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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 62

The Newspaper Press of Auckland

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The Newspaper Press of Auckland.

The following short history of the Newspaper Press of Auckland was printed on a Herald Machine during the Procession of the Eight Hours' Demonstration on November 10, 1890. It has been subsequently revised to date (May 1, 1891) from information received from correspondents and other sources:—

The subjoined particulars concerning Auckland journalism, and matters connected with the printing trade, will be of interest to old colonists. There may be some omissions, and inaccuracies as to dates, as but little importance appears to have been attached at the time to these things by old colonists, though the dates are now of considerable historical value in connection with the history of the colony. Of the later period of country and goldfields' journalism we have taken no account, as every district of any importance has its own local organ, nor of the religious organs of the several denominations, religious institutions, or societies. Time would fail to refer to the comic and social journals, among them the Auckland Punch or Charivari, the Mosquito (1870), Tomahawk (1870), J. M. Ferrier and Alfred Hutchinson proprietors, and printed by John Bent. Entertainment, Motley, (1870), E. and J. Featon and Frank Varley proprietors, Jones and Tombs publishers; Saturday Night (1874), Warwick Weston and Chas. Williamson proprietors, and Auckland Graphic (1876.) The narrative goes back to 1840, and to the Bay of Islands, the first seat of Government of the colony.

The New Zealand Advertiser and Bay of Islands Gazette was published in June 20th, 1840 (a weekly), by G. A. Eagar and Co., at Turner Terrace (named after Benjamin Turner), Bank Square, Kororareka. The paper was strongly opposed to the Governor, and then, as now, the police were a favourite subject of attack, as it says: "There are peace officers whose chief business is to act in defiance of the law they are sworn to maintain and defend" It was discontinued at the beginning of 1841.

The Bay of Islands Examiner (a weekly) was established in June, 1840, and ceased publication in 1841.

In December 30, 1840, the New Zealand Government Gazette was printed at Paihia, at the Church Missionary Society's printing-office. The reason given in the first number for its being started is that the New Zealand Advertiser and Bay of Islands Gazette declined to publish any advertisements for the New Zealand Government. The proprietors of this newspaper must have been "bloated capitalists," and their modern successors would not be guilty of such quixotic folly.

The new series of the New Zealand Government Gazette commenced in Auckland on 7th July, 1841.

The New Zealand Herald and Auckland Gazette was commenced on 10th July, 1841, and died in April, of following year. The plant being sold by auction on Wednesday, April 16, 1842, by Brown and Campbell. It was printed by John Moore tor the trustees of Auckland Newspaper Company. This was the first newspaper printed in Auckland, and I was principally started by members of the civil service. Mr. Felton Matthews, surveyor, who laid out the city of Auckland, was one of the shareholders. Dr. Martin was editor, but he began to criticise the actions of the Government, and he was "relieved" of his duties. It was a weekly, 1s. per copy.

On November 8, 1841, Auckland Chronicle and New Zealand Colonist was published (price 1s), but ceased the same year. It was revived in October, 1842, but passed out in July of the following year. It rose from its ashes, phœnix-like, in a short time, but finally died hard in the year 1845. It was printed by John Moore, in Chancery-street. Its first editor was Mr. Kitchen, afterwards Mr. Banow co-operated.

The Auckland Times commenced August, 1842, and was the celebrated paper with the imprint, "Printed in a mangle and published by John Moore, for Henry Falwasser, sole proprietor." The leading article denounces the Government for having endeavoured to destroy the liberties of the Press by monopolising certain plant and press, thereby reducing Mr. Falwasser to great extremity. There is a tradition that he had to start a leading article in "canon," and ended with "nonpareil," having gone through his whole assortment of "founts." His great trouble was a lack of lower case "k's, and he had to use italic k's, clarendon, and German text, to bump out with, which was scarcely "O.K." It existed for two or three years.

Te Karere o Niu Tireni, a Maori publication, commenced on the 1st January, 1842, and died towards the close of 1845.

The Bay of Islands Observer (a weekly) was started in the middle of February, 1842, and died in the following October. It was printed and published first by James Belford, and subsequently by J. Norman for the Bay of Islands Newspaper Printing Company. Its reputed editor was Mr. Quaife.

On 27th June, 1842, the Auckland Standard appeared, and ceased on 25th August.

The Bay of Islands Advocate was established Nov. 4th, 1843 (a weekly, price 1s). Printed by Benjamin Isaacs, at John-street, Kororareka.

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The Southern Cross was started in April 22, 1843 (a weekly). Printed by Philip Kunst and G. E. Hunter, Shortland Crescent. Mr. R. Skeen next succeeded Mr. Hunter. The old premises have not long been removed. Its title was suggested by Dr. J. L. Campbell, while sitting with his partner, in the old kauri cottage in O'Conuell-street (still standing at the rear of Brown and Campbell's premises), from a hotel of that name which he stopped at in Adelaide a year or two before. Among its editors were Mr. Terry, Dr. Martin, Messrs. D. Burn, T. S. Forsaith, Hugh Carleton (lately dead), R. J. Creighton, J. Macabe, H. H. Lusk, Mr. (now Sir Julius) Vogel, Mr. D. M. Luckie. After being many years owned by Mr. William Brown (of Messrs. Brown, Campbell, and Co.), it passed through various phases till Messrs. Creighton, Scales and Tothill took it, when it became the Daily Southern Cross on May 20, 1862, and through their energy and enterprise, the first daily paper in the Province of Auckland, and reduced from 6d. to 3d. Mr. Tothill afterwards went out of the concern. It subsequently became a company concern, with Mr. Vogel as editor, and Mr. Charles Williamson, as general manager. It was purchased in 1876 by Mr. A. G. Horton, who entering into partnership with Messrs. W. S. Wilson and J. L. Wilson, it became amalgamated with the New Zealand Herald, the Weekly Herald (the weekly of the New Zealand Herald) becoming merged in the weekly of the Southern Cross—the Weekly News—which was started in 1863, and is now the best known and most widely distributed and read weekly newspaper in the colony. Mr. Hutchison, M.H.R., of Dunedin, was its first editor.

The New Zealander was commenced on June 7, 1845 (a weekly, price 6d), printed by the late John Williamson, at Thompson's Lane, Shortland Crescent, and subsequently at the top of the Crescent, next to and above the present Provincial Hotel. Here Mr. Williamson entered into partnership with Mr. W. C. Wilson. Under the practical management of Mr. Wilson (Mr. Williamson being largely engaged in political affairs and public life, and Superintendent of the Province for many years) the paper became greatly improved, until in 1859 it was the leading newspaper in the colony. Mr. Wilson introduced many improvements. He had constructed the first gas works in Auckland (as indeed in the colony), at the rear of the printing office, to supply it with gas; and the firm introduced the first printing machine into New Zealand, a "Caxton," by Myers, of Southampton, which was first worked by a man turning a fly-wheel, and subsequently by steam power. Mr. Wilson also introduced the first news folding machine, and the firm imported a complete lithographic plant, with printers and artist, and produced mining plans, show cards, and labels.

In 1863 Messrs. Williamson and Wilson dissolved partnership, owing to a difference of opinion over the policy to be advocated by the paper in the Taranaki and Waikato wars—the former being for the philo-Maori party, and the latter in favour of what was then known as "the vigorous prosecution" policy, and compelling the natives to submit to the supremacy of the law and of the Queen. Mr. Williamson carried on the paper (Mr. G. M. Main being printer and publisher), but the philo-Maori policy was not popular with colonists at that date, The paper was taken over on July 1, 1864. Messrs. Jas. Heron, W. H. Seffern (now of the Taranaki Herald) and Dr. Kidd. The firm transferred the concern back to Mr. Williamson in February, 1865. Mitchell and Seffern then took it over from Mr. Williamson, and on April 3 brought it out as a penny morning paper, the first penny morning in New Zealand. The New Zealander was again transferred to Mr. Williamson at the end of 1865, and he started it twice a week. The New Zealander ceased publication in 1866, its last manager being Mr. G. Carson (now of the Wanganui Chronicle.) Among its editors were Mr. Terry (who first occupied the editorial chair) Dr. Bennett, Dr. Pollen, Mr. Geo. Smallfield (later of the Southland News), Dr. Kidd, Dr. Giles, R.M., occasional contributors to its leading columns Mr. T. S. Forsaith, Premier of "The Clean Shirt Ministry," and Mr. (now Sir John) Gorst, the present Solicitor General in the Salisbury Ministry, during his adminstration in Waikato in the early days of the King Movement.

The Anglo-Maori Warder was started on April 25, 1848. Printed by Williamson and Wilson, at their office, Shortland-street, and existed for some time.

Ko te Karere Maori, or Maori Messenger (Maori and English) was published by Government on January 10, 1849, in English and Maori, for circulation among leading natives. It existed, with various changes of size, till 1860. Mr. David Burn was during most of the time English editor, and Mr. C. O. Davis did the greater part of the work of translation.

In 1849 was printed the Antipodean, about the size of a sheet of notepaper, by Mr. Hart, auctioneer. There were only a few numbers.

The Auckland Independent and Operatives' Journal (a fortnightly) was commenced on May 31 1851, in William-street, near the Mechanics' Institute, by the late John Richardson, but did not last long.

The Pensioner Settlements' Gazette was started about 1851, and published at the New Zealander office. It was edited by Dr. Bacot.

The Auckland Temperance Telegraph (fortnightly) was established November 8, 1854 (6d), as the outcome of a temperance revival. It was printed by Williamson and Wilson. Its first number contained the report of a public meeting at the Oddfellows' Hall on the temperance question, at which our leading citizens, and Mr. E. Gibbon Wakefield (attending the General Assembly in Auckland) took part. A bushman strolled into the meeting, went on to the platform, and electrified it by his eloquence and classic allusions. It was an ex-Maynooth priest, "Barney" Reynolds. His speech is given in extenso in the first number, to which Mrs. Shayle George (now deceased) contributed an excellent serial. The Telegraph died the first year.

From 1854 to 1874 is a temperance journalistic blank, when we get in 1874 the Templar Standard, and in 1876 the Weekly Templar Columns (both defunct).

In 1856, Dr. Carl Fischer started the Homœpatnic Echo (a purely medical journal), published by subscription, and circulated monthly, principally among his clientele. It was printed by Messrs. Williamson and Wilson.

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In 1855, the Trumpeter (an advertising sheet) was published by John Richardson, Wyndham-street, It was issued in conjunction with the Auckland Examiner, in 1857, when it was owned by Messrs. Richardson and Sansom.

In end of December, 1856, the Auckland Examiner (a weekly) was founded by Charles Southwell, a tragedian and lecturer, who arrived in Auckland with Foley's dramatic company. He published a series of pen-and-ink sketches in it, by "Quizzicus," of public men, which were witty but sultry. Poor Southwell died on 7th August, 1860, but a fortnight before his demise the paper also ceased to be published. It was printed by John Richardson and Thomas J. Sansom, the office being in Wyndham-street, near the site of the present Shakespeare Hotel. Among the contributors to the Examiner were Messrs. B. Reynolds, Win. Griffin, Hugh Carleton, and Captain Powditch.

It may be curious to note in this connection in 1856 Mr. Lambert had a printing office in Field's Lane, where some of his daughters worked with him as compositors—the first female compositors in Auckland. The late Mr. James Macandrew, of Otago, sent for Mr. Lambert at the starting of the Otago Colonist, and he left with his daughters for the South. It was fifteen long years afterwards before Auckland women had the hardihood to lilt a "stick" up again in earnest, and then they had to get a "rule" for it!

On February 7, 1857, the Auckland Weekly Register was started as an offshoot of the New Zealander, the premises being on the site of the Union Bank, Queen-street. It was edited by David Burn, and printed by A. H. Burton the well known Dunedin photographer. It died in December, 1860.

On October 3, 1859, the Independent was started by John Moore, who printed and edited it, but its career was short. The premises were in Lower Queen-street.

The Telegraph was started in September 1859, and printed by James Hosking in High street. He was a printer, but formerly a Wesleyan minister. It was a bi-weekly, and lasted till February, 1860.

On May 2, 1861, Mr. James Busby established the Aucklander, which was principally used to air his land grievances and advocate his claims for compensation against the Government. It lasted for some time, was a weekly, and was printed by James Hosking, at the Aucklander office, High-street.

The Hokioi (a mythical bird, presaging war), the Kingite organ, was published in 1862-3. It was a monthly journal, published at Ngaruawahia. The files of the Hokioi will be very valuable to the future historian, inasmuch as they (from a Maori standpoint), give the reasons which actuated the Kingite party in their relations to the Colonial Government, and which brought on the Waikato war.

On February 2, 1863, was published the Pihoihoi Mokemoke (or the Solitary Lark), edited by Mr. J. E. Gorst, as the Government officer in Waikato, to counteract the King movement. Subsequently a party of natives, led by Aporo, incensed at the criticisms of the Pihoihoi, instead of saying, "Stop my paper!" made a raid on the opposition journal, carried off the press, made "pie" of the type, and threw the fixtures into the Waikato river. Aporo, a considerable time after the affair, came into Auckland to sell pigs, thinking it had blown over, was arrested, and was sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment.

On November 13, 1863, shortly after the dissolution of his partnership with Mr. Williamson, Mr. W. C. Wilson founded the New Zealand Herald, taking into partnership Mr. David Burn, who had been on the staff of the New Zealander, and became editor. During the first year Mr. Burn retired, leaving Mr. Wilson sole proprietor. Mr. F. J. Von Sturmer succeeded Mr. Burn as editor for several years, Mr. "Snyder" Browne following him till 1875, when Mr. Wm. Berry (formerly of the Southern Cross) was appointed to the editorial chair, and has filled the post ever since. Under Mr. Wilson's practical management the new journal, which advocated a "vigorous prosecution" policy, rapidly took its place among the journals of the day, until it now occupies the premier position in the colony, as a daily morning paper. The newspaper was at first printed upon a hand press. A large cylinder machine was then obtained from Sydney, on which the paper was printed, and afterwards a Main's patent cylinder machine, both worked by steam power. In 1866. Mr. Wilson purchased a two-feeder machine from Mr. Shaw, who had brought his printing plant from the West Coast to Auckland shortly after the opening of the Thames Gold fields.

In the year 1858 the art of lithography was first commenced by Mr. A. Koch, of Short-land street, and in 1861, by Mr. Varty, stationer, who imported a complete plant and practical workmen, and who produced some plans and bottle labels, and the first Bank of Auckland notes, following with an illustrated paper, called Entertainment, edited by J. J. Palmer. This journal was printed at the New Zealander office.

Mr. Wilson subsequently introduced artists and a complete plant, and also purchased that of Mr. Varty, and commenced lithographic printing. He gradually increased his hana plant, until in 1873 he imported the first steam lithographic machine, and produced the Bank of Fiji notes, cheques, comic pamphlets, The Auckland Punch, The Auckland Graphic, and general commercial work.

Shortly after Mr. Wilson's decease, Mr. A. G. Horton, as already stated above, after his purchase of the Southern Cross, entered into partnership with Mr. Wilson's sons, Messrs. W. S. and J. L. Wilson, under the style of Wilsons and Horton, and the two interests being amalgamated, the New Zealand Herald became the sole daily morning newspaper of the city. Further extensive improvements were at once carried out in all branches of the business. Another large two-feeder machine was also imported. It was of newer style, larger, and capable of printing four pages of the daily paper and eight pages of the weekly.

To-day, in point of machine power and capacity for rapid production, the New Zealand Herald and Auckland Weekly News stand without a rival or compeer in the colony. They are the only newspapers printed from stereotype plates, upon Hoe and Co.'s new rapid web-printing and folding machinery. Just seven years since one of the finest machines ever built by Messrs. R. Hoe and Co., of London and New York, was started in the Herald machine-room, its capacity being 30,000 per hour of a four-page paper, and 15,000 per hour of an eight-page paper. The whole of the complex machinery page 4 is under the pressman's eye, is convenient of access for all purposes, and possesses, in addition to compactness of form, great strength, even to the minutest detail. The web of paper to be printed is in the form of a reel three feet in diameter, and about four and a half miles long. This is placed on a stand directly over the four printing cylinders. These "lightning" machines of Hoe and Co. are admitted to be the best that are made in every way, and they are consequently very costly. On account, however, of the steady growth of both the New Zealand Herald and the Auckland Weekly News, and to provide for all possible contingencies a second web machine was introduced last year, "The Jubilee," which is a distinct advance in inventive skill. The latter machine created quite a sensation in the printing world, and the Printers' Register (London) declared that the results would appear incredible, were it not that they are vouched for by the eminent firm of makers.

The Auckland Weekly News, the largest weekly paper published in the colony, is, more than any other, the country settlers' paper, and it is natural that its readers should evince some curiosity as to the appliances by which it is produced. All who take an interest in its printing machinery are cordially invited on any Friday they are in town, to see it at work. By calling about half-past one in the afternoon they will have an opportunity of seeing the last pages of the third edition being stereotyped, and the stereotyped plates subsequently placed on the machine, the steam turned on, and the machine set a-going. In accepting our invitation to see the Rotary Printing Machine at work it is safe to say that none will feel disappointed, but will depart with expanded views of what machinery is capable of doing. It will also tell them in a very forcible way that a paper which requires such costly and rapid working machinery to meet the wants of its readers is supplying a want largely felt, and that its conductors have the satisfaction of knowing that they are not labouring in vain.

During the last 15 years Messrs. Wilsons and Horton have constantly increased their lithographic plant, and are to-day producing chromo-lithographic and lithograpnic work of every description, glossed labels, copperplate engraving, etc., in ever-increasing volume. Nor has the older sister art of letterpress printing been neglected. Plain, artistic, fancy, black and colour printing, with new and elaborate border patterns and exquisitely cut type, is being produced every day. Bookbinding and account-book manufacturing have become a leading feature of the establishment, volumes in great variety being turned out.

In February, 1860, the Trade Circular was published—an advertising sheet given away gratuitously—and in the same month the Morning Post and People's Advocate, edited for the proprietor by Mr. Michael O'Regan. Both publications had a short career. Mr. O'Regan died some time afterwards.

The Auckland Constitutional and General Advertiser appeared November 8th, 1860. Published by Mr. Laurence.

Te Manuhiri Tuarangi and Maori Intelligencer in April, 1861. Printed at the New Zealander Office, Nos. 4 and 5, contain terms offered to the Ngratiruanui, Taranaki and Ngatiruanui, and Renata's letter.

The Albertland Gazette and Ocean Chronlice Nos. 1 and 2 was printed on board the Matilda Wattenbach on the voyage from London to Auckland (1862). On Aug. 1. 1863, No. 3 was published in connection with the new Albertland settlement. It was printed and published monthly by Samuel Johnson, afterwards of the Marlborough Press and Waipawa Mail (but now of Waipawa, Hawke's Bay), at Market st., Port Albert. It died 19th June, 1864.

The Southern Monthly Magazine was established in 1863, and ran for three years. The co-editors were Mr. H. H. Lusk and Dr. Giles, R.M. It was very ably written and conducted, and its decease was not creditable to the Auckland public. Its predecessor was Chapman's New Zealand Magazine. The late G. T. Chapman, bookseller, took a mat interest in Colonial literature, and especially in the early history of Old New Zealand.

The Auckland Weekly News and Fanners' Gazette was published about the end of 1863 by Joseph Rogers and William Payne. It was short lived.

The Onehunga Warden was started by Mr. John Williamson at Onehunga in 1864. Mr. James Hosking was printer, publisher, and editor rolled into one, but it was ahead of Onehunga then, and it died in July, 1865.

In January 7, 1865, was started a weekly, the Argus, by Messrs. Heron, Kidd and Seffern. It was a make up of the New Zealander. Died December of same year.

A German paper, the Neu-Seelaendische Zeitung, was published on the 18th March, 1866. It was published by Gustave Droege, proprietor, and printed by Robert F. Allwood and W. French, Chapel-street.

In 1866 Michael Wood and J. Donchaise started the Evening Post. They purchased the office of Philip Kunst, in Durham-street, and ran the paper for a short time.

About 1860 was published a Maori paper, Te Waka o te Iwi (the Canoe of the People), edited by the late C. O. Davis. It was published by Robt. F. Allwood and W. French.

At the beginning of 1866 Mitchell and Seffern started a poster advertising sheet which was posted up about the town. It lasted three months.

On May 5, 1866, the Penny Journal was started by C. F. Mitchell (now of Hauraki Tribune) and W. H. J. Seffern in Wyndham-street, below the Herald office. It lasted till June 29, 1867.

The Manukau Advocate (a weekly) was established about the middle of 1866 by Isaac Donchaise, by whom it was printed and published in Princes-street, Onehunga. It was subsequently transferred to Otahuhu, where the Advocate came out under the title of the Otahuhu Dispatch, on October 3, 1866, as a bi-weekly, price 3d. The printer was Henry Ball, Otahuhu. Mr. Donchaise subsequently went to Tauranga and started a paper there.

The Auckland Budget was started in 1867, price 1d. It was published by Mitchell and Seffern, Wyndham-street, and edited by Socrates Junius Humphries Wilkins, Esq.

In March. 1868, the Auckland Free Press was started by R. J. Creighton, with some of his old Southern Cross staff as coadjutors, but notwithstanding that Mr. Creighton was one of the best all-round journalists in New Zealand, it succumbed owing to the commercial depression which set in, in Auckland, after the withdrawal of the troops.

In 1868 Mr. James Allen, jun., who had been on the staff of the Southern Cross, started the second evening paper in Auckland, the Evening News. The Evening Newsletter was also published as a sort of Monthly page 5 Summary at same office. He was afterwards drowned at the North Shore, and the paper was run by a journalist named Coppock for some short time (afterwards drowned at Sydney Heads), but Mr. James Allen, sen., came from Melbourne and took the management. In 1870 he attempted to oppose Vogel's schemes and borrowing policy, but as Sir Julius's star was then in the ascendant, Mr. Allen spoke to deaf ears, and his truthful prognostications on future grinding taxation earned for him the soubriquet of " Dismal Jimmy," from the admirers of the Great Borrower. In 1871 he started the Morning News, but the populace would have "none of its prophecies of financial trouble, and he had to succumb to the fiat of the populace early in December of that year.

Towards the close of 1869, the late Judge Gillies was elected as Superintendent of the province of Auckland, after an unexampled political contest for keenness and bitterness. It was deemed expedient by his party to start an organ in his interest. This was done, the late Henry Ellis being editor of the new journal, the Auckland Daily News, printed by Win. Atkin, High-street.

The Auckland and Thames Leader was established in December, 1869. It was printed by H. Arnett and Co., Victoria-street, Auckland, and Willoughby-street, Shortland.

The Auckland Evening Star was started in 1870 by George McCullough Reed and Farrar. Shortly after Mr. Henry Brett purchased Farrar's half-share, the latter going to New South Wales. Mr. Reed wielded a trenchant pen, and soon brought the new journal into prominence. After the lapse of a few years Sir. Brett bought out Mr. Reed, and became sole proprietor. Mr. T. W. Leys, the sub-editor, succeeded to the editorial chair, a post which he has held ever since.

The Universe started in 1870 by Sydney Smith, chemist, and Dr. J. Wood, a retired army surgeon. Smith was the principal, and, it is said, devoted three months to getting the first number up. The second number was never issued, the wags stating that Smith, used up all his original matter in the first issue, consequently the Universe collapsed.

In the latter end of 1870, Shaw, of Hokitika, tried his luck in Auckland city with the Morning Advertiser; J. M. Perrier now of New South Wales, was the editor, and made it a real "live" paper while it lasted, which was for about a twelvemonth. It was printed and published in Victoria-street.

The Christian Times was started in 1870 by Rev. T. Warlow Davies and Henry Barton, and lasted some time.

The Colonial Forces appear to have also had their organ—for in January, 1872, we have the New Zealand Volunteer Gazette and Colonial Forces Record, E. H. Featon and R. J. Morrissey, proprietors, and printed by Jones and Tombs. Its successor in 1876 was the Volunteer News and Army and Navy Gazette, the proprietors being W. W. Dignan and W. A. King, who printed and published it.

The New Zealand Muse was started in April, 1880, by Francis Octavien Cailliau and printed by Albin Villeval, in French and English.

The late "Jai S.," as Mr. J. S. Macfarlane was familiarly termed, took an active interest in bringing about the establishment of the Echo in opposition to the Star, in 1874. Mr. George Jones, jun. (now of Oamaru), came up from the South, and started, edited, and managed it. Mr. Hugh Hart Lusk was also a leader writer on it, but after a loss of £3000 the Echo was "incorporated" by its older and more vigorous rival, the Star, as the Evening News and Morning News had been before it by the same journal. Through the energy and enterprise of Mr. Brett, the Star grew from the "day of small things" till it has reached its present position as the leading evening journal of the colony, in the spacious printing premises, Shortland-street. He opened out in other directions, starting New Zealand Farmer, Titbits, Family Friend (now merged in the Graphic,) &c., besides being interested in other journalistic enterprises.

The rise of Templary in Auckland is shown by the starting of the Templars' Standard in February, 1874, J. H. Field proprietor, and Jenkins, publisher. It was followed by the Weekly Templar Columns, in May, 1876. Neal publisher. It was edited by the Rev, Samuel Edger.

The Auckland Free Press (a weekly) was started in 1878 by John Brame (now of New South Wales), who printed, published, and edited it. It lasted till 1886, and died hard, Mr. Brame giving it "hot" all round to the finish.

The Free Press anticipated the Free Lance (another weekly) by a week, and in fact "jumped" the name that journal intended to assume—Free Press. J. D. Wickham (now better known as "A. Tramp, Esq.") was proprietor and editor. His "Redeap letters were a feature of the paper, and he made matters lively, especially for the Thames "jokers," whom he had warmed up in his Mining Exchange on the goldfields. It was afterwards incorporated in the Observer, when Mr. Wickham amalgamated his interest with the subsequently established Evening Bell.

New Zealand Labour was started in 1879 by J. N. Young, and the Labour Advocate by G. Frost, 1880. Both short-lived.

On September 18, 1880, the Auckland Observer, a society journal, was founded by A. S. Rathbone, who sold out in a year or two. It was at one time edited by C. O. Montrose, now of Victoria. After various changes it latterly fell into the hands of the present proprietors, Messrs. J. L. Kelly and Baulf, the former becoming editor, and like one of his predecessors, "Automathes," wields a vigorous pen, and is possessed of the divine afflatus.

Early in 1880 the Patriot was established. It was edited by Ferdinand Peltzer, and printed by Albin Villeval, Hobson-street.

In 1880 the Freeman's Journal (a weekly) was established, and conducted for some years with considerable success, but at last it succumbed. Mr. Sherrin was for some time editor.

It was succeeded by the Advocate, conducted by Mr. Kavanagh, which lasted eighteen months.

Le Neo-Zealandais, a French journal, was published in 1882, and was printed and edited by Albin Villeval.

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An organ called Labour (a weekly) was started in 1884, and edited by Sherrin, but in 1885 it was succeeded by the Watchman (a company concern), edited by H. W. Farnall, which lasted about a year.

The Telephone (an evening paper) was started in 1884 by Morgan Morns, who was also editor, but it was subsequently merged in the Evening Bell after a short existence.

In 1885 Cecil Gardner tried his luck with the Little Pink 'Un, our first sporting journal, but it passed out.

Truth was started by W. Hughes and Henry Lyes, 1885. It was short lived; the Aucklanders couldn't stand Truth.

The Bit o' Blue: a Temperance Bulletin Extraordinary (illustrated). It was started in March, 1885, printed at the Observer office and published by W. E. Mears, bookseller, of Queen-street. It was short lived.

The Auckland Evening Bell was established on the 12th May, 1885. The principal shareholder was Mr. Samuel Jagger, but other Auckland business men were in it, one being the Hon. E. Mitchelson. G. M. Reed was the editor. The Telephone business was taken over. The Bell lasted three years, over £10,000 being sunk in the enterprise, the Evening Star again proving too much for all its rivals, and retaining its present position of the evening paper of the city.

In 1885, the Newton Bulletin was started by David Geddis, and lasted till 1888, being principally used in promoting the interests of Messrs. Withy, Goldie, T. Thompson, and Peacock, at the then general election. Its plant was disposed of to establish the Manukau Gazette, printed and published by Mr. F. W. Green.

The Spectator was founded in 1885 by Neville Forder (now of New South Wales) and W. H. Ronayne, in Palmerston Buildings, but had a short life and a merry one. Some free criticism on the Devonport Navals led to trouble with the editor, and legal proceedings.

The Korimako (a Maori Temperance Journal,) was established in 1885, and edited by the late Mr. W. P. Snow, of Massachusetts, On his departure for America the late Mr. S. J. Edmonds managed it, but it did not long survive.

In 1886 the Waitemata Messenger was established by G. E. Alderton, but it only lasted a few weeks.

The Newton Echo, was started by Morgan Morris, at the then general election (1886) but having served its political purpose expired shortly afterwards.

In 1886 the Rationalist was established, and lasted a twelve month. It was printed by F. Christmas, and edited by Evison, "Ivo." He was a trenchant writer, but the journal failed for want of support, and subsequently Mr. Evison transferred his pen to the Catholic Times—the opposite extreme in the realm of dogma.

The Temperance party started the Leader in 1886 (a weekly) as a company concern, the editor being the Rev. J. S. Macfarlane. On his resignation Mr. F. G. Ewington succeeded temporarily, and then Mr. Lilly (now of New South Wales). Subsequently Mr. D.J. Wright became proprietor and editor (1888), but Mr. Ewington is understood to be guide, counsellor, and friend.

On December 22, 1887, the New Zealand Protectionist, a political and social journal, was edited, printed, and published by Morgan Morris, but was short lived.

The Ponsonby Sentinel was started on 20th May, 1889 (monthly), and is printed by D, J. Wright. It is owned and published by May Brothers, of Ponsonby.

The Sporting Review was founded in July, 1890, and is printed and edited by Mr. Harry Hayr.

Justice (a monthly) has also been established July, 1890, by the Anti-Poverty Society, and is understood to be edited by Mr. Withy, jun. It is printed by D.J. W right, Albere-street.

The Tribune started on the 18th of October last as a weekly. It was edited by—? but it was popularly believed that "No. 1" bore a hand at the editorial bellows. It was printed and published by W. Wilkinson, Queen-street. Its career was a short but a merry one, and it gave up the ghost on the 6th December, the malady being the usual one—"tightness of the chest."

The youngest member of the Auckland press is the Prohibitionist and Temperance Advocate, printed by the Scott Printing Company, and published by C. H. Clemens. It started May 1, 1891, as a weekly.

One fact which comes out clearly from the recital of this array of Auckland journalism—nearly one hundred journals in 50 years-is that longevity is not its marked characteristic. Of the older journals only three remain to this day—the New Zealand Herald, the Auckland Weekly News, and the Auckland Star—a further illustration of the doctrine of the " Survival of the Fittest."

decorative feature

Wilsons and Horton, General Printers, Queen and Wyndham Streets, Auckland.