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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 68

New Zealand Dairy Produce and the Markets of Great Britain and Australia

Front Cover

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New Zealand Dairy Produce and the Markets of Great Britain and Australia.

Dunedin: Printed by G. R. Smith, "Otago Daily Times" Office High Street.

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To Directors of Dairy Factories and Others Interested in Dairy Produce in Otago.

We have very much pleasure in presenting you with a copy, in handy form, of two important and very interesting circulars which we have received from our London Manager in reference to the preparation, packing, &c., of New Zealand produce intended to be sold in the London market. It is well known that the produce it-self is suitable for British consumption, but the great difficulty has always been to know what are the peculiarities of the Home markets, and how produce should be manipulated so as to bring its full real value in these markets. Our Manager in London handles a very large quantity of produce every year, and from the time the Colony commenced to send dairy produce and mutton to London, he has taken the keenest interest in that branch of business. His facilities for learning all about the trade are unrivalled, and that he has gone thoroughly and heartily into the matter is plainly apparent from the fullness and clearness of the circulars which we now print. I trust you will find them interesting and an aid to you in your operations.

The circulars are as follows:—

Butter and Cheese, &c.


Referring to our special circular of 21st October 1887, we now think it desirable in the interests of shippers to comment upon the experiences of the past season, find to make some further suggestions regarding the conduct of the trade in these products, which has been initiated under circumstances that give promise of considerable success in the early future.


Condition.—On the whole this has been quite as good as could have been looked for, having regard to the general want of actual experience amongst those [unclear: mgaged] in packing, transporting, shipping, and refrigerating the various consignments sent hither for realisation. From lack, apparently of concerted arrangements, shipments were carried in temperatures varying from, say, Odeg to 56deg Fahr—i. e. part was carried in frozen and part in cool chambers. Those shipments which were forwarded as "ordinary" ago, and consequently arrived here as "[unclear: grease]," not come within the scope of these remarks.) In most instances no definite advice was sent by ship-[unclear: ers] as to whether consignments were stowed in [unclear: ozen] chamber or cool chamber; and as even that portion which was carried as frozen [unclear: rgo]o was, as a rule, thawed out before passing into consumption, it was some times impossible to determine the value of the experiments made. In other cases where definite advice was [unclear: sent] was often, however, found impracticable to [unclear: ascerin] from those responsible for the discharge of [unclear: eamors], which is conducted with great speed, [unclear: hether] the butter was actually carried as shippers [unclear: tended]. In the absence of sufficient and complete experiments it is still difficult to decide that the one system produced results materially different from the other, but amongst experts it is still held that it is at least safer to carry butter in the frozen state, but undesirable to carry it in the same chamber as frozen meat, which not unfrequently is subjected to over 32deg of frost. Butter may be subjected with safety to not more than about 5deg, and if well made may be carried in a temperature of say 40deg Fahr. The range of temperature for carrying butter would thus be from say, 25deg to 40deg Fahr.—or on average freezing point. Further experiments must however be made, with more precision, if possible, than those already undertaken in order to arrive at a definite understanding on this point.

Quality.—The variety was endless, ranging as it did from nicely packed, bright, waxy firm, mildly-salted, clean-flavoured parcels, to Indifferently-packed, streaky or mottled, greasy, coarsely-salted, rancid lines. These variations may not have been in many instances apparent at time" of shipment, but if the butter had not been made in such a way as to keep well, no amount of salting would prevent it turning rank, and possibly altering in texture of colour during the voyage. In the case of butter, perhaps less than any other colonial produce, do appearances at time of shipment afford a reliable guide as to its quality (and condition) at time of sale. The quality of the best butter received from New Zealand (and Australia) was such as to give great satisfaction to consumers, and for such parcels there was always a ready sale, buyers having very quickly overcome any prejudices that might have existed against the purchase of Australasian consignments.

Packages.—The great bulk received was of a satisfactory character. The kegs containing about 601b net, of white or light-coloured woods, hound with galvanised hoops, found most favour page 4 with buyers. Prime qualities, packed in Pond's patent boxes, containing about 50lb each were also readily purchased, but inferior sorts in similar packages were unpopular. Prime qualities in bright, clean baskets were received in a few isolated instances, and readily sold. Butter in rolls or packed in tubs, old casks, tin-lined cases, coarse-painted boxes, &c., were difficult of sale. In future chiefly kegs and Pond s put cut boxes will be asked for, and the latter should be used for prime qualities only. Inferior butter will probably realise more money if packed in kegs than if packed in these boxes. Butter in rolls should not be sent.

Packing.—Butter in kegs did not always have the necessary line white muslin cloths between it and the thin layer of fine salt which should always have been found at the top and bottom of each keg. With enamelled boxes this precaution has not been found needful. It seems doubtful whether many of the kegs received here had been properly treated—scalded and then washed out with salted water—before the contents were packed.

Brands.—Except in a few isolated cases, there have been no regular arrivals under distinctive marks, such as would have enabled consignees to make arrangements for sales in anticipation of arrival, or would have attracted buyers to a recognised centre for the purpose of securing butter of a known quality. The few shippers who steadily supplied the market with butter of regular quality under a recognised brand secured better results than could have been obtained for similar produce received at irregular intervals or under varying brands. It is very desirable in the interest's of shippers that they should confine their operations as far as practicable to one regular quality, and that they should select and adhere to the use of one brand for each quality, which brand should be as distinctive as possible. The packages should be prominently marked. It might be found advantageous to affix on the lid of each keg or box a round or square placard of nearly the same area as the lid, containing the words "Guaranteed pure butter" in prominent letters. This is done with advantage in the case of some Continental descriptions. Such labelling would, however, prove most detrimental to the development of the colonial trade if by any chance any consignment were found to fall short of the requisite standard of freedom from adulteration in any shape or form.

Regularity in receipt of shipments, in their quality, condition, texture, colour, saltness, flavour, package, &c., &c., has not been by any means secured by the great majority of shippers from New Zealand. It may be safely asserted that without attention to this all-important matter of regularity shippers will not secure on average such good prices for their consignments as might be secured by giving it full and careful attention If a buyer has purchased butter of a certain brand by one steamer and is satisfied with his purchase he expects to replenish his stock on the arrival of the next steamer, and will at once treat for the purchase of a brand which he already knows. If none of that brand is on board, or if it's quality is different from its predecessor, he probably declines to have anything further to do with the brand in future, and tries another mark. The question of regularity in supply, quality, &c., is a much more vital one in the case of such a perishable product as butter than in the case of most other articles, because the gradations in qualities are so numerous, so difficult to detect, and so liable to alteration between date of purchase and time of consumption that buyers are eager to avail themselves of all the assistance they can get from those shippers who will help them by employing a brand regularly, and maintaining its quality and character throughout the season. They are often [unclear: constrained] a full price in order to secure a brand they [unclear: ka] experience, rather than allow a rival to buy [unclear: ft] the other hand, they will not sample many [unclear: ca] any one mark; they assume regularity [unclear: in] parcel, and if this is not found to exist they [unclear: in] avoid the mark in which irregularity has been covered. Shippers will therefore find that they reap a tangible benefit by giving close attention this matter. Indeed, it may be found better [unclear: to] a "fair average quality" regularly than [unclear: to] "secondary" and a "prime quality" [unclear: alter] In this connection it should be noted that-lines" of butter will almost invariably [unclear: sell] readily than small parcels of various [unclear: marh] qualities, even although "on average" [unclear: the] may be equal to the larger consign ents [unclear: in] of quality, condition, colour, [unclear: flavour], &c. always expect to get small lines—say under [unclear: 10] at a reduction from the price they are [unclear: prep] pay for larger shipments. For these [unclear: reasons]' made on the factory or creamery [unclear: system] commands more attention than does [unclear: that] from numerous small dairies.

Specifications and advices as to [unclear: quality], pecially when experiments were being [unclear: made] often received in an incomplete form. [unclear: The] tare and net weight of each package should [unclear: be]—each package being numbered. The [unclear: meth] preparation should be stated in a word; [unclear: also] butter at time of shipment (if possible), [unclear: and] with any other particulars likely to effortful information to buyers or elicit helpful come for the future guidance of shippers.

Shippers, carriers, [unclear: warehousekeepers], wholesale buyers, and consumers alike [unclear: have], learn in connection with New Zealand [unclear: butter] that cannot be gathered except by practical [unclear: ence] as to the best means of making, [unclear: carr] storing, and distributing butter which has to [unclear: be] so long after being made, and brought [unclear: to] under such trying conditions as to [unclear: transit] Hence the desirability of having full particularly specifications.


Condition.—On the whole this has [unclear: been] good, but not a few shipments have been [unclear: spe] being carried as ordinary cargo, or under [unclear: unsatory] conditions as to temperature in so-[unclear: called] chambers. Some consignments have been [unclear: carr] frozen chambers; but while it cannot with certain ascertained that these were adversely [unclear: affected] by it is not improvable that some of the bitter which characterised their flavour was the reason the extremes of temperature to which [unclear: chee] shipped was subjected. So far then as [unclear: reae] perience is of practical service, there appears no reason to depart from the range [unclear: originally] mended—viz., 40deg to 50deg Fahr. A [unclear: great] would be gained it it could be arranged [unclear: to] cheese in a separate chamber with a good [unclear: curr] cooled air passing through [unclear: it-]

Quality.—While this has been irregular [unclear: th] out the average has been higher than [unclear: might] been looked for, and has led those engaged industry to hope that New Zealand cheese will take a foremost place amongst imported descriptions. Some consignments have consisted of [unclear: cheeses] had been kept too long before being [unclear: shipped]. faults were found—namely, with the [unclear: crumb] which was sometimes so marked as to [unclear: interfere] the drawing of samples; with [unclear: the]" character of some, with the irregularity of [unclear: qu] found in the same mark, and even in the [unclear: same] age, and with the occasional lack of [unclear: richness]. ch l page 5 [unclear: thre] hand, many consignments were landed in good order, were of rich quality, evenly coloured, regular throughout, and in a few instances were almost perfectly "clean" in flavour. Such parcels have [unclear: ealised] rather better prices than were at the [unclear: date] their sale obtainable for United States or Canadian consignments

Size.—The suggestions made in our special circular of 21st Oct. 1887 (reprinted below) were probably not deceived in time to admit of arrangements being completed for the shipping of 58lb to 70lb upright Cheddar [unclear: haped] cheeses-the size most readily saleable in this market. The assortment received during the [unclear: ast] season was much varied, and whilst shipments were generally sold on the merits of their "quality and condition." the question of shape and size effected their sale more or less appreciably.

Flavour.—In the great majority of cases the favour of New Zealand cheese has been too strong [unclear: or] nippy" for the English taste. Many consignments have been very ill-flavoured, being bitter [unclear: or] "oniony," or garlic-tainted; whilst others, though not altogether so mild as was desirable, possessed considerable merits by reason of their being rich and [unclear: alrly] "clean" to the taste. Possibly the "nipponese," and "onion" or "garlic" flavour may each, [unclear: part] from the question of pasture, be partly due to the changes of temperature to which the cheese was subjected between time of manufacture and date of [unclear: ale]. Further experiments with data, as to pasturage, as to temperature when made, as to storage sending shipment, as to temperature when [unclear: shipped], are still required to enable consignees to arrive [unclear: t] a reliable opinion on this point. Colour—This has been generally good. Mottled cheeses have, however, been too numerous. An even colour is wanted, and probably a paler shade than that usually employed would better have met the requirements of this market. White cheese, but only when of prime quality, commanded full rates. A small proportion of the produce of each dairy might with advantage be so shipped, if the quality be really good. Inferior or secondary white cheese will probably make less money than inferior or secondary coloured cheese.

Packages—'These have been throughout unsatisfactory. The wooden cases used were too large and [unclear: lumsy], and were frequently broken by reason of their own weight before reaching warehouse here. The tins In which some consignments were packed were entirely unsuitable. The least objectionable form of package is that In which the fewest number of cheeses is packed—one cheese in each package being the only satisfactory arrangement. Roughly made, but strong, round baskets, with lids, have been availed of by some shippers, and no exception can well be taken to this form of package, provided its prime cost is not excessive. They are well suited for carrying 561b to 701b cheeses, but still in point of neatness, they fall considerably short of the round wooden boxes used by Canadian and United States shippers, so well known in this market.

Uniformity as regards size, shape, colour, flavour, &c., has by no means been secured, either in respect of New Zealand shipments generally, or as regards the produce of any district in that colony. Further, many of the factories have not confined their operations to the making of cheese of one size, shape, or quality, but under one mark have sent forward (without any intimation of the fact) small, old, inferior cheeses, weighing 20lb to 25lb each, and large, new, prime cheeses, weighing about 60lb each. Until regularity is secured in the preparation and shipment of each factory or dairy, it is manifestly impossible to sell "to arrive"; and buyers will not take the trouble to ask for the "first offer" of a coming shipment of any particular mark unless they can rely upon its quality being even throughout, and equal to previous parcels. For this privilege buyers will often pay a premium for a known brand. The trade as a whole, however, will not satisfactorily develop until shippers throughout New Zealand agree to make one leading kind—say full cream cheese of upright Cheddar shape, weighing about 56lb to 70lb each, mild in flavour, close in texture, slightly coloured, and packed singly.


In case it should be found desirable to utilise dairy refuse in "fattening pigs for transport in freezing chambers to the London market, we may mention the following considerations for guidance of shippers—viz.: The most suitable weight in carcass is about 60lb. The carcasses will be most saleable if shipped whole, i e., without detaching head and feet, or splitting into sides. The best time of arrival is during the cool and cold months of the year, avoiding if possible the months of May to September.

—Yours, &c.,

Henry M. Paul,


The second circular to which we have referred was received towards the end of last year, but very much of the information it gives is still fresh and of importance, and I am [unclear: ure] you will consider it well worthy of reproduction. It is as follows:—

Cheese, Butter, and Pickled or Salted Beef and Pork.



For the guidance of shippers we send the [unclear: following] marks upon the above articles written from a London and point.

Past Shipments from Your Colony.—These [unclear: have] received too irregularly to admit of a steady made being established in New Zealand produce, [unclear: such] is done in Canadian. United States, Dutch, &c. The f[unclear: hality] and condition have also been very irregular it the goneml impression left on the minds of experts here is to the effect that the great majority of the shipments received comprised cheese of originally excellent flavour and consistency, and had they been shipped under different circumstances as to temperature in ships' hold they would have found a ready market amongst the highest qualities generally available in this market. Quite recently a few cases, shipped at lnvercargill, which happened to be stowed in a particularly favourable position in the hold of the "Tainui," viz,—in close proximity to the freezing chamber,—reached London in perfectly good condition, and the opinion above quoted found verification in the fact that for these cases 60s per cwt, the top price for prime American cheese, was easily secured. It is page 6 manifest then that for quality and method of preparation your colony can compete with America or Canada. The great drawback to the successful sale of your produce in this market is its unsatisfactory condition on arrival. This has not yet been proved to be an insuperable difficulty, but for some reason with which we are not acquainted, shippers have continued to ignore the instructions, which we have so frequently sent, that they should avoid shipping cheese as general cargo, and should insist upon having cool space provided for the transport of their produce. On this side, when we have approached the shipping companies with a view to getting them to provide cool chambers for butter and cheese, we have always been met with a request for information as to the quantity likely to be shipped. To this we have been quite unable to give any satisfactory reply, the irregularity with which shipments have come forward from year to year rendering any estimate unreliable. The matter must be taken up on your side, and already we understand that some negotiations are now in progress, if not already carried into effect, with the New Zealand Shipping Company (Limited) in this connection. But it should be taken up by all the shipping ports in order to command the attention of the steam ship companies.

The following more specific instructions may be of service to you in guiding shippers, should the necessary accommodation be forthcoming, viz:—
(a)Size: The most suitable cheese for this market, when of good to prime quality, are those weighing from 56lb to 70lb each. Smaller cheeses, though saleable at a reduction in price, are less suitable.
(b)Shape: The best is the Cheddar shape.
(c)Flavour should he as mild as possible.
(d)Colour: Straw colour is most sought after, but cheese of a slightly reddish hue will also sell well.
(e)Packing: Each cheese should he packed by itself in a round wooden box with a close-fitting lid, after the style of the well-known American Cheddar cheese boxes. It is no use putting the cheeses in tins for this market.
(f)Uniformity as regards size, shape, colour, flavour, &c. in each shipment is a great desideratum. More important still is uniformity in style of manufacture throughout New Zealand, which, if secured even approximately, would greatly assist colonial shippers in their competition with America.
(g)Temperature during the voyage to this country should not exceed 50deg Fahr., with 40deg for a minimum record. Freezing must be avoided, at least until further experiment may justify its adoption. In any ease shipping in a cool chamber will undoubtedly be the more economical course to follow.

Charges in London amount to a small fraction over ¼d per lb, to which must be added freight and primage, as may be arranged on your side.

Market prospects are at the present moment perhaps somewhat more promising than usual, owing to the prospective temporary shortness of the Home supply. The general quality of English produce has fallen off very much during late years, owing to the increased rise of "skim" milk by manufacturers. What America can send we have no means of estimating, as we only receive from that quarter whatever may not be required for local consumption. For the same reason we do not receive the pick of the American manufactures. Prices are very irregular throughout the year, the range for the past 12 months for American being from 28s to 65s per cwt. This, however, arises largely from the great differences in quality sent to this market at different seasons of the year. There is always a good demand for sound, well-made cheese, and it seems not improbable that on average, about 45s. to 50s. per cwt, according to quality, might be readily secured throughout the year for [unclear: New] produce of that description. During the [unclear: late] and winter months (say September to [unclear: Mar] siderably higher levels could doubtless [unclear: be] and so far as practicable an effort should [unclear: be] place colonial shipments on the London market that period of the year.

A Standard of Quality.—The desirability [unclear: of] before you exactly that style of cheese which best suit the wants of our market suggests [unclear: to] we should name some particular colonial [unclear: br] are fortunately in a position to do [unclear: so] "Tainui" we received last month a [unclear: con] from the Gore Dairy Factory Co., of [unclear: Inv] which was, perhaps, as nearly as possib-[unclear: pe] point of size, colour, shape, flavour, at time [unclear: ment]. We assume that to have been the cast, seven eases which were packed close to the [unclear: ref] chamber happened to come to hand in good [unclear: com] that is to say, unaffected by the heat of [unclear: the] hold, and these seven cases were a practically sample of what New Zealand cheese ought [unclear: to] is the parcel previously alluded to.


The following remarks are for the guide shippers generally.

(a)Quality: From what we can [unclear: infer] appearance of the least injured of the [unclear: variments] from time to time received from [unclear: your] is manifest that a really high-class article is a rule, though in almost every case [unclear: coming] notice it was spoiled in the course of the voyage country through improper stowage in ship's ordinary cargo. Nothing need therefore be side this head except to ask snippers to keep up the of their manufacture to a regular standard if able.
(b)Condition: Fresh butter is so [unclear: peris] article that it had better not be shipped, [unclear: in] time at any rate. If butter containing [unclear: only] cent, of salt can be safely conveyed to [unclear: this] will probably he found to command a better [unclear: p] similar butter salted to the extent of 3 to [unclear: 4] though the latter is the safer article to [unclear: send] distance. Practical experience alone can [unclear: dec] is the better style to adopt, and to that [unclear: endments] should be carefully made at the [unclear: outs] ably the "2 to 3 per cent, of salt [unclear: product] realise 5s. to 10s. per cwt more than [unclear: the]" cent, of salt produce," if both were [unclear: made] same circumstances, shipped at the [unclear: same] landed in equally good order.
(c)Packages for ordinary purposes [unclear: should] of hard wood, hooped with wood or [unclear: galvar] and made to contain, net, 60lb. to 100lb. [unclear: eab] preference here for the smaller size.
(d)Time of arrival ought to be [unclear: during] months—say, September to March. [unclear: Arran] must be made to avoid arrivals during the [unclear: hot] months.
(e)Temperature During Voyage: [unclear: From] practical experience it is somewhat [unclear: uncert] degree of cold is best adapted for the [unclear: preser] butter shipped in your colony. If [unclear: frozen] meat, it arrives in good order, but quickly [unclear: tu] If carried with cheese at a temperature [unclear: rising] Fahr., it may not stand the voyage. The best is, probably, carrying in a temperature [unclear: two] degrees below freezing, but that may [unclear: pro] portionately costly. It may not be practicable special compartments for butter, as it is [unclear: des] split up a shipment between the [unclear: freezing] chamber to test results.
page 7

Prices: As regards the trade in casks or kegs, values actuate considerably as between summer and winter, and at certain periods (say May to August inclusive) [unclear: e] liable to severe depressions, in which all qualities [unclear: ffer] more or less. In the absence of supplies of colonial butter in good condition it is difficult to [unclear: timate] its probable value if sound, but possibly it [unclear: auld] take rank with Danish produce, if landed [unclear: here] a condition similar to that in which it was shipped, [unclear: uotations] for prime Danish butter in recent years [unclear: ave] ranged between 110s. and 130s. per cwt. during [unclear: ptembmer] to March, and between 70s. and 90s. per ewt. during May to August.

Charges in London would amount to about ½d [unclear: per] up to ½d per lb., according to price

Experiments: In conducting these, we must ask [unclear: ippers] to be most careful to see that their [unclear: intentions] to shipment are precisety carried into effect, as it [unclear: as] frequently happened in our experience that experimental shipments have failed entirely in their object owing to those in charge of steamers [unclear: neglecting] carry out the wishes of shippers. Please take [unclear: special] of this point in dealing with butter, cheese, &c. [unclear: uther], it is desirable that the various kinds of produce shipped, and the varying conditions under which they are shipped, be clearly set forth by special marks on each package, and also that we receive full advice thereof. We should also be advised of the various rates of freight (if paid in the colony) and the [unclear: lative] cost of the several descriptions, in order to [unclear: rive] at a reliable opinion as to their suitability for [unclear: e] Home market.

Pickled or Salted Beef.

Past shipments have not been of a satisfactory character, cither as regards their quality on arrival, [unclear: or] prices for which they were necessarily sold. But having to altered conditions on your side, prices at one me deemed unremunerative may now be looked [unclear: upon] satisfactory, and it may, therefore, be useful to [unclear: ippers] to lay before them briefly some of the conditions which must be adhered to in preparing concernments for this market, viz.:—
(a)Quality: Prime pieces only may be packed, [unclear: othing] but briskets and flanks should be availed of. [unclear: o] throats, necks, chuck-ribs, shins, or other common [unclear: eces] should under any circumstances be used. If [unclear: ese] 40ge prime parts be carefully cut up by a skilled [unclear: man] to pieces weighing about 8lb each, they can then be [unclear: seribed] as "extra Indian mess," and the casks [unclear: may] so branded.
(b)Packing: Each tierce must contain 38 pieces, [unclear: d] must weigh, net, 304lb without brine. A thick [unclear: yer] of salt should be placed at either side of the [unclear: rce], and it should be filled with sound sweet brine, [unclear: ar] in colour.
(c)Casks or tierces must be so manufactured as to event leakage of brine, and to that end must be amde of closc-graincd hard wood, with similarly hard [unclear: ngs]. The hoops should be of wood, or failing that, [unclear: vansied] iron, to the complete exclusion of ordinary [unclear: nwork]. They must be of a uniform size and [unclear: ape]

The foregoing precautions must be taken, [unclear: otherwise] meat will probably arrive here dark and devoured, poor in flavour, and possibly tainted, [unclear: instead] being bright and ruddy with clear pickle. In addition it should be pointed out that it is most desirable that the meat be cured in a low temperature, and that if saltpetre be used in the process of curing, it should be applied only by a skilled hand, as an over dose or an ill-timed application may be prejudicial rather than beneficial to the subsequent condition of the meat. The great end to be arrived at is to lay the meat down here in a condition as nearly as possible approximating its character when freshly killed. Highly-coloured fiery shipments are of as undesirable a type as are those of an opposite type.

Supplies must arrive at regular intervals throughout the year.

Prices are at present somewhat depressed, American "extra Indian mess" being quoted at 75s to 80s per tierce of 304lb net. New Zealand produce in sound condition and of "regulation quality" would not realise more than, say, 70s per tierce, owing to its being a new article; but in course of time that friction in price would doubtless disappear.

Charges in London, say, ¼d per lb.

Pickled Pork.

The market has of late been short supplied with this article, and it is just possible that an outlet might be found here for suitably prepared shipments of New Zealand origin. The following are the regulations as to contents of casks, &c.:—
(a)Size: Each tierce must weigh 200lb net, and may be constructed on the same lines as those made for pickled beef.
(b)Contents: Each tierce must contain 50 pieces of pork, each weighing 4lb. These are to consist of 30 pieces ex backs and ribs (streaky part), and 20 pieces ex coarser parts, but no shin pieces will be accepted by buyers. Hams and shoulders will doubtless be disposed of locally.
(c)Quality must not be too fat, but it should rather he fat than lean.
(d)Preparation: We cannot well guide your friends in the various details necessary to the successful preparation of the article for sale in this market, but must leave them to arrange for the employment of someone practically expert in the preparation of pickled pork as sent forward to this country and elsewhere in large quantities from America and from Denmark.

Prices: At present these are unusually high. There is no American here. Danish is quoted at 75s per tierce of 200lb net. That quotation will not in all probability, be maintained, and must not in any way be accepted as an indication of the probable value of New Zealand produce. We cannot even estimate that until we have seen a shipment from your colony landed in satisfactory order. Not more than 10 tierces should form the experimental consignment.


Henry M. Paul,



P.S.—Referring to the paragraphs in foregoing re cheese and butter, we have to report that in view of the possible development of a considerable trade in these products we have made special arrangements with our wharfingers whereby their charges for landing, warehousing, and delivering operations will in future be materially reduced.

To the above I think it desirable to add the following remarks:—

Dairy Produce.

From the increased attention that is now being paid to dairying in this country, and prominence into which our dairy produce—especially cheese—has come in the Home page 8 and Australian markets, it is certain that a very great future awaits this [unclear: industry]. therefore imperative that the closest attention should be given to it, and that [unclear: the] reliable information should be gathered in order that the best results may be [unclear: ob] Our London Manager has, in the foregoing letters under dates 21st October, 1887, [unclear: a] August, 1888, given most complete information with regard to the [unclear: requirements] London market, and in reprinting them at this time I would take the [unclear: opport] making some suggestions as the result of our own experience in handling consignment cheese and butter.


While the English market presents an outlet for unlimited quantities of cheese seasons of the year, and must continue to receive the great bulk of our exports, the returned have not always proved satisfactory, and the risks in transit from [unclear: im] stowage are not inconsiderable. My opinion is that during most years our most [unclear: p] market will be found in Australia, where, with a large and increasing [unclear: population], of local dairy produce are quite inadequate to meet the demands, and where not [unclear: with] protective tariffs, very large quantities of our cheese are sent annually. It may [unclear: hap] course, in some years of exceptional growth in Australia, that a smaller [unclear: quantity] produce would be required; but ordinarily it may be taken for granted that [unclear: A] J must import from New Zealand the great bulk of the cheese consumed. During [unclear: th] season we have sold to different of our Australian offices several large parcels [unclear: of] cheese at prices considerably in advance of the highest riding London rates. [unclear: Unfort] the profit has not in every case been realised fully by the factories, the cheese having sold to local buyers early in the season; but the fact remains that the Australian proved by far the most remunerative market during the past year. The size of that has hitherto commanded the highest price in Australia has been the loaf, [unclear: v] say 9lb. Usually this has sold for 1d per lb more than the larger [unclear: makes], experience of the past season has been that the loaf cheese has been difficult to [unclear: sel] increased price. Probably the most suitable size to make, in view of the [unclear: heavier] making the smaller cheese, is the 28-30lb cheese. The larger or 60lb cheese, [unclear: made] English market, is not favoured in Australia. I am desirous of placing at the [unclear: disp] cheese factories, farmers, and others, the exceptional advantages this Company [unclear: po] for the handling of this commodity. In Australia we have our own officers at [unclear: the] centres (Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, Brisbane, Rockhampton), who have [unclear: given] attention to this branch of our business, and in addition we have correspondents at important centre in Australia. We act only as Agents, never buying on our [unclear: own] no matter what the inducements may be, and our sole interest is to get the highest [unclear: p] price for our clients. We only make one charge for commission, whether [unclear: the] entrusted to our care is sold in the Dunedin, the Australian, or the [unclear: London] Liberal advances to factories, at lowest rates of interest, can be arranged [unclear: for] cheese to come in for sale through us. I invite enquiries for information [unclear: con] our rules of business from any who are interested.


The great drawback to the profitable sale of our butter here and [unclear: elsewhere] uneven character of our supplies. Some of the potted butter coming into this market the very primest quality, while again there is a considerable amount of inferior [unclear: red] the price for which must be very disappointing to the farmer. The butter [unclear: trade] country can never be on a satisfactory footing until butter is made on the factory [unclear: pri] and put up in even packages to suit the market to which it is being sent. The [unclear: loss] Colony from the present unsatisfactory condition of things must amount to many those of pounds per annum.

Donald Stronach,

[unclear: Mam] Dunedin,