a geological sense—that is detritus. It was unnecessary to use the elevating process when there was the free fall. He was pleased to have unexpectedly met Mr. Rawlins, because he knew more about the sluicing process than any man perhaps in the page 37 colonies. As to Mr. Rawlins' question where he (Mr. Binns) had obtained the diagrams referred to, he had got them from the Blue Book issued by the New Zealand Government-A gentleman had asked whether the cyanide-of-potassium process was successfully used for the treatment of New Zealand ores. He could mention that the last report of the Mines Department of New Zealand stated shortly that the process hail been perfectly successful for treating refractory ores. In one case from 85 to 90 per cent, of the bullion was extracted. It was the best process introduced into the colony for extracting gold, but at the same time the ore must not have an assay value of less than £5 per ton. The remarks of Mr. Cox had been exceedingly interesting to him, because his knowledge of the Thames gold-field was very full, he had spent a great deal of time there, and had studied the matter in detail. He was very pleased to hear his opposition to Mr. Clark's lugubrious view of the deep mines in Auckland. The fact that there was a barren stratum was no reason why they should not go below it, for nobody could tell what was underneath. By the time Mr. Clark reached New Zealand, if he intended to go back, he would no doubt find they had discovered that the measures underneath the barren strata were excessively rich. Mr. Cox had pointed out that the free milling ore was obtained at the surface. That might be due to the fact that those ores at the surface were oxidized, and had become free milling ores. When they got deeper the ores were found in their natural state, and would require great care in treatment. He would have been very pleased to emphasize more strongly the alluvial auriferous wealth of the South Island, because he felt strongly on that subject, but he was anxious to avoid the imputation of boasting, a vice not infrequently laid to the charge of colonials; at the same time he would say that many of these alluvial deposits were capable with proper appliances of being made to yield enormous quantities of gold, not only by the process which he had indicated, but by the river-dredging process. He was not able to state, in answer to a question which had been put, what would be the actual cost of the removal of the large quantity of material mentioned, and whether it included wear and tear. Mr. Bainbridge had misunderstood what he (Mr. Binns) had said with regard to the Clutha Valley, which was that it was difficult to get the water to the alluvial deposits fringing the valley—the ancient flood deposits—but it would be unnecessary, if they did raise water, to elevate it to the height of 400 feet, because for common sluicing purposes such a great height was unnecessary. The process could be carried on, especially if the material was loosened by blasting, page 38 and water could be carried up, with moderate pressure. It seemed to him that in a country like New Zealand there might be some system of pumping employed.

The President said that they were very much obliged to Mr. Binns for the paper that he had read before them, and they were glad to find that so many visitors from New Zealand had attended the meeting, and were thankful for what they had said, which had added very considerably to the value of Mr. Binns paper. In conclusion, he proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Binns for his paper.

Mr. J. B. Simpson (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) seconded the vote of thanks, which was unanimously agreed to, and the meeting adjourned.

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Institution of Mining Enginners Transdtion 1891-92 Vol. III Plate XLVI.

To illustrate Mr. George J. Bunns paper on "Mining in New Zealand

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Vol. III. Plate XLVII. To illustrate Mr. G. J. Binns' Paper on "Mining in New Zealand"

Vol. III. Plate XLVII. To illustrate Mr. G. J. Binns' Paper on "Mining in New Zealand"

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Vol. III. Plate XLVIII. To illustrate Mr. G. J. Binns' Paper on "Mining in New Zealand"

Vol. III. Plate XLVIII. To illustrate Mr. G. J. Binns' Paper on "Mining in New Zealand"

* See page 4.