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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 50

University of New Zealand. — Matriculation, 1885

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University of New Zealand.

Matriculation, 1885.

Elementary Biology.

Note.—Candidates may select questions from Section A or from Section B, but not from both.

A.—Animal Physiology.

1.Describe as accurately as you can the structure of a "long bone," such as the thigh-bone. How does a dry bone differ from the same bone as it occurs in the living body?
2.What is a muscle? What is meant by "muscular contraction?" In what ways may a muscle be made to contract, and how may a muscle in a living animal be made incapable of contracting at the will of its owner?
3.A person has for his breakfast an egg, with salt, bread and butter, and a glass of milk; what changes will these substances undergo in the different parts of his alimentary canal?
4.Describe the course which would be taken by a blood corpuscle in passing from the left ventricle to the capillaries of the stomach and back again?
5.How is the pulse caused? Do the pulse-beats in the temple, wrist, and ankle take place simultaneously or not? Give reasons for your answer.
6.How does the blood going to a muscle differ from that leaving it? How does the blood going to the lungs differ from that leaving them? Mention the cause of the change in each case.page break
7.Give an account of the structure and the functions of the skin.
8.Describe the eye, mentioning the functions of the various parts, and drawing a diagram to illustrate the formation of an image on the retina.


1.Describe as fully as you can the differences between a root and an underground stem.
2.Explain fully why a plant withers in a short time unless supplied with water.
3.What is the object of manuring plants?
4.It is often said that stamens and carpels are modified leaves: state exactly what you understand by this, giving examples.
5.Describe the structure of an ordinary stone-fruit, and explain the manner of its formation.
6.Describe as fully as you can any two of the following flowers:—Clematis, Pansy, Fuchsia, Blue-gum, Mapau (Pittosporum), Pohutukawa or Rata (Metrosideros), Wheat, or any other cereal, New Zealand Flax (Phorniium), Cabbage, Dock.
7.What is nectar? Where is it produced, and what purpose does it serve in the economy of the plant?
8.Explain fully the meaning of the following terms:—ovule, ovary, carpel, anther, pollen, bract, umbel, raceme, capitulum, stipule, achene, berry.