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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 48

Classification of the Human Race

Classification of the Human Race.

In the savage state men are naturally all reasoners, using their small reason on almost all occasions, and neglecting those organs of formalism on which the civilisation of the race mainly depends, the religions and governmental schemes under which humanity has hitherto been trained, have resulted in this, that now men habitually use the reason of others in almost all phases of life; and this is evidently far better both for our happiness here and also for training and duly using our organs of unreason so as to be perfected as near as possible under present conditions, and to be capable of a vastly greater intellectual happiness hereafter. True, men do have to use their reason to a more or less extent in the application to daily wants of the forms laid down by the different scientific and other teachers, but few feel called on to originate, and very few in a million are really able to originate, anything of much importance. The shoemaker sticking to his last is the right and proper idea, unless however the shoemaker has something in him worth listening to, and then, under the guidance of careful reason, he has a right to throw the last into the fire, more particularly at the present time when the Age of Reason should commence, and will do so if we work together for that purpose.

I was spiritually informed, and my own experience somewhat corroborates to me, that civilised men at the present day are generally to be classified under four heads, as if arranging the main organs of the brain under four groups.

1.Reasoners.—(But few of them).
2.Reasoning Formalists.—Business, legal and political men are generally of these.
3.Reasoning Imaginatives.—Authors, poets, &c.
4.Friendly Self-asserting Formalists; the rank and file of mankind.

Now, for past ages the media, prophets, &c, who have been chosen to teach mankind have been selected according to this classification.

In the old times of Egypt, when it was needful almost at once to elevate a nation to do great engineering and other works to teach mankind for all ages, the men chosen were usually reasoning formalists, of a high mathematical type, and the communications they received were vastly more clear and formal than anything that has been or ever will be vouchsafed to other nations. Then came the Greeks; here much of the formal work had already been done for them, and what was wanted was quick appreciation page 10 of its advantages; therefore men of the imaginative turn of mind were sometimes selected in order to fire up the Greek energy, because "They" say that when the imagination is fully at work, the reason moves vastly quicker, although not so steadily and reliably; and also, where it is either naturally or by home training at the head of affairs, it has the effect of causing men to use their reason when it would be far best left alone; thus it is that novel authors, actors, poets, &c, are sometimes unfortunate in married life, and in other instances, from taking notice of small matters, where the bare formalist or friendly self-assertor would be unable to detect any intentional disrespect or injury; and it is precisely the same with nations, when the imaginative organs are at the top in stratification instead of where they should be, namely, at the bottom, to be searched for and used only when reading poetry and then put away again. However, with the Greeks there it was fairly at the top on almost all occasions. The spirit world had caused it to be so, and when the end had been gained, namely, of quickly advancing Greece to that state of partial liberty and great intellectual power, that was to be a prophecy to future humanity of what free men could, and can, and will yet do. What remained? Why there were the gallant, clever Greeks, always restless, always suspicious, and often unjustly cruel to their best men, and as the imaginative training was fairly ground into them from father to son, it was known to be almost a matter of impossibility to alter then, the false stratification in that nation. This, therefore, became another potent reason why Greece was foredoomed to fall under the power of Romans, Arabs, and Turks.

The reason is with most men of a selfish nature; in the savage state it acts well enough as the main adviser, because the wants being few and easily satisfied, there is not so much cause for quarrelling about them, but in civilisation it is absolutely necessary to find some organs of the unreason that shall exercise a constant check on its selfish course. The best plan has been judged to be to gradually train the nations to examine almost all matters according to formalism; that is, as most of us do at the present period, we generally go by the brand; if it comes out of the right bottle we are satisfied, and as a rule it is far better that it should be so than that each man should invariably endeavour to form an independent judgment for himself; all, except idiots, can criticise to a certain extent, and but few originate opinions.

In order to show the great advantages of civilisation the following table was given to me years ago: thus, it was, taking the Australian black as the unit, although if required we might go into decimals to any extent, for the mind of all animals capable of will, volition, and self-consciousness is made of use in building up the spirit world:—

Australian Black, 1; Kaffir, 2; Chinese, 2½ to 3½; Ordinary European, 3½ to 5; Highest Minds, Socrates, Shakspeare, &c., 7 to 8.

Now, they said that the getting rid of the body, and thence the greater freedom in action of the mind, and the being united with a suitable female spirit, increases the mental and moral nature as by a multiplication of 400; thus the yearly spirit crop of Australian blacks consisted only of perhaps a few hundreds, each one averaging only a spiritual value of 400, while under civilisation the same country is capable of producing many millions, whose average power shall perhaps be up to 1600 for each one, and a few occasionally up to, say 2800 or 3200; and let us endeavour even to surpass that, if possible; although man, like the racehorse, apparently can be trained and bred up to a certain point, and that point appears to have been reached by the Greeks long ago; beyond that we become weedy, and have to try back again; however, there is no harm in striving our best for further advancement.

Now, as to the self-asserting and friendly organs of unreason: these are very important to be trained, and thus to cause men to use them as much as possible, but of course under a sound formalism. These organs constitute the great bond of friendly union amongst the bulk of the English-speaking races, and are far safer to depend upon for our necessary page 11 friendship than is the case amongst those nations who use the reason and imagination too often. If you are friendly with the self-asserters to-day, you know pretty well how you will find them to-morrow; and it will continue thus generally, unless circumstances cause you to cut through the outer into the inner man, and then it becomes with most men a question of selfish reason, and the savage returns again. Nor is this only the case amongst the professedly non-religious; try the same experiment with a religiously converted man belonging to any of the churches—one whom you knew to be thoroughly selfish and spiteful before his conversion, is perhaps the best for the experiment: touch his self-love and out crops the old unconverted and unconvertable feeling instantly; and yet even so, this outward conversion to higher self-government, by means of using the sayings of Jesus and others for the usual guidance in daily affairs, is far better that for the really selfish man to be left without any check whatever.

By thinking over this can we not see the absolute necessity for good moral training for each generation as it arises; although some at the present day seem to deny that such teaching is wanted in the future, for my own part I am not of that opinion. For the last 1800 years the western nations have had a thoroughly good drilling on the self-asserting bumps. It is true that the doctrine taught by Jesus, Paul, and others, is that of self-abnegation, however the masses can never receive it in the way Jesus and Paul practised it; and it was never intended that they should do so. No, the self-abnegation principle cuts both ways; in many instances it keeps back the really honourable reasoner—the man who acts almost by nature as the apostles taught—but when such an one retires from the fight, his place is immediately filled by a genuine self-asserter, and thus it is that many generous and well-devised affairs have come to the ground; they answered well enough while the men of large and therefore unselfish reason were at the head, but when self-abnegation prevents other men of similar minds stepping forward to lead when their turn comes, then the place that should be theirs is instantly occupied by some unblushing self-asserter of the reasoning type; and if too many of these come to the front, a grand scheme may be ruined for the sake of selfish ends. The men who are to be blamed for the failure are not so much the self-asserters as the more generous men who allow themselves to be put in the background.

Now, the present and future desire of the spirit world is that the large, unselfish minds shall, for the sake of their kind, give up more of themselves to the use of their fellow men than many of them are in the habit of doing; and in all things they do they should always bear in mind to act in a right and modest way, and preach and practise the doctrine of honourable self-assertion instead of self-abnegation for the future, particularly in political matters, for these affairs are anxiously watched by our spirit friends, and the generous exertions of such men as George Washington, Lafayette, Hampden, Daniel O'Connell, and Mazzini are matters of more pride to them than they are to us. Indeed, from a spiritual point of view the science of politics as to this world necessarily takes the lead of all others. It has been called the "science of exigencies," and it is well named; therefore is it peculiarly the portion of the men of the largest and most original intellect—the men who make precedents, and yet have sense enough never to make a new one when the old will answer the purpose.

When Garibaldi for some few years refused to accept the well-earned money that his grateful country offered, was that money saved to the country? I very much doubt it; probably it was spent, and not perhaps as well spent as he would have done, for when eventually he did agree to accept some of it, the money was at once laid out on deepening the Tiber, thereby finding work for willing labour and also improving that renowned old river. Such men should learn the gospel of honest self-assertion on all points, and practise it not to the exclusion but rather to the assistance of others.

Now to shift the subject to a matter of sympathy instead of bare fact, let us consider the subject of where are we English and Americans to place our Holy Land; most of us, perhaps from old religious associations, are page 12 likely to think of Palestine. Those who are determined so to do, let them follow their inclination, and no harm to any is done thereby; but for my own part, and I believe also that of many others of our race, the Holy City is not Jerusalem to the entire exclusion of the land of Socrates, the greatest medium who ever trod this earth, where he taught Xenophon, Plato, and Aristotle to know themselves as far as he could show them, and to rightly use their faculties; there I think all we Europeans should look with as much veneration as we possess, and if names of men alone are not sufficient to cause us so to do, if we are yet so barbarous as to require the memory of blood to sanctify our admiration; what victories were ever gained by the sanguinary Jewish kings and rulers equal in glory or in results to those won for all time in the cause of liberty, on the plains of Marathon and Platœa and at Salamis.

I shall now endeavour to relate one or two communications that possibly may be of use to some of us. When Socrates assisted the self-asserting Alcibiades to power and did nothing, or but little, to advance the common-sense genius, Xenophon in Athens, he made an error that the spirit world had intended him to make, and that error did much towards causing the ruin of his beloved country. Xenophon was the one honourable Athenian of the time who would have been true as a leader to the republic, and at the same time was equal, if not superior, to Alcibiades in political and warlike genius. Had Socrates possessed the historical training that we now all have at command, he would have more constantly incited Xenophon to advance in Athens, and the error, as to Alcibiades, would not have been made; because in that case it would not have been desired by the spirit world; however, the time for true liberty had not then come. Let us bear this in mind when electing rulers, it is not always the most showy intellect that is either the cleverest or the most reliable.

Another communication was this:—"The Greek phase of Spiritualism was unreliable, but suggestive; not like that of Egypt which, when it was used, was formal and exact."

Socrates was considered by the spirit world to have been their greatest medium, because during his whole ministry on earth and while conversing constantly with the departed great ones of his own land and others, yet he never even asked, expected, or obtained anything for himself as a reward, either during earth life or in the spirit state, except this that he knew that he had done his duty and would be received in the future state with a hearty welcome as among friends; therefore, without superstitious delusions, he performed his work as consistently and conscientiously as if he had believed himself to be nothing more than a poor and sometimes ill-used agent of God; he was also taught much more than it was considered right by him and his spirit friends to be mentioned at that time, to any except some few perhaps of his closest companions. The time had not come for the intimate state of spiritual communication which will, perhaps, before long be the portion of many in earth life.

The imaginative Media, religious and poetical, used often really, and at times unconsciously to themselves, to be impressed from a Divine source to deliver that which the spirit world thought fit and which also agreed with the medium's own idealism and that of his race. The spirits always select suitable men for their business, a good grazier can pick out the best sheep for his purpose from the flock, but not with the same certainty that the Eternal Being can choose the men he requires. The same plan was carried out in selecting the formal Media, and often were they unconsciously influenced, and so can it be if necessary now; but the necessity does not so constantly appear, as mankind have better means of self-improvement in this life, and if we do not know of certain things in our day, why there will only be so much more to exercise those that come after us.

Individual spirits at circles often say, and truly, that they do not know everything, and once a spirit communication asked me a certain matter bearing on this point. As near as I can recollect, it was thus:—

Question to me—"Do you know how many stars there are?" I answered no. "Then do you know what they are" and I said that science had taught page 13 us to believe they were all suns. "Then if so, do you not think it probable that there are many planets attached to each of them, and that some of these planets are also used for spirit nurseries, as this one is?" I answered, I thought it likely. Then he asked, "Do you not think it probable that the history of each of those planets is as interesting and as well worthy of study as the affairs of this one? I replied I thought it was so. Then he said "if there are millions of those stars or suns, and attached to them there are millions of millions of planets, perhaps some of which are larger than this, although I have been in the world of spirits for over 2000 years, yet I will frankly confess that personally I do not know and shall never know all those histories that we have just acknowledged to be worth knowing; however, should I require to learn anything on a given point connected with them, I can get the information, but I do not often require it, my time and care being taken up with the planetary system to which I belong, and some others connected with it. However, the united spirit world belonging to the whole of the planetary systems will be likely to be acquainted with all that is to be known, even if an individual member like myself acknowledges he does not know everything."

For my own part I am firmly convinced that not only everything we do is known to our spirit friends, but also even everything we think; for I have often had my thoughts on various subjects interpreted to me instantly, even almost before I had finished out the thinking of them.

On a few occasions I have practised the plan along with them of answering thought by thought without putting them into words, and have been told by them that that is the spirit mode of conversation, words only being needed by us on account of the dense envelope that encloses us and cuts us off from direct spirit communion.

As well as the skill to know our thoughts, I am fully convinced that the power is always at hand direct from the spirit world to strike down the intended murderer with the knife in his hand? then why is it not used? it is one of their strictest rules that if we wish to prevent crime we must take our own means so to do, and not trust to them.

However, you will often read in history of leaders in war carrying on battle after battle and often amongst the thickest of the shot, and yet never killed and sometimes not even wounded, while hundreds are falling near them; the men had not perhaps finished their work, but when that is done the bullet comes true to its mark, not before. Perhaps you will say this is not very safe for a patriotic General to trust to, I quite agree with you on that point. It is a remarkable fact, however, that there are many instances in history appearing to substantiate the power of spirit protection, provided it has been considered necessary by them that it should be done.

When first I became acquainted with Spiritualism, They were constantly referring to the soon-coming better condition of men in earth life, speaking of co-operation and republicanism as likely to do great things for us. Now the objection that always appeared against these Utopian communications seemed to me to be the difficulty of how to prevent overpopulation almost directly these good times should commence. At that period I never could get any proper answer from them as to the population question, and Malthus seemed to me to be triumphant in argument as against my spirit friends. Since then I have read some books that endeavour to show how population can be regulated by science; some of the methods proposed have been objected to by many worthy men who think it irreligious to take steps in that direction, to prevent over increase. For ray own part I am thoroughly convinced that in no very distant future something of the kind will have to be done; for if we do away with most of our wars and other large crimes and diseases, then by means of better and more moral living, our successors will soon find that they have hardly sufficient room to stand; so if the right method has not been found out, the sooner such a plan is discovered the better for humanity. If each one married on the understanding from one to the other, and with the power to prevent the production of more than two children to each pair of parents, then there is some possibility of virtue on a large scale, particularly amongst the page 14 rank and file, the men of great self-assertion. Nothing but marriage to a suitable helpmate will ever keep such men moral in that respect, and marriage with murder or starvation for the offspring would be a disgrace to our state of advancement. No, there must be a scientific prevention, and that is better than nature's cure for over population. We shall not get spirit help on that point, for it is just one of those matters that we must and can do for ourselves.

In the future time, if necessary, it can be rendered compulsory by law under fine not to produce more than a certain number to each family, so that the offspring of the rich may not elbow those of the poor clean out of means of livelihood, and that the poor shall not be allowed to starve one another. Correct education however on those points would probably lead to a proper course being taken even without legislation.

One of the bugbears of my very early days was the notion that was enpeavoured to be driven into me that it was only the long-faced Christians who were intended to participate in divine happiness, and the idea of having nothing else to do but to sit on the damp clouds twanking harps, as some poet or other puts it, was to me, as to many others, no very enticing prospect. Now, I and many thousands know by experience of the fact, that spirits who have left the flesh have as keen and even keener sense of enjoyment, according to our ideas of what is amusing, than we have. Dear friend, did you know Robert Smith in earth life? Was he a plain, good-hearted fellow? Well, if so, he is just the same plain Bob Smith now; a higher moral and intellectual nature in many respects, but as to appreciation of wit and humour he is just the same individual as he was before; though if he had coarseness, that has left him, unless for spiritual purposes he puts it on again to astonish you and to prove his identity, or for some other spiritual purpose. If you are introduced to him at a spirit circle there is no need to pull a long face, it will please him infinitely better to be sociable. If you ask him for what he has not got, such as money, he cannot supply you, unless he either manufactures it or picks you up a £5 note; and that would be against the usually strict spirit rule, of not assisting in such matters. It is true that for certain purposes similar things have been done, but not often. If nothing else will satisfy you but theological questions, such as what was the name of Noah's grandmother, it is very likely he will give you some remarks, but not very reliable or much to the point, and perhaps it is far better to let him take his own way and talk on things in general; at least that is the spirit-teaching I have received, and thoroughly appreciate. My veneration (what little there naturally is of it) is kept as a matter of reason to be applied to the worship of the One true God, i. the United Spirit World. There is only true, kindly friendship required to be shown to any particular member of it,

The strongest or most usually employed organ of the brain gives the distinguishing name to the mind-class to which any person may happen to belong; thus, if a man is a formalist, and is prominently of an acquisitive disposition, then he is to be classified as an acquisitive formalist; should conscientiousness (that is a desire to carry out all the correct forms to the furthest proper limit) be his general type of mind, then he is to be classed as a conscientious formalist, and the same with any of the other leading organs, such as those relative to music, mathematics, and so on, for the leading bump governs at most times the others of the group. As to the organs at the base of the brain, mainly relating to the production of children, and the protection of them and of women, or those who are dependant on us. Those bumps should, by sound moral training, be kept under the complete check of the formal organs and of reason. That man is a dangerous member of society who by want of correct training, or on account of the natural weakness of the organs that should rule, is so constituted that he is unable to be certain of keeping the protective (rather than destructive) disposition in check. The man himself is often rather to be pitied than blamed, as it is generally the want of training rather than his own fault that causes his misfortunes; and this is particularly often the case amongst the poor and needy, and can and must be remedied. The page 15 Spirit-teaching I had was this. Mercy and pity is due to all when such can be granted without injury to the community; and that true mercy, both to the criminal and to society, consists, at any rate in the case of habitually violent criminals, in preventing by the most certain means such an one from adding fresh sin to his already numerous and never-to-be-forgotten errors; and also that mercy is due in the first place to those of the public who might otherwise suffer from him.

As to the men of honourable and large unselfish reason, no right thinking men should ever lightly throw their friendship away, for although it often is more undemonstrative than even the "jonnuck," ordinary English type, but it is very enduring and reliable when rightly used, and at the present age of the world is becoming of greater value than ever as a means of joining the men together who are most suitable for influencing the world in the right direction. The people I now allude to are those who are capable of forming an intelligent opinion of things outside of their ordinary avocations; and such are generally to be found here and there to whom their neighbours run for advice when they are in a difficulty. Oftentimes they are poor devils, not sufficiently acquisitive to make money for money's sake, or if they do, they often let more selfish people borrow it from them; and because they are not sufficiently formal, and don't like grinding the same wheel every day, they usually get trampled into the mud by men not so clever as themselves. However, if we want honest work done, for instance, as special jurymen and what not, they are the men to do it, because they are not influenced by ordinary unreasoning friendships and dislikes to the extent that most men are, and also that they can form a correct opinion of their own from facts brought before them, when others would be totally in a fog.

In the process of improvements in the various trades and professions almost everything has now become a matter of formalism; what with scientific implements and exact training, these poor rule of thumb people have to go to the wall, and are laughed at as jack of all trades and masters of none. Only now and then, when formalism is at fault, the original reasoner is listened to with attention; and when the advice has been given and accepted, the adviser is usually left out in the cold until absolutely wanted again; for not being of the unreasoning friendly turn of mind, he is unable, except with a great effort, to join in the usual bonds of friendship with those around him. The neglect he receives is apt to sour his mind, and in some cases renders him in later life misanthropical; or perhaps, if to keep himself in bread in earlier years he asserts himself by means of what acquisitiveness (or economy) he possesses, in age he becomes that most despicable character, a miser. Sometimes, when not properly trained in early life, he commences in crime, and eventually becomes a greater and more dangerous villain than others on account of his larger brain power. Now, I believe all this might be avoided by teaching such retreating men to assert themselves, as a matter of right and justice, instead of ramming down their throats, when young, the for them absurd doctrine of self-abnegation. It is just what they, and such as they, will alone practise, and thereby allow the natural self-asserters to ride rough-shod over them when young, they learning too late the self-assertion principle; then in disgust they are apt to apply it in a wrong direction; the wind-up sometimes being that the Judge has to tell them from the bench the old lesson about talents misapplied. I am not talking about the ordinary criminals who herd together, but of those more dangerous ones who keep to themselves.

On the question of apparitions I was instructed, that spirits can assume any form they please, both material and palpable, or simply visible either to one particular person, or to many, and that proof of identity by such means was not so absolutely certain as it might at first sight appear. That however the apparition or representation was very often accomplished by the power of the departed spirit represented, although like all other spiritual phenomena, it is not intended to be thoroughly reliable. In many cases at spirit circles such favours and others are granted to intellectual men page 16 who have lost faith in the various churches, so as to comfort them during this transition period. In the old time these apparitions or ghosts appeared at times for quite a different purpose, namely, that of frightening the unlearned as to the future state, and to avoid crimes, thereby causing such persons to take better heed to the teachings of their clergy. The reason that these things have been often stopped when education was being carried out in a proper manner was for the purpose of strengthening the hands of those who taught men how to guide themselves in a formal manner, and thus it was partly true that the schoolmaster drove away ghosts. If we saw a picture representing in a most accurate manner a dear friend, we should not say it was that friend, but only that it was just like him; and our spirit friends have by no means lost that power of likeness-drawing, on the contrary, in their state it is vastly increased.

I have been assured, and modern science seems to confirm it, that all matter is based upon the negative and positive, or male and female principle, the Yan and Yin of Chinese philosophy. They also told me that while as hydrogen and oxygen in chemical union become almost a totally different matter from what they were before, the union of the male and female in one, greatly improves the mental position that the spirits separately would have held, without however changing their individualities; also, that all male spirits are positive and all females oppositive (the term they used in relation to man in preference to the word negative), and that it is incorrect to call a strong-minded, a positive woman; she is really a strong oppositive; and a weak-minded man not a negative, but an inferior positive.

As to re-incarnation, I used to hold long before I knew anything of Spiritualism that such an idea could hardly be true, because if, as history teaches us at one time the world contained very many less inhabitants than it does now; therefore, some of them must have been procreated, or else brought from some other planet, which is not likely; and as the method of procreation is always identical, if there was no re-incarnation for all, then it was almost impossible that such a misfortune could happen to any. Therefore, the feeling experienced by Pythagoras and others of a consciousness of previous existence, was either an illusion or else it is perhaps possible that in some cases ideas and remembrances can be transmitted from parents; and something of the same kind happens with pointer dogs, the young of which, though never taught to point, will often do so on the first occasion that they are taken out into the field, at least so I have read.

As to the Darwinian theory, if it appeared to the spirit world that the better system of bringing the higher animal man on to this earth was to take certain individuals of a lower species and carefully train them to a more advanced state, I see no reason why it should not have been done, although to me there would seem almost as much of the so-called miraculous intervention in so doing as there would be in actually creating the pro-creative bodies of man at once; because in all the experiments made by man with the lower animals there would seem to be such a very decided limit fixed, and that any change beyond that limit is, as far as actual experiment has gone, not to be thought of; thus we can by skilful breeding of cattle get to a very high type, vastly superior for our purposes to the original wild variety, but after we have got to that point we can get no further, it is an ox still, no nearer to any other distinct species, and that unless we are very careful the progeny will recede and will certainly not advance of itself.

Then as to the improvements in the vegetable world, there it would seem greater apparent alterations are to be made than in the animal, and our gardeners naturally take all the credit to themselves; nevertheless, Paul plants and Appollos waters but God gives the increase, and if the gardeners put their shoulder to the wheel in a proper and careful way, Jupiter will perhaps assist them more than we in this state generally imagine. I have never had any communication worth mentioning from the spirit world on that head, excepting the patting me in mind of one or two facts that somewhat bear on the question; one of them, I may as well mention, was this, that from my own experience of the apathy of savages there does not appear page 17 much chance of even mankind itself advancing from the very lowest savage state, without religions, slavery, and other Divine drivings. Had the spirit world designed to elevate the Australian black, selected a tribe situated in a good position for cultivating ground, then employed a prophet to teach them and order corn, &c., to be grown, it is possible that for a year they might follow the spiritual direction; but next year and for years after they would probably leave it alone. A more advanced race, such as the Maories, might obey better. Slavery, however, was the Divinely appointed means of civilisation in the old time, and without it, I for one very much doubt if man himself would progress beyond the original state; and with monkeys the necessary self-improvement (even allowing to the fullest extent the doctrine of the survival of the fittest), could hardly be expected. What is impossible to man is often quite possible to God; His power extends just as far as anything in its own nature is not impossible; two and two must of necessity be four, when understood in the literal sense, and all the might of the spirit world itself cannot overthrow the multiplication table.

While speaking of savages, I may mention another spiritual statement that I think feasible; one of the reasons that American Indians die out is that in all those countries most suitable for the higher European races (the temperate climates) it has not been considered advisable to prevent or hinder their occupation of the country, trusting to their honourable and kindly treatment of the decaying races; how much of this racial decay is due to spiritual intentions and how much to our cruelties, disease and rum, I am unable to decide. However, the fact is plain enough that in Australia, New Zealand, several of the South Sea Islands and the northern part of America, the aboriginal tribes can hardly hold their own in natural increase, while in the hotter climate, such as Central America, they seem to survive. On the other hand in South Africa the negroes and kindred races keep their ground in spite of disease and bad brandy, and even increase rapidly. I was spiritually informed that one reason for this was that negro souls are very necessary to increase spiritual happiness; it is true there is great difference existing here between many of the various races, and there is even more in the future life; notwithstanding this, each race assists and is necessary to the other's happiness, and particularly is this the case with the negro and the white man. Therefore, although varieties of their race are living at the Cape of Good Hope, amongst the Europeans, our diseases, &c., seem to have no greater effect in hindering their increase than is the case with us. We may attribute this to the powerful stamina of the African races; that, argument does not deny, but rather affirms that it is the Divine intention the negro shall to some extent continue to dwell amongst our people; possibly also to show to future ages how such close communion of opposites can improve humanity. It is, I believe, generally at the present day conceded that Mahomet was a truthful, honest and pure-minded man, according to his lights, and therefore while he was promulgating the Koran he must have believed in his Divine Inspiration; and further that as many of his statements regarding scientific and heavenly matters are not literally true, therefore he must have been partly mad, a monomaniac, or else a self-deceiver. The system given through his mediumship is tolerably well suited for the tribes for whose use it was sent, and although some portions of it (such as that forbidding other law than that of the Koran to be used in their tribunals) tend to keep back Mahometans from advancement at the same rate as the Christian nations, still men of this creed have done much in former ages to further science and art, and even now their descendants are not so very far behind as to prevent their adoption of what is best amongst us; and when they do this, not in a slavish spirit as bare copyists, but acting in accordance somewhat with the traditions and manners of their tribes, it may be that great things will again proceed from the successors of the humble and honest camel driver of Mecca, one of the greatest and best media that ever lived, although he was not acting on the highest basis, that is of reason. His want of sufficient book learning would prevent this, not being able to form an opinion on the science and history of his own page 18 and contemporary people, and also he was too much filled with old Arab superstition; however, such a man, although not fit for the Socratic mediumship was, nevertheless, just the person required for the spiritual work then in hand amongst his own countrymen, and those who act as well as he did, are certain of receiving high commendation from the spirit world.

I shall here endeavour again to impress on all those who are so situated as to be able and willing to influence others, that the intention of the spirit training in this world for thousands of years has been to render men fit for entire self-government, under right reason and correct formalism; first to be carried out amongst the more advanced peoples and from them, in the fulness of time, to be imparted to those who are now considered to be the lower races, in such proportion and by such merciful means as they may be able to receive it, remembering that it is almost useless to force such matters upon them unless they will help themselves, for we are now past the age of legal slavery, and whether we like it or not, those of the aboriginal races who are unable or unwilling to fall in as freemen on the side of virtue and good government, will pick up the vices of the basest amongst us, and die in their sin; let us act kindly and honestly to them, and leave the rest to God.

All conceivable bad forms of religion and government have been tried, and the result of each is now a matter of history from which we can gain the knowledge of what to avoid, and also what to retain. This trying of all things has been the eflectual method of God's instruction to our races, not endeavouring so much to prevent the evils constantly arising amongst men, but rather to encourage the nations to find out what misfortunes and what advantages arise from each particular line of conduct, and thus to profit by experience. Also let us not rashly throw away the advantages of the Christian doctrine along with the rubbish, it is easy for instanee for us to give up the Sunday of rest, innocent recreation and worship, but those who come afterwards would be possibly the worse for the change, and we nothing the better. Whether we like it or not republicanism, and as much cooperation connected therewith as can be reasonably introduced, is considered by the spirit world to be the most effectual plan of government whereby we can cause the faculties of all to be cultivated to the fullest extent; and also that system is nearest in condition to that of the government (if we can so call it) existing in the spirit world; it is not precisely the same, for there they all act together as one, when it is requisite so to do.

On the earth wholesale, not retail, politics should prevail; national honesty in paying monies justly due, and protection for brains as well as for personal property.

Earth life is the illusion, spirit life the fact.

As far as possible remove all matters that cause separation amongst men, and encourage trade to the fullest extent.

Let us not look for or desire spiritual miracles, the wonders performed by scientific men are those in which the spirit world is interested most, so it should be with us.

The stone to be cut out of the mountain without hands is nearly ready, it is almost in the hands of the people, and it shall bruise the image of tyranny to powder, never to rise again.

Hereditary titles and antiquated theologies are not crimes, but simply anachronisms; however, the self-adulation and cringing servility sometimes arising therefrom are evils to the commonwealth, and also to the individual; gentle, manly politeness used by the people will do away with much of the ancient necessity for artificial distinctions, and good men amongst the holders thereof should effect the total abolition of all titles not derived from personal merit.

Men could easily have been created with a loathing for animal food, and yet live well as vegetarians, both in the temperate and tropical zones, as do the monkeys. One reason why a liking for animal food forms part of our nature is, that the minds of the lower animals are required in spirit life as a sort of basis whereon the higher intelligences rest, page 19 Our quadruped friends are never lost to us if we treat them as friends in this life. The reasons why the spirit world have hitherto said but little through their media as to the brute creation, are that a direct revelation to them is of course useless; that all improvement in their condition must almost of necessity be through their masters of the human race, and that that race during the training of the last few thousand years has not been able to receive and carry out a revelation on the matter. In the future, let us take merciful care of all harmless beings that have not sufficient reason to take care of themselves.

The true master in spirit life of a quadruped is often not the actual owner on earth, but perhaps the servant who has fed and treated it well.

Where would be the justice of God did he permit us (as is too often the case) to torment the lower animals, and they to be totally shut out from the possibility of a future state of happiness? Would it not be more merciful to prevent their increase and to let us do our own drudgery?

Comets are used amongst other purposes, as one means of communion with the spirit worlds of other planetary spheres, thus being connecting links in the chain of power of the Godhead over matter.

Prophecies relating to future affairs are like the course of a ship bound to a distant port and marked on a chart as to the general outline, while most of the minutiæ of the voyage are filled up as occasion serves; the greater events only are thoroughly determined on beforehand.

Atheists and believers in the various revealed religions are now on precisely the same spiritual footing, the divine power caring nothing as to what men believe or do not believe, while being most anxious as to what they do.

Joan of are was divinely inspired, partly for the purpose of teaching the world that a woman can receive the divine afflatus while using judgment of her own in the application of it, in almost the same way as a Socratic or reasoning male or female medium would do; and it also teaches us that in most political matters women are not to be excluded solely on account of sex. The voices of Joan of are were similar to those called "his demon" by Socrates; he, however, knew really who they who addressed him had been in earth life, and was also well versed in the spiritual conditions of existence; while Joan being uneducated and living at a period when plain spiritual teaching would have clashed with the power of kings and clergy, never arrived at the highest mediumistic honour, still her sad history would seem to point out that her common sense was sufficiently strong to have given her that privilege had she lived in happier times.

The only wonders really admired by the spiritual world are those performed by such as De Lesseps, G. Stephenson, Watt, Morse, and other inventors and discoverers; and that the time of the world's history when these matters would be known in earth life has, in some instances, been foretold by various prophets of old. This power of foretelling is simple enough to the Ruler of the Universe; to some extent it is a question of mathematics—given so much humanity, and so many years, and such a spiritual direction of training, then such and such will be the result at a given period of time. Some things of this kind can hardly be discovered by men in the flesh; in such cases an impression spiritually given to the right man at the right time is sure to produce what the spirit world require, and they say, in such or any other matters, they never choose the wrong man, whatever may be the opinion of those in earth life on that point.

In spirit life each one generally cultivates certain branches of knowledge, according to individual liking; the same should be the case in earth life, but not to the entire exclusion of general information. There will always be plenty to learn through eternity, although it does not follow that any spirit feels called on to do nothing else but acquire information that to him would be personally useless.

The training given by continental sovereigns to their subjects by means of the drill-sergeant and universal conscription, has been effecting great and spiritually intended good. When kings and rulers plan, they perhaps page 20 think they are doing only their own brain-work, while they are rather to be considered as somewhat intelligent chessmen on the board, acting certainly to a large extent by their own free-will, notwithstanding many events are known and planned by God beforehand.

As a horse tethered to a long rope can kick and plunge within the length of that rope, but not beyond it, so are we and our rulers on the earth.

When the troop ship "Birkenhead" was lost the men stood to their arms on deck and nobly went down, while the women and children were saved. This shows the beauty of sound formal training. Were those men, all of them, unselfish by nature? No; some, perhaps many of them, were not very selfish, but in all of them the military system overruled selfishness and made heroes where want of discipline would have certainly caused more lives to be lost, and still more important, an excellent example would have been lost to our generation and to future time.

The Jews were chosen by God for the purpose of learning the more spiritually correct idea of worshipping the spirit world as one, under the title of Jehovah; also, because they were of a race that is naturally, and also by long spiritual training, strong in the principles of self-assertion and acquisitive formalism, especially in money matters; and thus the western nations while learning from the Jews a modification of their religion, such as should be suitable for advancing the European races in civilisation, also insensibly imbibed a liking for certain Jewish modes of thought in political and business matters that were much needed for causing a greater reliance on one another; the want of a strict formal, and at the same time self-asserting religious belief, having been one of the curses of old Greece and other western nations.

One of the reasons that strong drink has been permitted to be used to excess amongst us has been the necessity of keeping the people at labour for national improvement during these latter times, when the lash of actual legal slavery was being gradually withdrawn; for lack of an actual slave driver, men, who have been so minded, have been by drink, excited to spend their hard-earned money and thus flog themselves to renewed work, with their noses constantly at the grindstone; the necessity for these excessive drinking habits is now done away with, inasmuch as that we are most of us sufficiently formal in disposition to work steadily and take a pleasure in the work without the lash.

Again, strong drink puts the reason, and generally also the formal powers, on the shelf for the time being, while it excites the organs of self-assertion and friendship; thus the labourer, whilst having a drinking bout with friends at an inn was also receiving a practical lesson in jonnuck under the tuition of the high priest of self-assertion, that is the publican. The hotel-keeper to be of perfect type, must be a man of the friendly self-asserting character, and the men of his turn of mind go as naturally to him to learn the correct ideas on matters of self-assertion, as do the thorough formalists attend church to receive the training that is suitable for their frame of mind.

Not all ministers are formalists, and not all publicans are pure self-asserters; nevertheless natural selection leads the two great divisions of civilised humanity, as well as their leaders, some to the church and some to the public-house, according to their usual proclivities, and that feeling prompts intended publicans also. As men become more used to reasoning for themselves, the evils of drink will gradually disappear. It would be wrong to state that friendly asserters have no religious ideas, on the contrary, they often have such feelings very strongly developed, and so genuine and decided as to be utterly immovable by argument. Thus most of the Church of England publicans of this true hotelkeeping division of mind are often intense believers in, or at anyrate supporters of that noble establishment; but if you drive them into a corner as to their grounds of belief, you probably find that it is almost entirely based on the fact of their friends or parents having brought them up to it and as to formal questions as to "original sin" and so on, such as would greatly delight a pure for- page 21 malist, for these ideas the genuine British ultra asserter cares nothing whatever. Again the same man believes in, and supports, his Sovereign because he is his Sovereign, and also his dog, his horse, and his children, for the same good and sufficient reason; this belief in self and all matters connected with self, gives such minds a great advantage in the business of life, particularly when, as is sometimes the case, it happens to be united with a large amount of common sense.

One great drawback to success in life, with many of this type of mind, is their over zeal in too often renewing their jonnuck friendship with various hotelkeepers.

Some people object to the possibility of a reasoning God having any existence, as the laws of nature seem to be exact and formal, and therefore that, possibly, reason is not required to carry them out, as they would appear to be the result in most instances of the necessities of matter. God having once reasoned out any law, that law will be adhered to, sometimes, because it has been almost or quite an impossibility to arrange matters otherwise, and in other cases on account of the course taken being the best for the purpose intended, notwithstanding that we in the flesh are perhaps thinking in our little foolish way we could have arranged some things better.

The comb in a beehive should teach us that when the spirit world wish to reason out any matter to the fullest extent, and then impress the result on the minds of even insects, nothing we can do can surpass it.

Bees seem to act almost entirely by instinct in their building work, and are infallible therein; in the higher quadrupeds, notably the dog, horse, and elephant, there is reasoning from cause to effect, similar to that of man; we have instincts and also reason as well as they, in many respects we excel them and in some they excel us. True reason should keep in check our pride and teach us friendliness to all the loving companions of man.

The bodily imperfections and necessities have been the causes of sin and evil in this life, when the body is thrown off at death all desire for what we call sin necessarily ceases with the cause of it, for to abolish the cause must as a matter of necessity destroy the effect in future cases; nevertheless that that has already been wrongly done can never be erased, although time, with healing influences, may ease the pain.

Some of the peculiar and to the uninitiated, rather absurd phases of Spiritualism have been permitted to convince some of those who had the spiritual experience performed right before them, and at the same time to prevent Spiritualism from degenerating into the worship of any individual spirit or spirits, and also to prevent it spreading too rapidly, and thus causing injury. Let us only worship the one true God, the united spirit world.

I believe it is not unusual for some spirits at circles to declare that they have committed great crimes in earth life.

On this head I have been spiritually told that such is often the fact, particularly where great physical power is shown; in such cases the rough work of spiritualism is being performed by those who in earth life most constantly opposed God's training, they do it voluntarily but not as a punishment. It is true they often have to put up with great insults and abuse from blockheads, that they do not mind so long as their work meets with approval on high.

To cause the death of a child even whilst in the womb, is murder. To bring an infant into the world, when there are no means to support it, may be a crime, and to leave a single child untaught as to its moral and intellectual duties, is sinning against God.

One of the first duties undertaken by each soul soon after arrival in the spirit state, is the care of some relation or loved one in earth life; the necessarily strict rule not to interfere with humanity except for spiritual purposes, generally prevents actual intercourse, yet pleasure results to them when we act well, and pain when we perform an unjust action; this overlooking of course may last for years, and with many spirits they are years of sorrow heroically borne, rather than to interfere with the training of page 22 mankind in the art of self-government. The old tale of the death of three sons in answer to the prayer of the parent who asked the Deity for that which was best to be done to them, is true to the facts of spirit life; their spirit friends knew more of the young men's nature and temptations than did the parent. In the old time those who died without offspring were considered to be happier than they who had to leave children behind them, but in the future if we train them rightly, pleasure and not pain will be more constantly the portion of spirit friends than is the case now, and possibly such knowledge to those in earth life may have a restraining influence on the actions of many; for if they fully realise the fact that not only the deeds, but even the thoughts, are instantly known to their guardian angels, it would be difficult to resist the hope that improvements in conduct would follow. When this better moral conduct shall become almost universal amongst men, then the open spiritual intercourse may be universal also; nevertheless for the prevention of retrogression it will be better to keep men in the position they now occupy, namely, that what they can do for themselves they should not ask their spirit friends to do for them, nor yet to ask for anything that is foolish.

The necessity of preventing things that are evil or wrong or unnatural from existing as examples to weak humanity, is a duty left by Deity in the hands of the medical profession and also of our rulers and men of thought.

The biographies of one idead narrow-minded formalists, such as Charles 1st, of England, or Robespierre, in France, should teach us the danger of entrusting such men (never mind how formally honest they may be in some matters) with supreme power. The conscientious formalists are most valuable men in their right place, as able seconders, but not at the head of affairs; they will not bend, or if they do, it is at the wrong time. The placing of such names as the above in juxtaposition may be objected to by some, nevertheless the class of mind seems to me to be nearly identical in both, the times and nations were different, more than the characters of the men. Charles 1st habitually lied, because Machiavelli and James 1st had taught him that it was a branch of kingcraft so to do, and thus in his position it became really a matter of conscientious formalism, and if there was in it any wrong for a king to commit, the Divine right notion amply covered it. Robespierre perhaps did not lie, if so, it was not so much his own narrow notions that prevented it, as the affectation of republican honesty, a matter of fashion or formalism, The doings of Cromwell while in England are, considering the exceedingly difficult position wherein he was placed, nearly all that could be expected from a man of really great reasoning powers, he found out clearly that Charles was not honest enough to be again entrusted with power, that he had actually planned the death of the leaders of the liberal party, and that the people, not understanding or correctly valuing the true principles of constitutional liberty, were just as likely as not to acquiesce in the destruction of all those who had held out for parliamentary rights; he thought to bind some of the waverers to him by getting them to join in the king's death and to fairly seal the covenant of civil and religious liberty with the blood of its most powerful and consistent opponent, and as a matter of necessity of the times, he was not far wrong, had he when the right time came played the next card usual with previous usurpers, and that was evidently expected by many of the nation; had he made himself king then his son might have had a better chance of gaining and retaining the allegiance of that large portion of the nation, the ignorant, the careless, who think little about who the king is to be, yet must have one before whom to fall down and abase themselves. It was a dangerous card, the army had to be managed and so had the nobles; still, under the circumstances, it was really the safest, and he knew it. It is related that a vision had told him, when a youth, that he would become the greatest man in England, but not king; the notion was agreeable to the period, and although at the present day most of us perhaps would consider it to have been merely an illusion of the brain, if it happened at all; nevertheless his spirit friends might have given him such an intimation and would be likely enough so to have done, if they could thereby have helped to teach the greatest man in England the knowledge of himself and thus to page 23 lead his thoughts to power, while restraining him from the kingly dignity; at anyrate I was told that it was the spirit of the Cromwell who was executed by Henry 8th, who gave or helped to give his namesake the information in question. The spirit world wished to start a republic in the then ultra-monarchical England, but the parliamentary and other small liberties they possessed kept the more intelligent people attached to the Crown, and the rest followed suit as they do now; yet from that small commencement on unsuitable soil the great American experiment was to result, and therefore was it right that Cromwell should never be King of England; see how apparently small a matter of spiritual help may lead to great results. When Cromwell went to Ireland he went as a bigot, as far as his nature would permit him to be one; he did not like to torment those who had a different religious belief from his own, nevertheless he had been appointed to revenge the blood of the saints shed in the north of Ireland. I know that Roman Catholic writers deny the fact of the atrocities mentioned and considered by the parliamentary committee to have been proved, they seem to believe that it is only the Saxon and not the Celt who can commit wholesale murders; but strong religious or rather irreligious hatred on either side is bound to produce an unreasoning desire for slaughter, and once the matter is fairly afloat, the Celt is not far short of the Saxon in cruelty; although for persistency in such wrong-doing we might give the belt to the dogs who hold on longest. The Celt is perhaps more fickle in some things, and may be so in murder; as to the Saxons we know well of their atrocious cruelty to the Jews at York, who so gallantly defended their wives and families while any hope remained, and then slaughtered one another rather than surrender to our demon ancestors.

Cromwell and his soldiers doubtless believed in the statements made in England, he could not help believing, for it was legally proved, as to the almost wholesale destruction of English and Scotch Protestant settlers in the north, and by whom, why actually by those whom the puritans believed to be idolators, the worshippers of images and the host. The book they loved told them clearly what to do in such cases, to smite the Amalekites hip and thigh, let not one of them escape, the Lord do so to me and more also, &c, &c. The lower class of minds of that date could hardly avoid the certainty of belief that they were called on to destroy everything connected with idolatry, that is if they went by the Old Testament, their favourite volume. Higher minds, such as Cromwell's, might seek to destroy only such as were actually in arms, and would not surrender; not so with the rank and file, most likely even many of the ministers of the various denominations would urge him on, for who were their opponents but Amalekites. &c., who had slaughtered the Saints.

Doubtless great crimes were committed at Drogheda and other places, and sad it is that we, who have so much to thank Cromwell for, cannot avoid the remembrance that he was the supreme leader of the parliamentary army at the time; but that he could have entirely prevented the army from acting savagely, I much doubt; and also the people of England were too uncivilised to be merciful to those they called idolaters. Everybody in fact urged Cromwell to the work of destruction, when his better reason should, and would almost of necessity, have restrained him from it, for such men are not by nature cruel. It is to the consciencious formalists that we owe the horrors of the Inquisition and those of the French revolution; the greater minds naturally will not permit these things, and but that smaller men worked on Cromwell's peculiar religious notions, I cannot believe that he could have permitted the slaughter of women and children, if such was done, as related by Anthony A' Wood.

Nevertheless he was the right man to rule, had he not been pestered by his superstitious religious notions. The Divine right of intellect (honourable reason) was with him and not with Charles, and it would have shown brighter had he been trained differently.

The spirit world chose him as the best man in England for the work in hand, namely, for introducing republicanism 200 years and more before that country was fit for it, and the steps then taken have saved us much labour page 24 When the slaughter of women and children by the Sepoys took place at Cawnpore I and many hundreds of others in Australia, on the gold mines, would have gone to India to stand up for the old flag; some actually did go, and but for the news of the successful march of Havelock's noble soldiers, I should have been off also. Thanks be to God for it, I was not wanted; nevertheless, I can understand the feeling that was in the minds of the friends of Cromwell on account of the Irish troubles. We are supposed to be more civilised now than then, still the old Adam is in youth excessively powerful in most of us. I trust not to offend any conscientious English, Irish, or Indian patriot by these remarks; they are not intended so to do. but only to excuse and ask pardon in this generation for the wrongs that one of our greatest and best men did to Ireland in former times. We should not hate for ever; the curse of Cromwell might safely be suffered to die, while we, both English, Irish, and Scotch, thank him for the great help he gave towards destroying tyranny and laying the foundations of liberty, both in Europe and America. He certainly was not ambitious in the common sense of the word; he evidently desired most anxiously to give liberty and protection to his countrymen, and to help other nations on the same road, and doubtless he deeply regretted that he, a most sincere lover of his country's liberties, should have been driven by the force of circumstances and the ignorance of the people of England to act (in some things) as an English monarch such as Charles would have been only too ready to do if he had dared. Cromwell dared but did not wish to have the really necessary work to save his friends' lives thrust on him; but who else could have done it? Had he been a man ambitious of vulgar applause and wonder, such as Napoleon, he would certainly, after closing the Parliament, have engaged his most thoroughly republican troops in foreign wars; the desire of spreading the faith would have been sufficient to satisfy them, and while they were away he could have raised plenty of good soldiers who would not have objected to the name of king in the man who already had the power. One may object that he had no reliable allies for such expeditions (an attack on Italy or other Catholic country) to satisfy his Puritan soldiers; but success, if attained, would soon have raised fair-weather friends, and these he could have driven farther than they meant to go; true he might have easily enough found his Moscow; but had he been an ambitious slaughter-loving man, he would certainly have had some such grand idea, for this glory is the bait that always tickles the unreason of the really ambitious tyrants. That Cromwell did none of these things should be sufficient proof that his ambition, if such it can be called, was not to destroy, but rather to justly govern and benefit his fellows to the fullest extent that his power and training permitted.

The main rules of spirit conduct to those in earth life are explained to all as soon as possible after arrival in the spirit state, and they having lost the imperfections of intellect that cease with the death of the body, are able at once to understand the reasonableness and justice of those directions, and afterwards always to act in accordance with them. Laws as to self-government are often matters of debate amongst us, but not so with them; the perfected faculties caused from union with the female spirit, when this has occurred, and complete communion with the surrounding spirit world, which of necessity always happens, soon teach each individual to select the best method of doing that which is needful for the happiness of those in their condition, and also to benefit and train friends in earth life. Many spirits would doubtless wish to communicate at once with their friends they have just left in the flesh; but such communications would interfere with the general rule to leave men to trust to themselves and to their various religions; and the necessity of this the newly-arrived spirit understands and never breaks except for spirit purposes, such as strengthening the power of the churches or developing Spiritualism.

There is almost always one certain way that is better than any other for effecting any particular design; the difference may be so slight as to be as it were but the weight of a feather to turn the scale. We with our flesh-clouded reason may easily err in such difficult matters, while in spirit life page 25 such a mistake can never occur, for even if it were possible that the indidual could make an error from ignorance, the surrounding friends must and will correct the false idea at once,

The age of physical miracles ought to be past before long; not because the spirit world can no longer do such tricks (Spiritualists know the contrary), but because we, after the training our forefathers and selves have received, should be advanced too far to desire our spirit friends to perform for our amusement that which after all is only spiritual juggling. If we want such matters done, is it not better to patronise conjurors in earth life, and if we wish to see a ghost, pay our shilling at Professor Pepper's entertainment and see an undoubted specimen; for whether such things are done by spirits in the flesh or by those that are free from it, is really of no importance; they are in either case simply illusions. Physical Spiritualism is of but little use except to attract the attention of the vulgar, for at the present day I hardly think that any reasoning man would be content to adopt any particular line of belief or conduct on such evidence. A miracle, supposing it to be true, proves nothing but itself (and even to do that is, according to Hume, a difficult matter), and to ask any intelligent man to believe that which is absurd in itself, merely because certain wonders were done by spirits in presence of the medium, is certainly bad logic. Spirits are mainly composed of the intellectual faculties; and in the age of reason it would be simply stupid and irreverent to ask for juggling from them, when by seeking in the correct manner we can either obtain more sensible manifestations, or else do without them.

Amongst the brute creation the horse may be accepted as a fair example of the extent of self-assertion (similar to that of some of the human races) that is possible to quadrupeds. Horses play, sometimes kicking and sometimes licking one another, and are also willing to do the same to their masters, and to work well and like it when made to do it, but not so willingly as the dog; although they love, yet do they not venerate their masters to any appreciable extent; therein they resemble such races as the English, the Negro, the Jew, and the Tartar. The dog, on the other hand, is a true venerator, with plenty of self-assertion as well, delighting to overcome in the course and to play roughly as does the more purely self-asserting horse; but for all that he has a large amount of veneration or desire of worship, applied almost entirely to his master. The dog, amongst quadrupeds, occupies a similar mental position to that which the venerating races hold amongst men, such people as the ancient Etruscans and Romans, the] Brahmins modem Italians, French, Scotch Highlanders, and to some extent the Germans. The self-asserting friendship for their rulers and deities and one another, (in place of the true veneration principle) amongst the English, is partly the result of training and partly of race. The ancient Greeks were mainly composed from two families of men, one of which was of the venerating type of mind similar to the Italian, while the other had naturally more of the self-asserting and imaginative type, similar to the modern southern Irish. The Italians originally were all venerators, and although the Greek element has been largely intermixed in that country, nevertheless the venerating mode of thought carries the day, and the present Italian race has reverted to the originally numerically strongest strain, and also, they have nearly eaten out by marriage the Teutonic (Gothic and Lombard) blood. Golden hair that used to be common in Venice is now said to be rare. In France, in accordance with the divine will, a similar process has resulted in the destruction of the invading Franks or Germans, and the people are in many parts, but not in all, nearly as pure Gaels now as they were when the country was first called Gaul.

In Ireland and England, a kindred race to the Gauls of France, had (it would appear from history as well as from spirit information) possession of both countries until the Phœnicians commenced trading to Ireland, and then a physically larger race first appeared there. Now I was told on that head, and also it has been corroborated from reading history, that when trading in the Levant the Phœnicians were troubled by the Greeks, who commenced early as pirates, therefore the traders often took numbers of page 26 their opponents prisoners, and purchased others, making slaves of them, first at Tyre, selling them at times to the Egyptians and others; afterwards using similar people in Carthage and Spain partly as soldiers to keep back and also to enslave the natives. Then, when Ireland was discovered by the Phoenicians, many of these Greeks and some real Iberians or venerating Spaniards were there used for slave-hunting amongst the Gaels, and also to collect hides of beasts, honey, gold, &c., to send to Tyre and Carthage. This was not long before the siege of Troy: When that event occurred, some of the Trojans escaped and made their way to a Phœnician or Carthaginian outpost, from whence they were assisted to Carthage, to be used in wars against the natives, as the Milesians and other Greeks had been employed in Ireland. The new Trojan element did not agree well with the Carthaginian, the queen Dido (if that was her name) persuaded the new comers to embark on a short expedition, so the men were told; instead of that she sent them away to Britain, through Spain, to catch slaves to be worked at the newly-discovered tin mines. Æneas was disappointed and then went to Rome with his few friends. From their better discipline, it was no difficult matter for the Trojans to conquer the painted and naked inhabitants of Britain, therefore, in order to save the lives of the intended serfs, the Trojan soldier used to unship the spear-head and carry the shaft alone, also taking a sword or dagger with him, not however often to be used, excepting to kill such prisoners as he thought to be of no value With the spear-shaft in hand they would follow the Gaels into the scrub, knock them down, endeavouring not to injure them too severely, and then take the captives to their Phœnician masters. From constant practice they thus became expert at handling the spear-shaft, and from thence arose the custom that eventually ripened into the so-called Saxon quarter-staff play—not really Saxon, however, but Celtic or South British. I do not guarantee this, but it seems feasible to me, and was a spirit communication. In the process of time the southern parts of both islands became occupied by these Celts or Greeks in Ireland, and Trojans in England, Gaelic women supplying wives and their language. The mountains and northern parts were still occupied by the smaller and physically weaker race, the Gaels—or Picts as they were afterwards sometimes called on account of their constantly painting their bodies. The Celts, however, as might naturally be expected from the intermixture with Gaelic women, often adopted the latter custom as well as the language. Notwithstanding this admixture, the new-comers, both in Ireland and Britain, retained somewhat of their former semi-civilisation. Their spears and shields were well made, and sometimes weapons were imported as return trade from the Phoenicians. The Celtic Briton still used the chariot in war, one custom that constantly distinguished them from the Gaels on the continent. Then came the Scoti to Ireland—a Scandinavian or Teutonic light-haired race, who partly mixed with both Celts and Gaels. Afterwards a branch of them joined the Picts and the Scandinavians, who at that time occupied portions of the east coast of Scotland; thus banded together they attacked and were overcoming the southern Celtic British, who had about that time been deserted by the Romans. The British in their despair called on the Saxons (Teutons) of Holland and surrounding countries for help; the help was given, but eventually the Saxons, after driving back the Picts and Scots, quarrelled with their late allies the Celts, and in the process of time conquered the country from Kent through England and the southern parts of Scotland nearly to the Highlands, and the people became Saxons—at least so histories tell us.

The Saxons did not eat their enemies, nor yet, although a most energetic race, were they so fond of work as to kill all the Celts and do the hard labour themselves; no doubt for one Saxon master there would be in many parts four or five Celtic serfs, and the Celts are quite as prolific as the Saxons, and thus would not lose the start they already possessed. The loss of language is not the same as a change of blood, and the spirit world is decidedly of opinion that their grand scheme of having a branch of the gallant Trojan race enslaved under that most vigorous slaveowner the Teuton, has been as might be supposed from its Divine intention, a complete success. At the page 27 present time there exists in England a thoroughly well crossed race from two or three of the best strains of Europe, well ground into the liking of labour, with almost all of their imagination knocked out of them by hard work (excepting a certain amount yet visible amongst those fitted by nature to be either poets, novelists, or readers of poetical works). The most of the labouring classes, at anyrate in England, are just plain jonnuck, self-asserters when at play, and bare formalists when at work; now if we in the coming time give the training to cause them to use their reason a little more, casting away their superstitious notions of religion, giving them at the same time a good system of morals and also a correct idea of their own value as freemen, and then by means of scientifically putting the right man of the united races at the head of affairs; and each, according to his intellectual and moral value, in the place that should be his or hers, then will the training of the last four or five thousand years lead to its proper and Divinely intended result, and better days will be possible for the whole of humanity. One of the principal points in all of the communications vouchsafed to me is the necessity of making use of the reasoners proper; these should, they say, supply the great number in the Upper Houses of Parliament in all nations. To some extent this is even now the case in England, where great talents in law, politics, and war often obtain a peerage for an intellectual family; also clever men from other ranks of life, such as merchants and bankers, often furnish their children as wives to the already titled families, and thus reinvigorate the old blood; but this is not sufficient for the future spiritual purposes, such men are usually more formalists than reasoners, and pure thinkers will now have to take a higher position above that of the unreasoners or self-asserters. In the position of jurymen, the only persons really of much use are those who either know about the matters in dispute as a portion of their education, and the very few who are capable of forming an independent opinion from the facts brought before them. The first-class is that of the trained formalists; the second-class is that of the (too often untrained) reasoners; for these men of independent judgment, and often of great unselfishness, get trodden into the mud in these hard formal matter of fact times, and their children either have to emigrate to America or elsewhere, or are crushed out of life. Such men when found should be utilised as jurymen, and for other purposes where they may be of value.

These reasoners when of inferior natural development, are often not far from being idiots. Handy Andy is a reasoner, with a good deal of self-asserting friendship, of small formalism, and that totally untrained; his imagination of little extent, but probably full of cock and bull stories of ghosts and fairies, and therefore at full work as the wonder-loving organ to excite the untrained reason of poor Andy to deeds of blunder and absurdity. Now such as Andy have memory, and a certain portion of other formal ability; these faculties should be properly trained, and forms given them whereby to conduct their business of life, then their reason would shine out at times in the matter of shrewd remarks and ready contrivance, while in the absence of book learning such men are all but idiots. I am aware that Irishmen, while denying that Handy Andy is to be considered the national portrait, and rightly so, may yet laugh at Andy's mistakes; of course it is a caricature, and therefore to some extent an exaggeration; nevertheless I have known people very much like Handy Andy, and when young was rather that way myself. The English national portrait of John Bull is not flattering, but taken with a pinch of salt it is true. Mr. Bull is drawn by Punch with plain indications of enormous self-asserting friendship of the public-house type, also symptoms of vigorous, although shortsighted reason, such as is sometimes called low-cunning, and at other times merely appearing as business shrewdness; then there is a look giving a hint as to the animal courage (mainly derived from the Saxon) in the background, ready, however, to be used when wanted; such a man is often warm enough as a friend, perhaps rather stupid as to matters outside of his experience, and is an excellent supporter of things as they are, for no other reason than that they exist; his father approved of them and so does he, page 28 and woe be to all innovators, unless they show him clearly how to avoid loss, and to reap certain advantage.

Now let us take a glance at Brother Jonathan, as drawn by the same Mr. Punch; this again is by no means flattering, and from my experience of Americans not as true to life as that of John Bull; however, it seems intended to depict abominably selfish reason, fly and acquisitive formalism, up to all the meanest methods of self-advancement, and strong, constantly asserted, animal courage; which you would naturally expect to hear expressed or simulated by means of a harsh grating voice, giving the idea that opposition must give way at once, or the nearest cowardly means will be taken to enforce selfish ends. Such a man might be the lineal descendant of a puritan formalist, provided he had taken to most immoral courses early in life; but as a national portrait it is not true.

There are evidently reasoning and also formal idiots, and possibly some that show self-assertion and but little else. In Dean Ramsay's Scottish reminiscences he mentions the case of a flood coming down a village stream, some people were clinging to a tree that was below the bridge and growing on the side of the river; it was surrounded at the time by water; no boat could be found, and it was momentarily expected that the tree itself would be washed away by the force of the current. The people of the town it appears knew not what to do; if they were lowland Scotch they would most of them be hard formalists, and consequently quite out of their element when totally unforseen matters happened to occur. The only person who was able to give a reasonable suggestion, was the village idiot; he showed them how to make a kind of raft, with casks, and lower it from the still standing bridge; the force of the water carried it down to the tree and the people on it were saved, the rope from the bridge sufficing to bring the raft back again. This man was evidently a reasoning idiot. The clowns of Shakspeare are of a similar class of mind, weak in most respects, nevertheless they are able to tell wiser men when they err in matters of reason.

An intelligent acquaintance told me of a lady belonging to his village in Scotland; she had a tolerably well developed forehead (where many of the formal organs exist), but the back and top of her head was small and undeveloped; she could not speak, and apparently cared for nothing else but cutting out and making patchwork quilts and clothing; anything of this sort she could do well enough as far as she had been taught, and nearly in the same way as her preceptors, excepting that she showed good taste of her own in arrangement of form and colour. This woman I would call a formal idiot, from whom quick ideas and ready answers would not be possible, even did she possess the faculty of speech. That the bump of destruction really means a desire to protect, I know from self investigation; inasmuch as I have a tolerably large one of my own, it is no incentive to cruelty in the natural state, simply meaning if you touch my wife or child or friend or clansman, I will kill you. In the ruler of a large state it may be useful as a guarantee of protection for all underneath him. In the case of badly trained, brutal people, it may portend protection for self and no one else. The animal courage is more generally persistent for fighting purposes; many English, Irish, and Americans are well supplied with both qualities partly from being a well mixed race and their receiving their bases of character from three excellent fighting strains.

Veneration prompts to love of the chief of the clan, the nation and the Deity; the seat of reason is immediately underneath it and is intended to be governed by it amongst the venerating nations; members of the non-venerating races, such as Celts, negroes, &c., often show large organs of veneration on the brain, but with them it is principally reason, and very little true veneration. The negro possesses an enormous amount of self-asserting friendship, and thus is chosen companion to the white races in spirit life to make up what some of them lack in that direction.

Animal courage in the natural state is a feeling of actual desire for war and the chase, the thirst for slaughter; to be toned down in civilisation, to a generous desire for victory and preeminence, it has its peculiar music. The American Indian war cry is a direct appeal to it, and the old Scandina- page 29 vian religion thoroughly trained it for conquest. In an union of mixed races some offspring may take after the one parent and some after the other, and may appear almost thoroughly true to the strain, some again will evidently be half-castes. In the marriage state a bond of mental junction is required between the man and woman, the one may be a self-asserter and the other a formalist; but if they are both elevated reasoners, they may agree on almost all matters that are reducible to common sense; again the base of union may be formalism (household and business in quiet and order) or self-assertion (sports, dancing, fashion, &c.) Some years ago appeared a most excellent picture, in Punch, representing two marriages, it was called Rinkers and Thinkers; the reasoning man joined to the self-asserting rinking woman, and the thinking woman to the rinking man, and each of the parties was so typically represented as to show hardly any possibility of finding some basis of mind suitable even as neutral ground for agreement; in such cases there can hardly be a possibility of much happiness for either, the rinking woman cannot understand nor appreciate the thinking man, although she may pretend that she does before she marries, and the reverse holds good. Nevertheless a sporting man or woman may be also intellectual, if so the marriage is right enough, but in the Punch picture the reason did not show in either of the rinkers, nor did any other suitable bond of union such as formalism, care of dress, &c., appear in the thinkers.