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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 64

X. — Explanation of Certain Forms of Speech. — Whakamaramatanga o etahi tu reo

X.

Explanation of Certain Forms of Speech.

Whakamaramatanga o etahi tu reo.

I.

Do. Does.

Kei te wharangi 6 i mua ake nei ka kitea [unclear: te] page 21 kupu "Joseph plants potatoes every year." "He whakato riwai ta Hohepa i nga tau katoa." Ki te waiho tenei hei patai, ka whakaputaia ketia tetahi wahi, ina hoki ka peneitia.

Does Joseph Plant potatoes every year? He wha-kato riwai ranei ta Hohepa i nga tau katoa?

Ki te whakakorea hoki, ka penatia ano he tikanga.

Joseph Does not Plant potatoes every year. Kahore a Hohepa e whakato riwai i nga tau katoa.

He tikanga pena ano hoki to tenei kupu na;

John lifted the box. I hapai a Hoani i te pouaka.
Did John Lift the box? I hapai ranei a Hoani i te pouaka?
John Did not Lift the box. Kihai a Hoani i hapai i te pouaka.

Tena ano tetahi whakahuatanga o te does, o te did, he whakahua kaha na te tangata i te kupu; tona ritenga ki te reo Maori, he ano i whakaurua mai ki roto. Kei nga kupu i raro ilio nei te kitea ai.

Does Joseph plant potatoes every year? Whakato ai ranei a Hohepa i te riwai i nga tau katoa?
Yes; he Does plant potatoes every year. Ae; whakato ai ano ia i te riwai i nga tau katoa.
John Did lift the box. I hapai ano a Hoani i te pouaka.
Peter Did bake bread yesterday. I tunu taro ano a Pita inanahi.
Do you know the way to Taranaki? E matau ana ranei koutou ki te ara ki Taranaki?
We Do know it. E matau ana ano matou.
page 22

II.

Lifted. Have Lifted. Had Lifted.

Me whakamarama ano te tikanga o enei [unclear: kupu] Lifted, I Have Lifted, I Had Lifted.

E whakaaro ana te tangata ki nga mahi o te kua pahemo, a, tutuki rawa mai ki te wa i a ia [unclear: to] e korero nei, ka peneitia tana korero; I Have Lift tie box.

He has baked bread to-day. Kua tunu taro ia aianei.
Have you baked bread this week? Kua tunu [unclear: to] ranei koe i tenei wiki?
I have baked two loaves to-day. Kua tunua e [unclear: ah] e rua nga rohi, inaianei.
I have seen him three times since he came. Kai oku kitenga i a ia i muri mai o tona taenga mai.
The bread has been baked. Kua tunua te taro.
The clothes have not been washed this week. [unclear: Ka] nga kakahu kia horoia i tenei wiki.
John has lived with me three years. Ka toru tau o Hoani e noho ana ki a au.

Ki te mea ko te wa e whakaaroa ana e te tangata, te wa anake o te mahinga, o te ahatanga ranei, mahue atu ra; kahore e tutuki mai ki te wa i a korero ana, ka mahue te Have, te Has, ka kiia pene "I lifted," "He baked," "They saw," &c.

John lifted the box. I hapainga e Hoani [unclear: te]
James baked bread yesterday. I tunu taro a [unclear: H] inanahi.
He spoke to me three times on Monday. E toru [unclear: i] korerotanga ki a au i te Manei.page 23
Was the box lifted into the house? I hapainga ranei [unclear: te] pouaka ki roto ki te whare?
His child was called George. I huaina tana tamaiti ko Hori.

Ki te mea e whakaaroa ana e te tangata ko tetahi [unclear: wa] kua mahue ke atu, ehara i te mea ko te wa anake [unclear: e] mahinga, o te ahatanga ranei, engari ko tetahi wa o nua [unclear: nua], a, tutuki mai ki tetahi wa kua mahue atu; kei [unclear: Kona] ka whakahuatia ko te Had.

John had lifted the box into the house before dinner. Kua hapainga te pouaka e Hoani ki roto ki te whare i [unclear: mua] atu o te tina.

Te tutukitanga mai o te wa e whakaaroa ana i roto i [unclear: tena] korero, ko te wa o te tina kua pahemo atu ra.

He had baked the bread while Mary was asleep. Kua tunua e ia te taro i a Meri e moe ana.
When he was beginning to work, I had finished. E [unclear: imata] ana ia te mahi, kua oti Ice taku.
Had the clothes been washed when you came? Kua [unclear: oti] ke ranei nga kakahu te horoi i tou taenga mai?
When he came to school he had not washed his face. I tona taenga mai ki te kura, kahore kia horoia e ia tona [unclear: kanohi].
I had not baked bread before John came. Kahore [unclear: ahau] kia tunu taro i mua o te taenga mai o Hoani.
Did you see William yesterday? Yes; I did. Had you not seen him before? I kite ranei koe i a Wiremu [unclear: inanahi]? Ae; i kite ano. Kahore ranei koe kia kite i a ia i mua?
page 24

III.

Will. Shall.

N.B.—The difference between will and shall should be clearly explained to [unclear: thep] here, viz., that, when used with the first person, will implies that the action [unclear: sp] of depends upon the will of the speaker, and shall, that the action depends upon constraining force of circumstances independently of the will of the speaker;! that, on the other hand, when used with the second or third person, shall [unclear: i] that the action depends upon the will of the speaker, whereas will leaves the [unclear: m] uncertain. If however, in the last case, will is pronounced with emphasis, it [unclear: im] that the action depends upon the will of the agent. In questions, will refers [unclear: t] will of the person spoken of; shall with the second person is indefinite; but with the first and third persons has reference to the will of the person address (See examples below.)

E rua nga kupu mo nga mea e meatia a mua, ko will, ko te shall; ma nga korero i raro iho nei ka [unclear: k] ai te tikanga.

I will go, Tera ahau e haere.

I shall go, Tera ahau e haere.

1. He korero na te tangata i tetahi mea meake meatia e ia ano; ki te mea kei a ia te tikanga, he [unclear: w] whakatakoto ranei nana hei whakarite mo tona [unclear: hia] ko te will tana e whakahua ai : ina hoki tenei, I will he ki nana, kei a ia anake te tikanga mo tana ha Tena, ki te mea kahore i a ia ake te tikanga mo [unclear: t] haere, engari na tetahi mea ke ia i haere ai, ka [unclear: wha] huatia ko te shall;—I shall go.

2. He korero na te tangata i tetahi mea meake meatia e te tangata he; ki te mea kei a ia te tikanga, te tangata e korero ana, ka whakahuatia ko te shall: hoki, ki te ki ahau, He shall go, mo tenei, Tera ia e [unclear: h] me te mea e kiia ana "maku ia e mea kia haere, [unclear: k] au hoki te tikanga mo tona haere." Tena, ki te kahore i ahau, i te tangata e korero ana, te tikangi tona haere, mo tona aha ranei, ka whakahuatia [unclear: keti] page 25 [unclear: te] will—He will go. Tera ia e haere—You will go. Tera korua e haere.

Ki te kaha rawa ia te whakahuatanga o te will; He will go, me te mea e kiia ana, he tohe nana ki te haere, [unclear: hei] whakarite i tona hiahia.

Ko te nohoanga o enei kupu ki roto ki te patai, me [unclear: titiro] marire ki enei whakahuatanga ka kitea ai te tika[unclear: nga].

Shall I go? E pa i ana ranei hoe kia haere ahau?
Shall we go? E pai ana ranei koe kia haere matou?
Shall he go? E pai ana ranei koe kia haere ia?
Shall you go? Tera ranei koe e haere?
Will you go? E pai ana ranei koe ki te haere?
Will he go? E pai ana ranei ia ki te haere?
Will they go? E pai ana ranei ratou ki te haere?
I will show that letter to John. Tera ano ahau e whakaatu i taua pukapuka ki a Hoani.
James and I will lead your horses home. Ma maua [unclear: ko] Hemi e arahi a korua hoiho ki te kaainga.
Will you not shut the door of your house? E kore [unclear: ranei] koe e tutaki i te tatau o tou whare?
Mary will not nurse the child. E kore a Meri e hiki [unclear: i] te tamaiti.
Your brother will bake the bread to-morrow. Ma to [unclear: teina] e tunu te taro apopo.
I think it will rain in the evening. E mea ana ahau, [unclear: tera] e ua i te ahiahi.
George and Thomas will be fetched the day after to-morrow. Ka tikina a Hori raua ko Tamati a tahira.
Those trees will not be planted in that man's garden. E kore ena rakau e whakatokia ki te kari o taua tangata.page 26
Will the steamer reach Tauranga to-morrow? [unclear: E] ranei te tima ki Tauranga apopo?
Shall I show that letter to John? Me [unclear: whaka] ranei e au taua pukapuka ki a Hoani?
I shall go to town to-morrow. Ka haere ahau, [unclear: ki] taone apopo.
If we stay here we shall he starved. Ki te [unclear: n] tatou ki konei ka mate tatou i te hemokai.
You and James shall be paid on Wednesday. utua korua ko Hemi a te Wenerei.
Your brother shall come to school next month. pai ana ahua] kia haere mai to teina ki te kura a [unclear: t] marama.
The boys shall return home in December. He Tihema nga tamariki hoki ai lei te kaainga.

He pena ano te tikanga o te shall have, o te will [unclear: he] e whakahuatia ana hoki enei i te mea e korerotia [unclear: an] te tangata tetahi taima e takoto ake ana, me tetahi [unclear: n] kua oti wawe i te mea kahore ano kia taea taua tain

When you come to-morrow we shall have done work[unclear: o]. Kia tae mai koe apopo kua oti ke ta matou [unclear: m]

You will have found your book before school be to-day. Kahore ano kia timata te kura akunei, [unclear: a] kitea e koe to pukapuka.
John will soon have lived with me three years. [unclear: M] ka torn nga tau o Hoani e noho ana ki a au.

IV.

Can. Could.

He kupu enei mo te mea e taea ana e te tangata, te mea e mohiotia ana e ia te mahi, mo tona [unclear: wateata] ranei ki te mea i tetahi mea. Ko te can, mo te [unclear: pre] page 27 time, ara mo te wa i te tangata e korero nei; ko te could, mo te past time, ara, mo te wa kua paliure atu. Me ata titiro ki nga whakahuatanga, ka mohio ai ki te tikanga.

Now that the bridge is finished, I can fetch firewood from the other side of the river. Ka oti nei te araiohata, [unclear: ka] taea e au te tiki toahie i tawahi o te awa.
John has not been long at school, but he can read and write already. Kahore a Hoani kia roa ki te kura, [unclear: tira] kua mohio ke ia ki te korero pukapuka, ki te [unclear: tuhituhi].
George cannot come to-day, because he has not yet finished planting potatoes. E kore e ahei i a Hori te [unclear: haere] mai aianei, no te mea kahore ano kia mutu tana [unclear: whakato] riwai.
I can't (can-not) find your horse. Kahore e kitea e [unclear: au] to hoiho.
Can George come to-morrow? E ahei ranei i a Hori [unclear: te] haere mai apopo?
Can't he lift that box? Kahore ranei e ahei i a ia te [unclear: hapai] i tena pouaka?
Can't you carry that? Kahore ranei tena e taea te [unclear: hari] e koe?
Could they have crossed to the other side if they had [unclear: wished]? I ahei ano ranei i a raua te whakawhiti ki [unclear: tawahi], me i whai hiahia?
John was very ignorant then; he could neither read nor write. He kuware rawa a Hoani i taua wa; kihai i [unclear: mohio] ki te korero pukapuka, kihai i mohio ki te tuhituhi.
We could not go to fish yesterday because we had so much to do. Kihai i ahei i a matou te haere ki te hi ika [unclear: inanahi], he nui no ta matou mahi.
page 28

V.

May. Might.

Te tikanga o te may, o te might, ko ia tenei; [unclear: kai] he mea hei arai i te mea e korerotia ana kei meatia, te may, mo te present time; ko te might, mo te time.

The boys may all go home to-morrow. E [unclear: pai] Kia haere katoa nga tamariki ki o ratou kaainga [unclear: apop].
May John go and carry this letter to town? [unclear: E] ana koe kia haere a Hoani ki te mau i tenei pukapuka te taone?
May not James and I go with yon in the boat? kore ranei e pai kia haere maua ko Hemi i a koe i [unclear: ru] i te poti?
If George were here he might take the horse [unclear: b] Mehemea i konei a Hori, mana e whakahoki te hoiho.
You may not climb over the fence. E kore e [unclear: I] kia piki koe ma runga i te taiepa.
Thomas is very ill indeed; he may die to-day. nui rawa te mate o Tamati; kahore e mohiotia [unclear: to] korenga e mate aianei.
Take your coat, because it may rain. Mauria koti aianei; kahore hoki e mohiotia te korenga e ua.
My father says that I may go with you. E ki toku matua, e pai ana kia haere tahi taua.
He told James that he might take the horse. [unclear: I] ia a ki a Hemi, e pai ana kia mauria e ia te hoiho.
Speak loud that I may hear. Kia rahi te reo rongo ai ahau.
He spoke loud that all might hear. He rahi tona kia rongo ai te katoa.page 29
I write to you that you may know what I am going [unclear: to] do. He tuhituhi tena naku ki a koe kia mohio ai koe [unclear: i] te mea meake lea meatia e ahau.
I wrote to you that you might know what I was [unclear: oing] to do. I tuhituhi atu ahau ki a koe kia mohio ai oe ki te mea meake ka meatia e ahau.
I will make liaste hack that I may see him again. [unclear: Tera] e hohoro taku hoki mai kia kite ai ano ahau i a ia.

VI.

Must.

Ko te must, e whakahuatia ana mo te mea kahore e [unclear: aea] te kape, mo te mea ranei e kore e tika kia kapea.

All men must die. Kua takoto te mate mo nga [unclear: angata] katoa.
You must cross in the canoe, because the bridge is broken. Me whakawhiti koa ma te waka, no te mea kua [unclear: karu] te arawhata.
When John comes to fetch you, you must not stay. Kia tae mai a Hoani ki te tiki i a koe, e kore e tika leia [unclear: oho] koe.
Must the money be paid to-day? or may it be left till Monday? He mea tuturu rawa ranei kia utua te moni [unclear: anei] ? e pai ana ranei kia waiho mo te Manei?