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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 30

Standards of Education and Inspection of Schools

page 23

Standards of Education and Inspection of Schools.

In exercise and pursuance of the powers and authorities vested in him by "The Education Act, 1877," the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Executive Council of the colony, doth make the regulations hereto annexed concerning inspection of schools and standards of education.


1.Once in every year every public school shall be both inspected and examined' by a Public School Inspector. If possible, there shall be an interval of time between the inspection and the examination. As soon as possible after the inspection the Inspector shall present an "inspection report," and as soon as possible after the examination an "examination report" In these regulations a year means a year counted from the 1st of January.
2.The inspection report shall relate to such topics as the following:—
  • I. List of standard classes and teachers; II. Remarks on the organization, as shown under Topic I.; III. Suitability of time-tables; IV. Remarks on the methods and quality of the instruction in general or in detail; V. Order and discipline, and the tone of the school with respect to diligence, alacrity, and obedience; VI. Supervision in recess; VII. Manners and general behaviour of the pupils; VIII. State of buildings, ground, and fences; IX. Sufficiency of school accommodation; X. Cleanliness and tidiness of rooms and premises, including outside offices; ventilation and warming; XI., &c. Other topics.
  • The report shall be divided into sections, and the section relating to any topic in the foregoing list shall bear the number assigned to that topic in the list. The omission of any number shall be sufficient to indicate that the Inspector does not deem it necessary to report on the topic corresponding to that number. Section I. shall in no case be omitted from the report: it shall show what "standard classes" within the meaning of Regulation 4 there are in the school, whether the standard classes are grouped in classes for instruction, and, if so, how they are grouped, and by what teacher each class is taught, describing each teacher by his position in the school as "sole teacher," "head master," "first assistant," "third-year-pupil-teacher," or as the case may be. Any section except Section I. may, if the Inspector so choose, consist of the appropriate number and of a single word, such as "satisfactory."
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3.The examination report shall show the number of pupils presented in each standard class, the number of "passes" in each standard, of failures in each class, of "exceptions" in each class, and of pupils absent from each class, the "percentage of passes, "the "percentage on class subjects," the "additional marks," and the character of the work done in classes P and S7. The terms used in this regulation shall be used in the examination report in the sense in which they are used in these regulations.
4.For the purposes of inspection and examination, but not necessarily for purposes of instruction, the pupils of every public school shall be divided into standard classes, as follows: The preparatory class shall include all pupils below Class I., and may be called Class P. Class I. shall include all the children preparing for or presented for Standard I., and may be called S1; Class II. shall include all the children preparing for or presented for Standard II., and may be called S2; and so on to Class VI. Class VII. shall include all pupils that have passed the Sixth Standard, and may be called S7. If necessary, Class P may be divided, the lower part being called PI, and the next P2. Every pupil in the school must be considered to belong to one of the classes as here defined.
5.At every standard examination the head teacher shall present all the pupils on the school roll, by giving the Inspector a list for each standard class, containing the names of all the pupils belonging to the class, and a schedule showing that the sum of the numbers of names in all the lists is identical with the number of the pupils on the school roll. Against the name of every pupil who has already passed a standard the head teacher shall enter in the class list the number of the highest standard which the pupil has passed.
6.Against the name of any pupil who, during the three quarters preceding the quarter in which the examination takes place, has been present at the school less than half the number of times of assembling of the school, the head-teacher may write the number of the attendances of such pupil during the three-quarters; and, if such pupil do not pass for the standard for which he is presented, the pupil shall not be deemed to have failed, but shall be considered "excepted," and shall be included by the Inspector in the number of "exceptions" reported.
7.In order to obtain a pass, a pupil must be present in class during the examination in the class-subjects for a standard which he has not already passed, and must satisfy the Inspector in all the pass-subjects for the same standard; except that failure in one subject (unless very serious) may be overlooked if in the judgement of the Inspector it is due to some individual peculiarity, and is not the result of the pupil's negligence or of ineffective teaching.
8.As soon as possible after the examination of a school the head-teacher shall be furnished with the names of the pupils who have passed the several standards, and shall record the passes in the Admission Register, and issue to every pupil who has passed a standard a certificate of pass in that standard; and every pupil removing from one public school to another shall be required on entering to exhibit his latest certificate to the head teacher, who shall make a record of the certificate in the Admission Register, and shall not present such pupil for examination for the standard to which such certificate relates.
9.The "percentage of passes" at every examination shall be ascertained by dividing the total number of passes by the number of pupils on the school roll, and multiplying by 100.
10.The "percentage of failures" at every examination shall be ascertained by dividing the number of failures by the number of passes fend failures taken together, and multiplying by 100.page 25
11.The Inspector shall ascertain "the percentage on class-subjects" by assigning marks for each class-subject, according to a scale ranging from 0 to 100, to express his judgment upon the quality of work done in that subject, and then calculating for all the class-subjects the mean of the marks so assigned. For the purpose of this regulation, elementary science, together with object-lessons and lessons in natural history, manufactures, and common things, shall be counted as one subject; history as one subject; geography, so far as it is a class-subject, as one subject; and drawing, so far and so long as it is a class-subject, as one. In assigning marks for any class subject the Inspector shall consider whether the subject is attended to in all the classes for which it is prescribed, and also whether it is efficiently treated.
12.The "additional marks" shall be ascertained by the Inspector, by assigning marks on a scale ranging from 0 to 20, to express his judgment of the value of the work done by the school in each of the "additional subjects," and in needlework and drill, and then adding together the marks so assigned. For the purposes of this regulation, repetition and recitation shall be reckoned as one subject, disciplinary exercises and drill as one, singing as one, needlework as one, knowledge of the subject-matter of reading-books as one, and extra drawing as one. In assigning marks for any "additional subject" the Inspector shall consider whether the subject is attended to in all the classes for which it is prescribed, and also whether it is efficiently treated.
13.Each Inspector shall make an annual return, showing with respect to each public school subject to his inspection the number of pupils presented, the number passed, the percentage of passes, the percentage of failures, the percentage on class-subjects, and the additional marks, and stating in brief, with respect to each school, its condition as to order and discipline, and as to the manners of the pupils. The Inspector shall at the same time make a return relating to the same schools and the same pupils, showing the total number of pupils presented in each of the standard classes as defined in Regulation 4, the total number passed in each standard, the total number of failures in each standard, and the total number of exceptions for each standard. It possible, the return shall include a statement of the average age of the pupils on passing each standard.
14.The standard syllabus shall not be understood to prescribe to the teacher the precise order in which the different parts of any subject shall be taught, nor to prohibit the teacher from giving instruction not prescribed by the syllabus, but shall be taken to represent only the attainments of which the inspector may expect full proof at the several stages of a pupil's progress; also it is to be understood that the examination report and inspection report, taken together, and not either of them alone, will express the Inspector's full judgment on the character and efficiency of the school.
15.In judging of the work both of individual pupils and of classes, the Inspectors shall consider the degree of intelligence displayed in the performance of the work. No reading that is not intelligent shall be allowed to count towards a pass. Knowledge of arithmetic shall be tested both by set sums and by problems, set sums being employed as a test of skill in manipulating figures, and problems as a test of the power of applying arithmetical rules to practical uses; but, except in the two highest standards, the problems must be such as to require the application of only one principle and involve only short processes. And generally Inspectors shall, in assigning marks, in awarding praise or blame, and in giving advice to teachers, bear always in mind the importance of discouraging what is merely mechanical and superficial, and fostering all that shows enthusiasm for real education and tends to the increase of mental activity.
16.The syllabus of pass-subjects, class-subjects, and additional subjects for each of the standards shall be the following:—
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Standard I.

1. Pass-8ubjects.

Reading.—Sentences composed of words of one syllable, and common words of two syllables, to be read intelligently.

Spelling.—Easy words of one syllable.

Writing.—The small letters and the ten figures, on slate, at dictation.

Arithmetic.—Counting, and oral addition by twos, threes, fours, and fives, up to 100; numeration and notation to 999; addition sums of not more than three columns; multiplication of numbers not exceeding 999 by 2, 3, 4, and 5; relative values and chief aliquot parts of current. English coins; and relative lengths of the yard, foot, and inch. [Note.—The numeration must be applied to the addition and multiplication, and the multiplication known to be a compendious method of addition.]

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18.

2. Class-subjects.

Object and Natural History Lessons.—A syllabus of the year's work done to be given to the Inspector, who will examine the class upon some object selected from the syllabus.

3. Additional Subjects.

Knowledge of the Subject Matter of the Reading Lessons.

Repetition of Easy Verses.—Syllabus and test as for object lessons.

Singing.—A sufficient number of easy and suitable songs in correct time and tune, and at a proper pitch.

Needleicork and Drill.—See Regulations 22 and 12.

Standard II.

1. Pass-subjects.

Reading.—Sentences containing words of two syllables, and easy words of more than two syllables, to be read intelligently, and the meanings (not necessarily strict definitions) of the words to be known.

Spelling.—Easy words of two syllables.

Writing.—Short words, in copy-books, not larger than round-hand. On slate: Capital letters and transcription from reading book of Standard II.

Arithmetic.—Numeration and notation of not more than six figures; addition of not more than six lines, with six figures in a line; short multiplication, and multiplication by factors not greater than 12; subtraction; division by numbers not exceeding 12, by the method of long division, and by the method of short division; mental problems adapted to this stage of progress; multiplication tables to 12 times 12; relative values and chief aliquot parts of the ton, hundredweight, quarter, stone, and pound; relative lengths of the mile, furlong, chain, and rod.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be required before the 1st January, 1887.

2. Class-subjects.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be a class-subject after the 31st December, 1886.

Geography.—Knowledge of the meaning of a map; of the principal geographical terms; and of the positions of the continents, oceans, and larger seas.

Object-lessons, and Lessons in Natural History and on Manufactures.—A syllabus, as in Standard I.

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3. Additional Subjects.

Knowledge of Subject-matter of Reading Lessons.

Repetition of Verses.—Syllabus showing progress.

Singing.—Songs as before; the places of the notes on the stave, or the symbol used for each note in the notation adopted; to sing the major diatonic scale and the successive notes of the common chord in all keys.

Needlework and Drill.—See Regulations 22 and 12.

Standard III.


Reading.—Easy reading book, to be read fluently and intelligently, with knowledge of the meanings of the words, and with due regard to the distinction of paragraphs as well as of sentences.

Spelling.—From the same book; knowledge of words having the same or nearly the same sound, but differing in meaning; dictation of easy sentences from the reading-book of a lower standard.

Writing.—Longer words and sentences, not larger than round-hand; transcription from the reading-book of Standard III., with due regard to punctuation and quotation marks.

Arithmetic.—Numeration and notation generally (one billion being taken as the second power of one million, one trillion the third power, and so on); long multiplication and long division; the four money rules, excepting long multiplication of money; tables of money, avoirdupois weight, and long measure; and easy money problems in mental arithmetic.

Grammar and Composition.—The distinguishing of the nouns, verbs, adjectives articles, and pronouns in easy sentences; and very simple exercises in composition, to test the pupil's power of putting his own thoughts on familiar subjects into words. The more difficult pronouns (as the indefinite and distributive) are not to be used as tests of knowledge in this standard, but the children should be able to recognise as a pronoun any personal, possessive, or demonstrative pronoun, whether used as a substantive or as an adjective.

Geography.—The names and positions of the chief towns of New Zealand; the principal features of the district in which the school is situated; names and positions of Australian Colonies and their capitals; of the countries and capitals of Europe; of mountains forming the water-sheds of continental areas; and of celebrated rivers.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be required before the 1st January, 1888.

2. Class-subjects.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be a class-subject after the 31st December, 1887.

English History.—Knowledge of the chronological order in which the following periods stand: Roman, Saxon, Norman, Plantagenet, Tudor, Stuart, Brunswick; and of a few of the most striking facts and incidents illustrating the life of the several periods. The selection of facts and incidents will be left to the teacher; and the Iuspector will adapt the examination as far as possible to the teacher's programme of lessons or other indication of the work done.

Knowledge of Common Things.—A syllabus as for object lessons in the former standards.

3. Additional Subjects.

The Subject Matter of the Reading Lessons.

Repetition of Verses.—Syllabus showing progress.

Singing.—Easy exercises on the common chord and the interval of a second, in common time and in 4 time, not involving the use of dotted notes; use of the signs p., f., cres.t dim., rall., and their equivalents; songs as before, or in common with the upper part of the school.

Needlework and Drill.—See Regulations 22 and 12.

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Standard IV.

1. Pass-subjects.

Readirg and Definition.—An easy book of prose and verse.

Spelling and Dictation suited to this stage, as represented by the reading book in use; the dictation to exhibit a knowledge of the use of capitals and of punctuation, but (at inspection) to be confined to prose.

Writing.—Good copies in a hand not larger than round-hand, and transcription of poetry.

Arithmetic.—Long multiplication of money; reduction of money, weights and measures; the compound rules applied to problems in weights and measures; practice, and the making out of bills of accounts and receipts; tables of money, weights and measures; mental arithmetic to correspond. The weights and measures for this standard are: avoirdupois weight, troy weight, long measure, square measure, measures of capacity and time, and angular measure.

Grammar and Composition.—The distinguishing of all the parts of speech in easy sentences; the inflections of the noun, adjective, and pronoun; letter-writing on prescribed subjects; the addressing of letters and envelopes.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be required before the 1st January, 1889.

2. Class-subjects.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be a class-subject after the 31st December, 1888.

Geography.—Names and positions of the countries of the world, with their capitals, and of the principal seas, gulfs, mountains, rivers, lakes, capes, straits, islands, and peninsulas on the map of the world; geography of Australia in outline; and the drawing of rough maps of New Zealand, with such one set of principal features (as capes, or towns, or rivers) as the Inspector may require. [In this and the subsequent standards, scholars will be expected to know the situation of places mentioned in their reading-books.]

English History.—The succession of Houses and Sovereigns from 1066 A.D. to 1485 A.D., and the leading events of the period known in connection with the reigns and centuries to which they belong, and in their own character. [Precise dates will not be required, though a knowledge of them may assist in referring each event to the proper reign.]

Elementary Science.—As prescribed in Regulation 19.

3. Additional Subjects.

Recitation.—A list of pieces learnt, and one piece (or more) specially prepared for the examination.

Singing.—Easy exercise on the chords of the dominant and sub-dominant, and in the intervals prescribed for Standard III.; exercises in triple time; use of dotted notes; melodies, rounds, and part songs in common with the higher standards. [Note.—It will suffice if this class take the air of the songs, while the other parts are sung by the more advanced classes, and it may be useful to let older scholars lead the parts in a round.]

Needlework and Drill.—See Regulations 22 and 12.

Extra Drawing.—See Regulation 18.

Standard V.

1. Pass-subjects.

Reading and Definition.—A book of general information, not necessarily excluding matter such as that prescribed for Standard IV.

Spelling and Dictation suited to this stage.

Writing.—Small-hand copies in a strict formal style, and text-hand; transcription of verse in complicated metres, and of prose exhibiting the niceties of punctuation.

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Arithmetic.—Proportion; simple interest; the easier eases of vulgar fractions, and problems involving them; mental arithmetic.

Grammar and Composition.—Inflexions of the verb; the parsing (with inflexions) of all the words in any easy sentence; a short essay or letter on a familiar subject, or the rendering of the sense of a passage of easy verse into good pros:?; analysis of a simple sentence.

Geography.—Names and positions of places of political, historical, and commercial importance in New Zealand, in Great Britain, and on the European Continent; and the drawing of outline maps of New Zealand, Great Britain, and Ireland. Physical Geography: Distribution of land and water; mountain and river systems. Mathematical Geography: The form of the earth, day and night, the seasons, the zones, meridians, and parallels, and climate in this connection.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be required before the 1st January, 1890.

2. Class-subjects.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be a class-subject, after the 31st December, 1889.

English History.—The period from 1485 A.D. to 1714 A.D. treated as the former period is treated in Standard IV.

Elementary Science.—See Regulation 19.

3. Additional Subjects.

Recitation.—Of a higher order than for Standard IV.

Singing.—More difficult exercises in time and tune; strict attention to expression marks.

Needlework and Drill.—See Regulations 22 and 12.

Extra Drawing.—See Regulation 18.

Standard VI.

1. Pass-subjects.

Reading.—A book containing extracts from general literature.

Spelling and Dictation suited to this stage.

Writing.—The copying of tabulated matter, showing bold head-lines, and marking distinctions such as in letterpress require varieties of type (e.g., the copying of these printed standards, or of a catalogue showing division into groups).

Arithmetic.—Vulgar and decimal fractions; interest and other commercial rules, such as discount, stocks, partnership, and exchange; the metric system of weights and measures, and calculations with pound, florin, cent, and mil; square root, and simple cases of mensuration of surfaces; mental arithmetic generally.

Grammar and Composition.—Complete parsing (including syntax) of simple and compound sentences; prefixes and affixes, and a few of the more important Latin and Greek roots, illustrated by a part of the reading books; essay or letter; analysis of easy complex sentences.

Geography.—Names and positions of places of political, historical, and commercial importance in Asia, North America, and the British possessions. Physical Geography: Atmospheric phenomena, winds, rain, ice; climate as affected by mountain, plain, and sea; distribution of the animals and plants of greatest value to man.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be required before the 1st January, 1891.

2. Class-subjects.

Drawing.—As defined in Regulation 18, but not to be a class-subject after the 31st December, 1890.

English History.—The succession of Houses and Sovereigns, and the leading events of each reign, from 1485 a.d. to the present (precise dates not required); also the elements of social economy, that is to say, very elementary knowledge of such subjects as government, law, citizenship, labour, capital, money, and banking.

Elementary Science.—See Regulation 19.

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3. Additional Subjects.

Recitation.—As for Standard V.

Singing.—As for Standard V.

Needlework and Drill.—See Regulations 22 and 12.

Extra Drawing.—See Regulation 18.

17. In any one year Classes S4 and S5 may be taught and examined together in the history prescribed for Standard V., but, in that case, in the next year S4 and S5 must be taught and examined in the history prescribed for Standard IV. Similarly in any year S4 may be taught and examined with S5 in the geography prescribed for Standard V., except that S4 will not have to pass in mathematical and physical geography, nor to draw other maps than those prescribed for Standard IV.; but, in that case, in the next year S5 must substitute, for geography of New Zealand, Great Britain, and the European Continent, the general geography of the world and Australia prescribed for Standard IV.

18. The drawing required as a pass-subject or temporarily as a class-subject for the several standards shall be as follows:—

Standard I. Straight lines of different lengths and in different positions, such lines joined at different angles, and connected to form simple figures and designs. This work is to be done without ruler.

Standard II. Similar work of a more advanced character.

Standard III. Freehand drawing of regular forms and curved figures from the flat.

Standard IV. Freehand drawing from the flat, and from simple rectangular and circular models. Drawing to scale. Simple geometrical figures with rules and instruments.

Standard V. The same as IV., with the addition of easy common objects. Plans and elevations of plane figures and rectangular solids in simple positions. Simple scales.

Standard VI. The same as V., but of greater difficulty and including sections.

These definitions may be clearly illustrated by a series of drawing-books to be issued by authority of the Minister of Education, and any drawing-book issued by such authority shall be an authoritative example of the kind of work required by this regulation.

[Note.—The pupils should be taught as early as possible to draw from actual objects, such as the doors, windows, furniture, and apparatus of the schoolroom.]

Drawing may be taught as an "additional subject" for any standard higher than Standard III. Such drawing for any standard may be the drawing prescribed for a higher standard, or some drawing not prescribed as a pass subject.

19. The instruction in elementary science for Standards IV., V., and VI. shall be based on a programme, which shall be prepared by the head-teacher, to show the distribution of the subject over a three-years' course of lessons. The programme must include such elementary knowledge of physics, and such a conception of chemical action as may be imparted by the proper use of Professor Bickerton's "Materials for Lessons in Elementary Science," and must also include instruction in elementary mechanics, or in such elementary physiology as may be learnt from Mrs Buckton's "Health in the House," or in botany, or some other subject recognised by the Inspector as equivalent to one of these; provided, however, that if agricultural chemistry be efficiently taught, no other elementary science shall be required for these standards.

20. The object-lessons, and lessons on natural history, manufactures, and common things, for Standards I., II., and III., are intended as an introduction to the elementary science lessons for the higher standards. Classes S1 and S2, or S1, S2 and S3, may be taught and examined together in these subjects if the programme of lessons is varied from year to year so that on the whole the work prescribed for page 31 two or three classes shall be done in two or three years as the case may be; or S3 may be instructed in elementary science with any higher class, and even Si and S2 may, instead of receiving lessons on objects, &c., be instructed in the elementary science prescribed for the higher standards, if the instruction in elementary science is oral, illustrative, and experimental, and is, in the teacher's judgment, adapted to the capacity of the lower classes and fitted to promote the development of their faculties.

21. Any order of instruction in singing other than that prescribed in the standards will be recognised as of equivalent value if the result be good singing, sufficient theoretical knowledge, and careful training of the lower classes, as well as the higher.

22. All the girls in any public school in which there is a mistress or assistant mistress shall learn needlework, and, if the Inspector is satisfied that the instruction in this subject is thoroughly systematic and efficient, he may judge all other work done by the girls more leniently than that done by the boys in such a degree as would be implied in reducing by 10 per cent, the minimum marks required for any examination pass. To secure full approval, the needlework of the several classes must be according to the following programme:—

S1. Threading needles and hemming. (Illustration of work: Strips of calico or a plain pocket-handkerchief).

S2. The foregoing, and felling, and fixing a hem. (Illustration: A child's pinafore.)

S3. The foregoing and stitching, sewing on strings, and fixing all work up to this stage. (A pillow-case, or woman's plain shift, without bands or gathers.)

S4. The foregoing, and button-holing, sewing on buttons, stroking, setting in gathers, plain darning and fixing. (A plain day or night shirt.)

S5. The foregoing, and whipping, a tuck run, sewing on frill, and gathering. (A night-dress with frills.)

S6. Cutting out any plain garment and fixing it for a junior class; darning stockings (fine and coarse) in worsted or cotton; grafting; darning fine linen or calioo; patching the same; darning and patching fine diaper.

If knitting is learnt it shall be in the following order: A strip of plain knitting; knitted muffatees, ribbed; a plain-knitted child's sock; a long-ribbed stocking.

23. In case of any misunderstanding arising as to the meaning of any part of these regulations, the Minister of Education may declare what is to be taken as the meaning, and his interpretation shall be binding upon all persons to whom it is comunicated, and shall, if declared by publication in the New Zealand Gazette, have equal force with these regulations.

24. Standard IV. as defined in these regulations shall be the standard of Education prescribed under "The Education Act, 1877," section 90, subsection 4.

25. These regulations shall come into force on the first day of January, 1886, and shall supersede all former regulations relating to the inspection and examination of schools.

Printed at the "Lyttelton Times" Office, Gloucester street, Christchurch.