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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 62

South New Zealand

page 25

South New Zealand.

Extent of South Island.

The extreme length of the South (or, as it used to be called, the Middle) Island from Point Jackson, in Cook's Straits, to Puysegur Point at the South Western end is 525 statute miles, while the greatest distance in breadth is 180 miles. Through almost the entire length of this island runs a mountainous range known as the Southern Alps. Some of the summits reach altitudes of from 10,000 to 12,000 feet, the highest being Mount Cook, which is 12,349 feet high. In the vicinity of the West Coast Sounds and the cold lakes, of which, together with the various mountains, I shall have more to say in my lecture entitled "The Tourists' Paradise," there are a large number of magnificent peaks which, though not of any great height, are owing to their southerly position covered with perpetual snow and ice. The two other principal mountains are Mount Earnslaw at Lake Whakatipu and Mount Aspiring at Lake Wanaka, the latter of which has been aptly termed the New Zealand Matterhorn, being nearly 10,000 feet in height. From these mountains northwards there is a fine chain of peaks which form the backbone of this island, and run to where Mount Cook, known by the natives as Aorangi (the cloud, piercer), towers majestically midst scenes of unsurpassed grandeur.

Provincial Districts.

This island is divided into five Provincial Districts (which in the old days were presided over by councils since abolished), viz:—Nelson and Marlborough on the north, Westland on the west, Canterbury on the east, and Otago in the south.

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Chief Towns.

The principal towns are Nelson; Blenheim, capital of Marlborough; Hokitika, capital of Westland; Christ-church, capital of Canterbury; and Dunedin, capital of Otago. Besides these there is Invercargill (near the most southern harbour, known as Bluff Harbour, which is the first port of call for vessels from England via Cape of Good Hope and Hobart); Timaru and Oamaru on the east coast, and Westport and Greymouth on the west coast. This island, which has a coast line of 2,000 miles, abounds in


In addition to that already mentioned, the large City of Dunedin is situated at the head of Port Chalmers Harbour. Lyttleton, the seaport of Canterbury, is on the fine harbour of Port Cooper. Then we have the lovely harbour of Akaroa (in Bank's Peninsula), one of the finest in the colony. Picton, the seaport of Marlborough Provincial District, is situate at the head of Queen Charlotte's Sound, which with others extends for many miles inland; while the City of Nelson is on Blind Bay, which extends inwards for forty miles from Cook Straits. On the west coast (excepting the charming sounds) there are no harbours; but the estuaries of the Rivers Buller, Grey, and Hokitika constitute the only ports, and these, owing to bars, were only navigable for vessels of light draft. As, however, the coal export trade from this coast increased it became necessary to dredge the beds of the Rivers Buller and Grey, whereby a depth of eighteen to twenty-four feet can now be got on the bars.


Having dealt with temperature and rainfall in my lecture on the North Island separately, I will now refer to these two items as affecting this island as shown by observations made at Lincoln on the Canterbury Plains and Dunedin in Otago, taking the figures as to the former for the year 1890. Bear in mind the observations are made daily at 9.30 a.m. At Lincoln the mean temperature in the shade for the whole year was 52.2deg. Fahr., while at Dunedin it was 51.1deg. The maximum and page 27 minimum were respectively 94.8deg.—84deg. and 26.4 deg. and 31deg., showing an extreme range of 68.4deg. and 53deg., the maximum being only reached on one day in the year. Comparing the two islands it will be found that the mean average temperature of the south is 52.1deg. against 56.7deg. in the north, being thus 4.6deg. cooler. The rainfall average for three years ending 1890 showed 27.3m. per annum, and rain fell only on 130 clays in each year, leaving 235 days absolutely fine.

Area of Land.

The aggregate area of this and its adjacent islets is 58,525 square miles, or 37,456,080 acres, of which some 15,000,000 acres is available for agriculture, while 13,000,000 acres is pastoral land only, or may become so when cleared of bush and sown with grass. Including snow-capped peaks and mountain tops, there is about 8,000,000 acres of barren land. This grand island is thus 214 square miles larger than England and Wales, which contain but 58,311 square miles. The whole colony of New Zealand is some 17,000 square miles less than Great Britain and Ireland combined, which contains 121,000 square miles against our 104,000.


The population is 344,913, or over 60,000 more than the North Island (Maori population being excluded). I may here remark that in point of population New Zealand stands third of the Australasian group of colonies, New South Wales and Victoria standing first and second with 1,134,000 and 1,140,000 respectively.


Some of you good folks may possibly think that New Zealand is still but a country of savages. If so, I am here to undeceive you, and probably I can adduce no better evidence of civilisation than by a brief reference to our system of railways. We have no less than 1,842 miles of Government railways open and in constant work, the total cost of which has exceeded £14,000,000, the cash revenue from which for one complete year was page 28 £1,121,000; and after deducting actual working expenses, showed a rate of £2 18s. 11d. per cent (little less than 3 percent) on the cost. In addition to these national highway's there were 114 miles of private lines open for traffic. Some idea of the extent to which these roads of iron are used may be formed from the facts that, during the year 1891 the train mileage was nearly 2,895,000 miles; the number of passengers carried, excluding nearly 14,000 holders of season tickets, was over 3,433,000, while the tonnage of goods and live stock carried amounted to over 2,134,000 tons. With such figures as these the last lingering ideas of barbarism may surely fade away into obscurity.

Government Income, Exports, &c.

Lest, however there should still lurk any such ideas, I will very shortly refer to the revenue and expenditure of the Government of the colony, and to the total amount of our imports and exports. For the year ended December, 1890, the total revenue was (omitting anything below thousands, and deducting a balance of over £500,000 in hand at the beginning of the year) £4,208,000, the expenditure being £4,081,000, a balance of over £594,000 being carried forward. The total value of our imports for 1891, as supplied specially to me by the Hon. the Premier, was £6,503,849, while our exports reached the vast total of £9066,397. Surely I may now safely pass away from such dry but needful details to consider some of the wondrous industries which go to swell this latter amount, which, during the current year, will most likely exceed £10,000,000.


As pointed out in my North Island lecture, this beautiful country is essentially a grazing and agricultural country. I dealt with the dairy industry, but must now turn to the production of wool. It seems incredible that the products of the docile, harmless sheep should assume such enormous proportions. When, however, we consider that there are no less than 11,399 several flocks of sheep varying from 500 and under to over 20,000 each, of which latter there are no less than 160 flocks, and that the sheep of the colony totalled over 18,117,000 last year, page 29 we may begin to realise how vast is the industry. The produce of wool from these sheep was last year over 105½-million pounds weight, of which nearly three million pounds were used by local woollen mills, while 102½ million pounds, of the value of £4,159,000, were exported. The rapidity with which this trade is expanding may be noted from the fact that the increase in the production, despite the enormous export of frozen meat, was 6,326,000 pounds on the year.

Frozen Meat.

I have already mentioned the vast trade in frozen meat, to which I must now more particularly refer. About ten years ago it was deemed by many quite an impossibility that meat could be killed at the antipodes, brought 12,000 miles, and delivered in British markets in prime condition. The New Zealand farmer was at his wit's end to know how to realise a fair value for his surplus sheep, and for many years the only apparent outlets, after supplying local requirements, were the canning or boiling down establishments. The former, however, used a very limited quantity, and neither would pay more than a very minimum price, so that there was no satisfactory return to the squatter.

Upwards of ten years ago Mr. Haslam propounded his scheme of refrigerating, stating that it was possible by means of his process to send 10,000 carcases in one ship in good order, and deliver them at Leadenhall Market. This was received by some with ridicule, by others with suspicion, and by most as merely visionary. However, in the year 1882 the first shipments of frozen meat were made from New Zealand, and the value of the export for that year was only £19,339. The first shipments proving successful, year by year the trade has expanded and progressed by leaps and bounds, till now, by the returns of the last year available (1890), the value of this export was £1,087,617, representing the carcases of 1,330,176 sheep, 279,741 lambs, and parts of carcases of bullocks weighing 98,234cwt. To accomplish these results large oceangoing steamers of great power and speed have been specially built and adapted to the trade, and owing to great improvements in the process of refrigeration their carrying capacity has been extended beyond the bound at first stated, one of the latest ships being capable of con- page 30 veying no less than 80,000 carcases. What better evidence could be adduced as to the great resources of the colony than such facts as these? Perhaps it may be said, "Well, you New Zealanders are killing the goose that lays the golden eggs." My reply is that notwithstanding the supply of our own population, who, I may-remark, are great meat-eaters, most tables being supplied two or three times daily with fresh meat, and the enormous export already referred to, our own flocks of sheep had increased by 700,000 sheep in the last year named. It is not for me to estimate what may be attained in this vast trade in the near future, but when we can show such results for a period of less than ten years what limit may not be reached in the next decade? The natural results of such markets as have been opened up to the colony has been to stimulate the occupation and clearing of forest and indigenous growth, and the laying down of grasses. And I may say there is here a wide field open for anyone possessing the stock in trade necessary, viz., capital or labour, or better still some of both (stout hearts and willing hands are indispensable), to go forth and subdue the soil till "the wilderness and "solitary place shall be glad for them, and the desert shall "rejoice and blossom as the rose."

Lands under Crop and Yield.

The area of land under crop for the last year of which I have any record was over 1,285,000 acres, the produce of which, in bushels, was 5,723,000 wheat, average 18.99 Per acre; 9,947,000 oats, average 28.73 per acre; nearly 754,000 barley, average 23.18 per acre; over 238,000 maize average 41.48 per acre; nearly 63,000 tons of hay; and 178,000 tons of potatoes, average 5.45 per acre. In almost every instance the average produce per acre is vastly in excess of the returns from any of the other colonies. For many years this industry has maintained large proportions, and it is appropriate that I should mention it specially in connection with the South Island, seeing that more than one half of the total grain crop was grown in Canterbury, and upwards of one third in Otago—in fact, no less than 89.74 Per cent, of the entire crop was grown in this island. After providing for our own requirements, both for seed and consumption, in the matter of wheat, our export was 4,468,000 bushels of the value of £672,247.

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Hides and Skins.

We have also a large export of Hides and Skins, amounting to a grand total of £271,473, but of this sum no less than £111,880 represents the value of 12½ millions of rabbit skins. These little creatures have, I regret to say, become a pest in the Southern part of this Island, where they grow larger and increase more rapidly than in England, the natural productiveness of the climate telling upon them to our disadvantage; but it will be observed that our Anglo-Saxon origin is patent even here, as we are now turning them into cash as rapidly as possible.

Potted and Salted Meats.

In addition to our trade in frozen meat, we have also a not inconsiderable export of potted and preserved meats, amounting to £156,540, which includes about £20,000 for salt beef and pork.

Phormium Tenax.

Another of our Industries which must not be omitted is that commonly called the Flax, more properly the Phormium (New Zealand hemp) trade. There are 117 mills and over 3,000 hands employed in connection with the cutting, carting, milling, drying, and packing of the same. The total produce as per last returns was 21,158 tons, of the value of £381,789. Here again we require an improvement in the machinery, so as to improve the quality of the fibre of the manufactured article, and above all to lessen the enormous cost of the labour employed. Unfortunately, owing to the abundance of other fibres with which our phormium has to compete the price has declined so much of late as to make it almost entirely un-remunerative. The industry is indigenous to the Colony, and will doubtless meet with much development in the future.


Then I must not omit to say something on the all-important question of gold. Some of you have, doubtless, itching ears to hear about the finding of the precious page 32 metal, which has proved such an important factor in the progress of the world, and the love of which is the root of all evil. I have often thought what a wonderful provision the Almighty has made to provide this incentive to the occupation of new lands. And how very singularly it seems to happen that some series of thrilling finds occur in the early days of a goldfield which are never again realised, but which serve the purpose of a strong inducement to our race to flock to the El Dorado. Scenes of the most intense excitement have occurred once, at least, in the case of each of our various goldfields; wondrous finds have been made, and in some instances large fortunes realised in an incredibly short space of time. New Zealand is a country rich in minerals, not only gold, but silver, copper, iron, manganese, antimony, coal, and most other minerals. The industry of gold-mining has been established since 1857. Gold was first found in Coromandel in 1852, but not until five years later was it discovered that the whole Peninsula of Cape Colville was rich in the precious metal. Ten years later than this the Thames Goldfield was proclaimed, and what is justly termed a "rush," took place from all parts of the colony, as well as the adjacent colonies. A miner, named Hunt, with his mates, discovered the Shotover Reef at the Thames, which proved enormously rich, and he and his partners are said to have made each £40,000 out of it.

Other marvellous finds soon followed, till the most wondrous was discovered in the celebrated Caledonian, said to be the richest quartz mine in the world, and which paid £570,000 in one year, and altogether produced about £1,500,000 value of gold. A few years after the discovery of gold in the north, rich alluvial gold was found on the west coast of the South Island and in Otago. The usual rush of miners was again and again repeated, and vast quantities of the precious metal were obtained by sluicing and washing the surface, and later by quartz-reefing. From the year 1857 to 1866 the quantity of gold produced steadily increased, until in the latter year the value was over £2,844,000. Since this time, however, there has been a gradual falling off in the results, notwithstanding the fact that more work has been done, and a larger quantity of wash-dirt and quartz treated. The gross result, however, of the entire period shows nearly 12,000,000 ounces, value nearly £46,500,000 sterling. page 33 Perhaps one of the most singular features has been that in very many instances the gold has been found on the surface. Perhaps a road or a track was being formed when a lead would be discovered with rich gold plainly visible. One instance is within my own personal knowledge, when stone containing gold at the rate of two ounces to each pound weight of stone, and of the value of upwards of £3 per ounce was discovered. Such discoveries had the effect of creating great excitement, particularly among the gold-seeking community, of which the population was largely composed. Sometimes a cottager would be cultivating his garden, and would find grains of glittering gold peppered through the clods of earth he was turning over. Only the other day, in digging potatoes, gold was found clinging to the tubers.

The creeks often revealed to the passer-by some of the wonders that were and still are in store for the gold-seeker. I have seen many times the most delightful water-worn pebbles literally smothered in the precious metal. Many men have worked away in the beds of these creeks and gained large quantities of golden stone. Doubtless there is great fascination about the life of the gold miner, but the experience of too many is, and has been, "Where it is, there it is; but where it isn't, there am I." Hence, in the majority of cases, the man who turns his attention to something that steadily produces him sufficient for his livelihood is a long way the better off. The real miner, however, prefers the free, independent life of his choice, living in the wild hilly regions, often in solitude, prospecting, turning up the surface, washing samples in the creeks, tracing outcrops, and generally seeking with wonderful patience, perhaps with insufficient food and clothing, for the indications of gold. I have known many instances where this persistence has been wonderfully rewarded; but in how few cases has the gold, when won, been rightly used! Too often has it been the inducing cause of drunken wastefulness and careless improvidence, which in a few months have left the victim to repeat his former experiences, perhaps never again to have the like good fortune. The general tendency of such experiences as I have described is to induce bonâ fide settlement of the land, and large numbers, finding the fickleness of Dame Fortune, have made themselves comfortable homes, and gradually assumed the position of settlers, thus forming part of a settled population in the page 34 districts that, but for the "gold fever," would not have to this present time been occupied. To me this appears part of the Providential plan of the Almighty to provide for the peopling of the earth. Gold mining will doubtless continue to be one of the steady industries of the colony, and as science develops the best methods of treating the auriferous deposits and the inventive genius of the present day produces the best machinery for extracting the gold and separating it from the baser metals, which form such an obstacle to the success of the miner, it will be found that deposits that have been worked will be re-worked, and, as well as others that have been left as non-payable, will produce satisfactory returns for labour expended.


There are many other industries in the Colony, but I should probably weary you were I to attempt anything like a detail account of them; I will, therefore, only briefly refer to the coal trade of the country, and then generally revise the total of our industries. Coal is found throughout New Zealand, and mines are worked in Auckland, Nelson, Canterbury, and Otago. Of the coal raised the bituminous is of excellent quality, and engineers of local steamers esteem it 20 per cent, better than the best New South Wales coal for steam purposes. We could not have a better evidence of the value of this coal than the fact that H.M.S. Calliope was, on account of using it, enabled to weather the disastrous hurricane at Samoa which played such havoc with vessels of other nations, and escape to sea. For gas works and iron foundries the coal is eagerly sought after, even at an advance of 10 to 20 per cent, on the price of other coal. An estimate of the coal supply of the Colony has recently been made, and the total quantity is roughly estimated at 444 million tons. The output of coal for 1890 was 637,000 tons, making an aggregate of 6,456,000 tons already raised.

Summary of Industries.

As to the general industries of the Colony I want to give you an idea of the total number of our factories and works and to give some figures connected therewith. We had in 1890 (and no doubt have a good few more by this) page 35 2,570 mills or works which employed an aggregate of 29,580 hands, and paid in wages £2,209,859. The total capital invested in land, buildings, and plant was £5,826,000, while the estimated total value of the produce of these factories and works was £9,422,000. I think such facts and statistics as this will give some idea of the nature and extent of the employment of our colonists, and I think there is sufficient also to show that we have room for additional population of the right class. As I have already stated, any one who is able and willing to go on the land and work it with persistency and in a proper manner may be sure, by patient perseverance in well doing, to reap a bountiful harvest in the end.

Total Trade—Comparison.

The general progress of the Colony may be noted by a comparison of the total trade of the years 1870 and 1890. In the former year it amounted to £9,461,000, of which the exports exceeded the imports by but £185,000, whereas in the latter year the total trade was £16,072,000, the exports being greater than the imports by no less than £3,155,000. This result becomes the more important when it is considered that it has been attained notwithstanding the discontinuance of the large system of borrowing from the British money-lender. In fact, ever since the self-reliant policy, which decided against the constant expenditure of borrowed money, was originated, about five years ago, the value of our exports has constantly but steadily increased.


New Zealand is not behindhand in the matter of education. We have (as a Colony) long ago realised that it is a duty incumbent on the government of a country to see to it that the children who may be born into it shall be educated, and that the rising generation shall not grow up in ignorance, which is the father of crime. In order that no child may go uneducated because of the inability of its parents to pay, therefore our national schools are absolutely free to all. In order that there may be no denominationalism our National Schools are secular, and in order that no child may grow up in ignorance (because of the apathy of its parents), the attendance of every child page 36 which is not being otherwise educated is made compulsory. We have 1,200 of these grand National Schools presided over by 2,978 certificated teachers, including head masters and mistresses, of high qualifications. The scholars attending these schools number 118,000, and the amount spent by the Colony in their support is nearly £400,000 per annum. These schools, which are termed primary, not only teach the three R's, reading, writing, and arithmetic, but English grammar and composition, geography, history, elementary science, drawing, object lessons, vocal music, needlework, and domestic econony.

In addition to these Primary Schools the State supports 22 Superior Schools, such as High Schools, Grammar Schools and colleges, where an excellent education in the higher branches is bestowed. These schools are attended by 2,117 scholars, and are instructed by 123 regular professors and teachers, besides 22 visiting teachers. The annual cost exceeds £51,000, of which only £20,000 is paid by the parents of the pupils. So that the State furnishes a substantial portion of even this secondary system of education, showing that we appreciate education even at the Antipodes. In addition to this we have our New Zealand University with three university colleges and 1,161 undergraduates, many of whom have already taken degrees.

Social Life.

No people can possibly enjoy social life more thoroughly than Colonials, and none know better how to appreciate holidays. It has been truly said we New Zealanders are a holiday loving people, and so it is. Indeed business men often grumble a little at the frequent recurrence of these holidays, as a cricket or football match is often made use of as a reason for a request to the Mayor of the town to declare a holiday. This is generally granted, and His Worship requests that the event be honoured as a holiday, so the shutters are put up, doors locked, and business forgotten. Trams, trains, omnibuses, and steamboats are crowded with pleasure-seekers; husband and wife, and of course all the children (even down to the baby), are included in the family party. Away they go, basking in the genial sunshine, to the park, the gardens, the seaside, or the country. And don't they have a time of it! verily a real recreation and delight, page 37 returning all the better in every way. But the regular holidays are the time to see picnicing properly. What happy parties may be seen hurrying up to the trysting place, early on some beautiful Boxing Day, laden with baskets and kits filled with good things for the day's supply. See them start off on pleasure bent, with joke and merry laugh and shout, as the coachman cracks his whip and the four-in-hand prance away with the drag containing the happy party. If we follow them, perhaps to some lovely garden grounds or green fields, we shall find them enjoying themselves, as Colonials can, with sundry games, in which the children are not forgotten (bless them), or in social conversation. But when the ladies are ready, having set out the good things that have been brought on the grass under the shady trees, the good feeling of the party culminates. Each one vies with the other to show those little courtesies and attentions which go to make up the sum total of the day's happiness. And in good feeling and healthy exercise, with music and song, the happy hours glide away. So much for a summer's holiday. But even in our mild winters we do not abandon social life, and no snow bars our progress. Then our home gatherings take place; joyous meetings and reunions are the order of the evenings. Our tea-meetings and soirees and socials, in connection with churches, Sunday schools, mutual improvement associations, &c., are quite a feature on our dark nights. Amusements, also, of varied descriptions can be obtained from time to time to suit the tastes of all; let no one, therefore, imagine that Colonials abandon all social life and enjoyment. The exact contrary is the fact.

People we do not Want.

Don't let anyone suppose, however, that I am holding out a golden bait for the British public to clutch at. I wish to guard myself against being misunderstood, and I do not wish anyone to be misled by anything I have said, or may say. I will therefore state plainly some of the classes we do not require in the colony. Generally and broadly, I would first state that we do not need any accessions to the population of our towns and cities, unless in the shape of those who have ample resources and independent means. The same causes which are tending in this "land of the brave and the free" to bring page 38 about the steady flocking of the rural population to the towns and cities are at work even in New Zealand. I admit it is very nice, for those who can manage it, to live where the advantages of our civilization and social life may be enjoyed to the full. But unfortunately there are far too many (who are consumers merely, and not producers), and who to their own detriment and the injury of their families are simply existing in the centres of population, when they might be living a more free, independent, and healthful though more solitary life in the country. This is certainly true of New Zealand, where there are abundant facilities and inducements towards a country life. Well, our towns are already congested by the accession of those who only assist in flooding the labour markets, and cause an undue competition for the work that is available. Hence we do not require any more labourers or artizans, and most certainly none of the clerical class. I mean those who look for positions in offices, banks, insurance companies, and the like. Let no such look to New Zealand town life as a field for them. Our towns are full, many of them too full of such classes as I have named, and I know of many splendid tradesmen who cannot get one week's work in a month in their own particular trade.

As to accountants, clerks, &c., I have often had occasion to advertise for such when a vacancy occurred, and my box at the P.O. has been filled with letters from applicants, including decayed merchants down to schoolboy's, all anxious to have light and gentlemanly employment in an office, rather than think of the hard and uncongenial life of a settler, and most willing to accept small pay from 20s. to 30s. weekly. Such statements as these will surely be sufficient to protect me from any charge of misrepresenting the Colony as a grand place for the emigration of all classes. Nor do we require any of the small shopkeeper class for our towns; we have already a superabundance of these. And we most emphatically object to any of the class represented by what is known to us as the "remittance man." You English folks, by reason of the accursed trade in strong drink, occasionally have a scapegrace youth who has by his conduct, brought shame on some hitherto unblemished escutcheon, and seems likely to bring his parents' grey hairs with sorrow to the grave. Every effort to reform him by inducing him to take up some useful calling in life having failed, and he having page 39 become alike a disgrace and a nuisance at home, some friend suggests that he should be shipped off to the Colonies. We have had too many of this class, and require no more, as they only serve to augment the already over-abundant class of public-house loafers, who develop into the "habitual drunks," if not something worse. These remittance men are promptly pounced upon by the besotted class, which we are unfortunately manufacturing annually, through our drink traffic, inaugurated by our British civilisation. While the quarterly or half-yearly allowance is unexpended, these hangers-on assist in merry-making, till by and bye the money is all gone, and the off-shoot of some reputable house is on his beam ends till his next remittance arrives. He "cannot dig, to beg he is ashamed." If, however, he has any real expectations when the "old man" dies, there are moneylenders who will lend him something (!!) on an assignment of the same, or of his future remittances. Thus assisted to anticipate the future, and aided in his disposition to spend all the money he can handle in riotous living, what wonder that in a comparatively short time the youth who was his mother's pride and joy sinks into a premature grave "unwept, unhonoured, and unsung." As a colonist I enter my protest against this system of treating the recalcitrant son, which I denounce as little better than murder.

The Class we Want.

Perhaps you are inclined to ask me—"Well, do you want any class at all in your beautiful country?" I reply as I have generally hinted in my remarks, we require one class principally, and that is the farming class, or those who are prepared and qualified to take up and carry on the work of settlers. We have abundant scope for millions of this class, who, provided systematic and well directed energy be coupled with moderate means, may attain positions of independence, if not of affluence. Good ploughmen and agriculturists, skilled bushmen, and, in fact, even any artisans who can and will adapt themselves to a country life, may find abundance of employment, and if they prove careful and economical, may speedily find ways and means of carving out a home for themselves in the wilderness. Many instances have come under my knowledge where men of sterling stuff page 40 have arrived in the country, and though entirely without money, even to the extent of 5s. on landing, have taken the first job that offered, and in a very short time by frugality and hard work have attained the position of a "cockatoo" farmer—one having a small holding of land, well fenced and cultivated, with comfortable (if rude) homestead, and possessing cows, pigs, fowls, and perhaps a couple of good horses, and being entirely free and independent of anybody. Colonial experience is, of course, necessary to success, but some are so apt at taking hints and weigh every move so carefully, that they adapt the best experience of others and thus succeed early. It has very often been found a wise step for a family to send out a pioneer to gain experience, and thus pave the way for a speedy removal of the entire family. I would be sorry to be the means of anyone taking a false step, hence I have been most careful to guard myself against any over-colouring of the prospects of settling in New Zealand and I could not advise anyone who is doing well for himself and those dependent upon him to break up a home and leave for a land of strangers. My advice would be rather, Let well alone.

Sometimes, however, there are instances when the question becomes a burning one. What shall we do with our boys? You feel as my father felt twenty-five years ago, when he could not find a position for his son (on whose education he had spent much money) that would bring in £100 per year. And having educated your boys, perphaps for mercantile pursuits, you find any decent opening hard to obtain, and you shrink from putting them to anything considered menial. Well, what is to be done? I point you to the land; that is the source of all wealth, and when God placed Adam in a garden he bid him subdue the earth. From the land must be won all increase. So I say, in answer to the question about the lads, let them learn to look to mother earth, let them be adapted to produce from the soil sufficient for the support of themselves, and those who may some day be dependent on them, and a surplus for someone else. Thus will they be fitted for the life for which God has made them. And nowhere in the world will be found a sunnier land and a more grateful soil than in the Britain of the South. And let it not be supposed that a settler's life is dishonourable; there is nothing disgraceful in cultivating a garden, tending cattle and sheep, ploughing, sowing, and reaping. I page 41 would uphold the dignity of labour, and never have I more thoroughly enjoyed my food and my rest, than when well tired by such healthful work as is necessary on a farm.

There is another class that will be welcome, and even in our towns, and that is the class of domestic servants. A girl does not usually remain in service more than four to five years after arrival in the colony, because it seems to be the fashion for some man or other to marry her. Hence there is a constantly recurring need for good general servants, who can command excellent wages, which amount to from 8s. to 15s. per week with board, while laundresses can command as high as 25s. with board, in some parts, and cooks varying rates from 10s. to 45s.

There are large numbers of people with small incomes in this land, many of them with families, and some of them with delicate health. Many such would do a wise thing to emigrate to New Zealand, where they could settle down with great advantage to themselves, both pecuniarily in relation to their children, and particularly as to their health; and as health is surely all important, here is a strong inducement. In many of our small towns great inducements would be found in the matter of cheap houses, with garden ground attached. In every settlement our National Schools are planted, so that advantages are obtainable also for the young. Then there is the future of children to be considered, and in a new country there are many chances.