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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 50

Courses of Study Lectures [1882]

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School of Art

Seal of the Canterbury College 1873

Christchurch: Printed by G. Tombs and Co. 1882. Cathedral Square

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School of Art

The work carried on in the school has for its object the systematic study of practical Art and the knowledge of its scientific principles, with a view to developing the application of Art to the common uses of life, and to the requirements of Trade and Manufactures.

The instruction includes the following subjects:—
  • Freehand, Geometry, and Perspective.
  • Light and shade. Painting in oil and water-colours.
  • Botany and Anatomy as applied to Art.
  • Design. Modelling.
  • Building Construction. Machine Construction.
  • Drawing on Wood. Lithography.

The Annual Session consists of three Terms, each lasting thirteen weeks, commencing severally in January, May, and September.

Morning classes meet on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from 10 to 1. Fees:—£1 10s. per Term; £4 per Annual Session.

Evening classes meet on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, from 7 to 9. Fees:—15s. per Term; £2 per Annual Session.

All fees payable in advance.

Permission will be given to students properly qualified, to study in the school daily between the hours of 10 and 5.

A Register of the students' attendance is kept and may be consulted by parents and guardians, or copies will be forwarded if desired.

Further information may be obtained on personal application at the school, or by letter addressed to the Master, School of Art, Canterbury College, Christchurch.

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Stages of Instruction.

Stage I.—Elementary Linear Drawing, By the aid of instruments.

a.Plane Geometry.
b.Solid Geometry.
c.Perspective, Parallel and Angular.

Stage II.—Advanced Linear Drawing, by the aid of instruments.

a.Practical applications of Plane Geometry.
b.Applied Descriptive and Solid Geometry.
c.Perspective; Oblique, Shadows, Reflections.

Stage III.—Models, Freehand Drawing and Shading.

a.Outline drawing from flat examples or copies.
b.Outline drawing from the "round" or nature.
c.Shaded drawing from, the "flat" in chalk or monochrome.
d.Shaded drawing from the "round" or solid forms in chalk or monochrome.
e.Time sketching and sketching from memory.

Stage IV.—Ornament, Freehand Drawing and Shading.

a.Outline drawing from the flat.
b.Outline drawing from "round" or solid forms.
c.Shaded drawing from the "flat" in chalk or monochrome.
d.Shaded drawing from the "round" in chalk or monochrome.
e.Time studies drawn or shaded.
f.Studies illustrating the History of Ornament, Ancient and Modern.

Stage V.—Botanical Drawing. Flower Painting.

a.Outline from the flat.
b.Outline from nature.
c.Painting from the flat in oil or water-colours.
d.Painting from nature in oil or water-colours without backgrounds.
e.Groups drawn or painted as studies of composition.
f.Botanical analysis and plant form.
g.Time studies.
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Stage IV.—Landscape. Still-Life, etc.

a.Studies from the flat in pencil, chalk or monochrome.
b.Studies from colour.
c.Studies from nature in pencil, chalk or monochrome.
d.Studies from colour.
e.Studies of drapery drawn or painted from nature.
f.Groups of still-life and landscape as studies of composition.
g.Time sketches.

Stage VII.—The Human Figure.

a.Outline from the flat.
b.Shading from the flat in chalk or monochrome.
c.Details of the figure outlined from the cast.
d.Outline drawing of the whole figure from the Antique.
e.Shaded drawing of heads, hands, feet, &c., from the cast, in chalk or monochrome.
f.Whole figure from the Antique shaded in chalk or monochrome.
g.Anatomical studies:—the hones and muscles.
h.Shaded drawing in chalk, from the living model.
i.Studies of heads from the life in chalk or colour.
k.Painting, in oil or water-colour, from the living model, nude or draped.
l.Time sketching.
m.Figure composition.

Stage VIII.—Drawing and Painting Animal Forms.

a.Dra wing from the fiat in outline or shaded.
b.Painting from the fiat in oil or water-colours.
c.Anatomical studies.
d.Drawing and shading from the cast or nature.
e.Painting from nature in oil or water-colours.
f.Time sketching.

Stage IX.—Modelling. Ornament, Flowers, etc.

a.From casts.
b.From drawings.
c.From nature.
d.Time studies.

Stage X.—Modelling, the Human Figure and Animals.

a.From casts.
b.From drawings.
c.From nature, nude or draped.
d.Time studies.
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Stage XI.—Design.

a.Botanical studies treated ornamentally.
b.Ornamental design as applied to industrial art (furniture, &c.)
c.Ornamental arrangements to fill given spaces in colour or modelled (carpets, tiles, cornices, pilasters, ceilings, &c.)
d.The human figure and animal forms applied to design, in colour or modelled.

Stage XII.—Machine Construction and Drawing.

a.From flat examples.
b.From lectures (working and finished drawings).
c.From actual measurement.
d.Original designs for machinery.

Stage XIII.—Building Construction and drawing—Architecture.

a.From flat examples.
b.From lectures, (working and finished drawings).
c.From actual measurement.
d.Original design, (public buildings).
e.Studies from lectures illustrating the history of architecture, Ancient and Modern.

Stage XIV.—Drawing on Wood (Wood Engraving).

a.Line drawing in pencil.
b.Black and white drawing in tint.

Stage XV.—Drawing on Stone, (Lithography).

a.Outline drawing with the brush.
b.Drawing in chalk.
c.Drawing with chalk and ink.
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Courses of Study.

Before proceeding to definite courses of study, students are required to take up Elkmentary Drawing or show evidence that they have already done so, it comprises:—
Stages III. a., IV. a.Freehand from flat examples, blackboard lessons.
I. a., b.Elementary Geometry, plane and solid, 12 lectures.
I. c.Perspective, parallel and angular, 12 lectures.
III. b.Drawing from models, blackboard lessons.

In following out the courses of instruction, students are required to pass in the following stages.

Course I.—For Students Wishing to Study Flowers, Still-Life and Landscape.

Stage IV. b.Outlining ornament from the round.
III. c., IV. c.Shading from the flat.
II. c.Advanced perspective.
V. a., b.Foliage in outline. Lectures on plant form,
VI.a., b.Landscape from the flat.
III. d., iv. d.Shading from the round,
V. c., d.Flower painting.
VI. c., d.Landscape and still-life.

Course II.—For Students Wishing to Study the Figure.

Stage VII. a.Outlining the figure from the flat.
IV. b.Outlining ornament from the round.
III. c., IV. c., VII. b.Shading from the flat,
VII. c., d.Figure outlined from the cast,
VII. e.,f.Figure shaded from the cast
VII. g.Anatomical studies of the figure.
II. c.Advanced perspective.
VII. h., i.Shaded drawing in chalk, from the living model,
VII. h., k.Painting the living model, in oil or water-colours.

Course III.—Design.

Stage IV. b.

Outlining ornament from the round.

III. c., IV. c.

Shading from the flat.

A course of outline drawing and monochrome colouring from Jacobsthal, Meurer, and other works.

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IV. f.

Study of historic ornament.

V. a., b., f., XI. a.

Foliage in outline, lectures on plant form applied to elementary design.

III. d., IV. d.

Shading from the round.

V. c., d.

Flower painting.

XI. b., c.

Original design.

Modelling, Ornament or Flowers, etc.

Before entering this class students must pass the preparatory stages in Course I.

The Figure.—Students will take up the preparatory stages in Course II. before modelling the figure.

Design.—Preparatory stages of Course III. must have been passed.

Machine Construction.

Stage II. a., b.Advanced Geometry, plane and solid, 12 lectures.
XII. b.Working and finished drawings, 6 elementary and 12 advanced lectures.

Building Construction—Architecture.

Stage II. a., b.Advanced Geometry, plane and solid, 12 lectures.
XIII. b.Working and finished drawings, 6 elementary and 12 advanced lectures.

Illustration on. Wood (Wood Engraving) and Stone (Lithography).

Students taking up this work must show a thorough knowledge of that particular course to be illustrated.

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Lectures, 1882.

1st Term. Monday, 11-12—Elementary Geometry 12 lectures Wednesday 7.30-8.30- Elementary Geometry 12 lectures Friday, 11-12—Botany and Plant Form 12 lectures 2nd Term. Monday 11-12 Elementary Perspective 12 lectures 7.30-8.30 Elementary Perspective 12 lectures Wednesday, 7.30-8.30- Advanced Geometry 12 lectures Friday, 11-12—Botany and Plant Form 12 lectures Elementary Machine Alternate 7.30_8-30 Fridays Construction 6 lectures Elementary Building Construction 6 lectures 3rd Term. 11.12—Monday 7.30 8.30_ Advanced Perspective 12 lectures Advanced Perspective 12 lectures Wednesday, 7.30-8.30- Advanced Machine Cor struction 12 lectures 11-12—Friday 7.30-8.30—Botany and Plant Form 12 lectures Advanced Building Con struction 12 lectures

Courses of Lectures on the following subjects will also be delivered, as may be arranged, due notice of which will be given:—

Anatomy of the Human Figure as applied to Art.

Historical Development of Ornamental Art.

During geometry and perspective lectures students will be required to make notes, and work out the problems drawn on the blackboard to scale. Additional work will be given, which students will be expected to finish before the following lecture.

Each lecture in Building construction and Machine construction will be divided into two parts. In the first half, the subject in the syllabus will be described and illustrated by rough sketches on the blackboard. Students must be provided with books to take notes and sketches. The latter half will be devoted to some particular example of the subject which will be drawn full size or to scale; students will be required to make a similar drawing to scale and finish it before the following lecture.

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Elementary Geometry.

Plane Geometry.

Lecture I.Definitions: Lines, Angles, Triangles, Quadrilaterals, Polygons, Circles.
II.Construction of rectilineal figures from given sides. Bisection of lines and angles.
III.Angles and rectilineal figures.
IV.Parallels: The division of lines into parts; Proportionals.
V.The circle: inscribed and circumscribed figures.
VI.The circle: Arcs and Tangents.
VII.Rectilineal figures described about and inscribed in other rectilineal figures
VIII.Inscribed Semicircles.
IX.Scales: plane and diagonal, scale of chords, use of scales, geometrical pattern drawing.

Solid Geometry.

Lecture X.Definitions of Elementary solids: cube, prism, cylinder, cone, sphere; meaning of the terms Vertical and Horizontal planes, projectors, plans, elevations and sections.
XI.Given the projection of a solid in either plane, to find its projection in the other plane; vertical and horizontal sections.
XII.The circle and its projection applied to the cylinder, cone and sphere.
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Advanced Geometry.

Plane Geometry.

Lecture I.Areas of surfaces: Conversion of rectilineal figures to triangles of equal area, similar figures which have an area of a given proportion.
II.Problems relating to areas.
III.Figures in relation to figures (geometrical tracery).
IV.Construction of helical and spiral curves (applied to screws, staircases, handrailing &c.)
V.The ellipse and parabola, their perpendiculars and tangents (applied to arches, and their voussoirs).
VI.Construction of curves from tabular data, as varying pressure, temperature, and resistance, involving the use of abscissa and ordinate; curves traced by a point in motion; cycloid, epicyloid, and trochoid curves applied to gearing; the conchoid and cissoid curves.

Solid Geometry.

Lecture VII.Projection of plane solids, when inclined to both planes.
VIII.Projection of curved surfaces, in either plane,
IX.Sections of solids intersected by inclined planes,
X.Penetration of solids (applied to groins, pendentives, pipes, boilers, &c.)
XI.Development of curved surfaces; envelopes their true form (applied to metal work),
XII.Projection of shadows under any conditions; isometric projection; drawings from actual measurement; method of sketching and taking dimensions.
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Elementary Perspective.

Parallel Perspective.

Lecture I.Perspective representation by plan and elevation. The station point, the cone of rays, line of direction, and the picture line, the horizontal and ground lines, the centre of vision, vanishing and measuring points.
II.Vertical planes in perspective; line of heights; to find a point within the picture; rectangular solids, the cube.
III.Rectangular solids (continued); plinths and prisms.
IV.The circle: horizontal and vertical; cylindrical and conical solids.
V.Polygonal prisms and pyramids.
VI.Perspective of buildings and interiors.

Angular Perspective.

Lecture VII.Given a line on the ground, neither parallel nor perpendicular to the picture, to find its length, and angle with the picture, its vanishing and measuring points by plan and elevation. To draw a line on the ground, making any angle with the picture.
VIII.Rectangular solids on the ground at a given angle with the picture.
IX.Polygonal solids; axis horizontal or vertical,
X.Solids combining curved and right lines,
XI.Given the plan and elevation of any solid, to find its perspective representation.
XII.Given three points on the ground, to find the length of the lines joining them, and the degrees in each angle; inclined lines in space, their length, and the planes containing them; accidental vanishing points.
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Advanced Perspective.

Oblique Perspective.

Lecture I.Inclined lines in any position with reference to the picture plane; oblique planes.
II.Rectangular solids.
III.Polygonal solids,
IV.Cones; right, oblique and truncated,
V.3 given points in space; to find the plane containing the triangle, the length of the sides, and the contained angle.

Perspective of Shadows.

Lecture VI.Sunlight; shadows of objects cast on horizontal and vortical planes.
VII.Sunlight; shadows cast on planes inclined to the ground, and at any angle with the picture
VIII.Artificial light; interiors.
IX.Artificial light; two or more lights, on planes at any angle.

Perspective of Reflections.

Lecture X.Angle of incidence and reflection; point of incidence; horizontal reflecting plane; (reflections in still water),
XI.Vertical reflecting planes; perpendicular, parallel, or at an angle with the picture.
XII.Inclined reflecting planes, at any angle with the picture.
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Elementary Mechanical Drawing.

Lecture I.Rivets and Rivetted Joints: single and double rivetting; lap and butt joints; joints where three or four plates lap; angle and T iron joints; gussets; various connections for boilers and tanks.
II.Bolts, Nuts, and Set Screws: their proportion, and arrangement of flanging for bolting; eye, T, and hook bolts; lock nuts; stays for boilers; strength of bolts (testing machines).
III.Shafts, Couplings, and Pulleys: wrought and cast iron flange couplings, butt and lap; belt pulleys; pulleys for cranes; speed cones and countershafts. (Weston's differential pulley block); to find the power transmitted by shafting, friction brake; friction and torsion of shafting.
IV.Pedestals, Plummer Blocks: wall plates and boxes; hanging brackets.
V.Gearing: spur and bevel gearing, frictional gearing, antifrictional wheels; rack and pinion; worm and worm wheel; relation of pitch, number of teeth, and diameter of pitch circle; velocity ratio of a pair of wheels; skew bevel wheels; mortise wheels; carrier and change wheels.
VII.Cranks, Eccentrics: conversion of rotary motion, into an alternating uniform, or varying rectilinear motion; periods of rest at given points of the revolution, as applied to punching machines, &c.; Whitworth's quick-return motion for shaping machines.
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Advanced Mechanical Drawing.

Lecture I.Hydraulic lifting-jack; screw-jacks.
II.Feed pumps; Gresham's & Giffard's injectors.
III.Lubricators—Roscoe's, Johnston's, and Ramsbottom's.
IV.Pistons, and air pump buckets.
V.Single and double crabs; steam winches
VI.Single and double crabs; steam winches.
VII.Boilers: general form and construction; strength and proportion; firegrate and heating surface; consumption of smoke;—steam.
VIII.Boilers: general form and construction; strength and proportion; firegrate and heating surface; consumption of smoke;—steam.
IX.The steam engine: horse-power.
X.The indicator diagram.
XI.Valve motion, forward and backward gear.
XII.The stationary engine and its details.
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Elementary Building Construction.

Lecture I.Brickwork: bond; parts of a wall; footings, courses, corbelling; wood built into walls; wall plates, lintels, wood bricks, plugs, &c.
II.Masonry: ashlar and rubble work; joints; dowels, metal cramps, lead plugs; dressings, quoins; courses, copings, cornice with blocking course, balustrade, or parapet.
III.Carpentry: joints; lapping, fishing, scarfing, halving, notching, cogging; mortise and tenon joints; heel-straps, shoes, and socket pieces.
IV.Joinery: mouldings; torus, ovolo, ogee, and bolection mouldings; joints; dowelled, grooved, dovetailed and mitre panelling; square, moulded and raised.
V.Notes on Materials: limes, mortars, and cements; fat, poor, and hydraulic limes; natural and artificial cements; characteristics of good bricks; characteristics and practical classification of stone, granite, and other igneous rocks, slate, sandstone, limestone; natural bed; artificial stone; agents which destroy, and preparations which preserve stone.
VI.Notes on Materials (continued): wood; characteristics of good timber, decay and preservation, paints, &c strength of timber; iron, and the metals used in building; safe strains for cast and wrought iron.
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Advanced Building Construction

Lecture I.Brickwork: damp courses; hollow walls; jambs; arches; centering for arches; chimneys; arrangement of flues; brick drains and sewers.
II.Masonry: arches; stone stairs; square, spandril, and hanging steps; straight, dog-legged, and circular stairs; evils arising from ashlar-faced walls.
III.Beams, &c.: built-up beams; trussed and iron girders; bressummers and cantilevers; consideration of strains.
IV.Floors: single, double, and framed flooring; fire-proof floors.
V.Partitions: quartered, and brick-nogged.
VI.Roofs: (timber and iron), couple, couple close, collar beam, king and queen post roofs, strain on the different parts; strength and proportion.
VII.Roofs: (timber and iron), couple, couple close, collar beam, king and queen post roofs, strain on the different parts; strength and proportion.
VIII.Stairs and handrailing.
IX.Doors: ledged, framed, panelled, and folding.
X.Windows: solid frame, cased frame with double hung sashes; casement windows,
XI.Skirtings: architraves and linings; shutters, folding and sliding,
XII.Skylights and lanterns; ventilators.
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Botany and Plant Form.

Every Friday morning at 11 o'clock, students who are working in Stage V. will attend a short lecture on Botanical Drawing and Plant Form as applied to Art. Fresh specimens of a plant then in flower will be supplied at each lecture for the use of students; it will be drawn in detail on the blackboard; its botanical characteristics pointed out, with suggestions for ornamental arrangement.

The position of the plant in the vegetable kingdom.
The stem; its form and branching.
Form of the leaves; the stalk and its insertion, stipules, spines and tendrils.
The leaf and flower bud.
The fully expanded flower and its parts; the fruit.
The plant applied to design.

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Notice to Students.

1.Every student to provide such drawing materials and instruments as are required.
2.No student, without permission, to leave the school before the time appointed.
3.Students are required to conduct themselves with order, quietness, and regularity, and to sit down immediately in their proper places on coming into the school. No talking or unnecessary moving about is permitted.
4.Each student before leaving the school will be required to remove the copy and drawing-board to the place assigned to them. No student to handle or misplace any of the casts, or other examples; and any student who in any way injures the property of the school, to be held responsible, and to pay for the damage.
5.Any student guilty of improper conduct, shall be liable to be suspended by the Master, and to be dismissed from the school if the Governors so determine.
6.No book, example, or other article belonging to the school, shall, under any pretence whatever, be borrowed or taken away without the special permission of the Master; such article to be recorded in a book kept for the purpose.

Exhibition of Students' Work.

There will be a public exhibition of students' works at the end of each annual session: no work executed in the school, can, therefore, be removed until after such examination. All drawings, when finished and approved of, must be delivered to the Master, who will be responsible for their safety, and return them to their owners at the end of the annual session.

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Annual examinations are held in December in the following subjects:—
a.Freehand drawing, from flat examples.
b.Practical Geometry.
c.Linear perspective.
d.Model drawing.
e.Blackboard drawing, from memory.

Canditates who pass in all the five subjects obtain the Teachers' Elementary Drawing Certificate.

The "pass" standard for these examinations is the same as that of the 2nd grade, Science and Art Department, London. Candidates who hold any of these certificates, awarded by the above department subsequent to the year 1869, need not be re-examined in the same subjects.

Syllabus of Subjects of Examination.

a. Feehand.—Candidates will be required to enlarge an outline drawing of symmetrical ornament, without the aid of any kind of mechanical means of execution, such as ruling, &c., or the use of any thing but pencil, paper, and indiarubber.

b. Geometry.—Plane—The use of scales, instruments, &c. Construction of figures from given angles, sides, diagonals and diameters; tangential inscribed and circumscribed figures. Proportionals and areas. Pattern drawing and simple tracery. Solid—Plans, elevations and sections of elementary solids in simple positions, projection of plane figures.

The instruments required are a plane scale of inches divided into eighths, pencil compasses, set squares and T square, an H pencil and indiarubber.

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c. Perspective.—Students will be required to show a knowledge of the use of vanishing and measuring points used in horizontal planes, and to represent simple solids or objects on the ground plane in any position.

Instruments required similar to those for geometry.

d. Model.—The exercise in this subject consists of drawing from a group of three or more geometrical models and simple vases, single objects of household furniture or domestic utensils of well defined form. Candidates are expected to show a knowledge of the effect of perspective in modifying the appearance of the models, and may estimate their apparent relative size by holding the pencil between the eye and the objects. No ruling or use of instruments is allowed in working this exercise.

e. Blackboard.—This exercise is intended to test the candidates' power to use, in aid of their general teaching, the skill which they have obtained in drawing. In addition to facility in the use of chalk and the blackboard, it is required that they should be able to give a fair representation of the form of any familiar object. Candidates will therefore be required to draw from memory one of three or four objects of ordinary household furniture to be named by the examiner. Candidates will also be required to draw Roman or Italic letters about nine inches high.

Fifteen minutes are allowed for this exercise.

One hour and a half is allowed for working the exercises in freehand drawing and perspective, and one hour for geometry and model drawing.

David Blair, Master.

Printed by G. Tombs & Co., Cathedral Square, Christchurch.