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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 30

Syllabus of Lectures

page 16

Syllabus of Lectures.


Materials—how to select and use them. Paper, pencils, Indiarubber. Sepia and brushes.

Method of sketching. Difference between drawing on a table or desk and on a blackboard or easel. The hand and its action compared with the arm. Dotted lines to be avoided in sketching. The use of indiarubber. Lead pencil suitable for first practice. Soft pencils preferable to hard.

Lining in—its object. Value of water colour as a medium for lining in, compared with lead pencil. Method of laying a flat tint over a drawing.

Systematic study. Importance of Analysis in Freehand. Stages in the progress of a drawing. Primary lines and masses—these frequently difficult to determine—their connection with the form. Blocking out as distinguished from squaring. Secondary forms as related to the whole drawing. Third and succeeding stages — details and their relation to each other—analysis of detail—forms issuing from forms. Illustration of these principles by examples from Jacohsthal and Meurer. The Colonial Drawing Book, specially prepared to secure a systematic method of instruction. Symmetrical, compared with non-symmetrical work as a means of training the eye. Practical Plane Geometry and its value in Freehand drawing. Appreciation of form. The preparation of Freehand examples. The value of different examples in teaching.

Practical Plane and Solid Geometry.

Practical Geometry and its connection with an art training.

Instruments—how to select and use them.

page 17

Plane Geometry. — Definitions:—Lines, Angles, Triangles, Quadrangles, Polygons, the Circle and Ellipse.

The division of Lines and Angles.

Trilateral Figures:—Equilateral, Isosceles, Scalene. Right, Acute, and Obtuse Angled Triangles, their construction from given sides, angles, and dimensions.

Quadrangles:—The Square, Rectangle, Rhombus, Rhomboid, and Trapezia, their construction from given sides, angles, and dimensions.

Polygons:—their construction from given sides, angles, and dimensions. Inscribed and described rectilineal figures.

Proportion and area.

The Circle:—inscribed and circumscribed rectilineal figures.

The Ellipse:—different methods of construction. Tangents and perpendiculars.

Solid Geometry.—Definitions of Elementary Solids:—The Cube, Prism, Pyramid, Sphere, Cylinder, and Cone.

Planes of projection. Plans, Elevations, and Sections.

Given the projection of a solid in either plane to find its projection in the other plane. Vertical and Horizontal Sections.

The Circle and its projection applied to the cylinder, cone, and sphere.

Elementary Perspective.

Definitions:—The Spectator or Station point. Line of Direction. Plane of Dilineation. Centre of Vision. Structure of the eye. Facts connected with Vision. The Cone of Rays or field of Vision. Horizontal and Ground Lines.

Perspective representation obtained by plan and elevation—this insufficient for the art student; its value in proving the rule for finding Vanishing and Measuring Points.

To find a point on the Ground Plane, given its position within the picture. Vertical and Horizontal planes in perspective. Line of heights.

page 18

Representation of Lines and Solids in a plane parallel with the ground.

Rectangular Solids—The Cube, Plinths, Prisms, and Pyramids.

Polygonal Solids; truncated pyramids.

The Circle parallel and perpendicular with the ground. Cylindrical and conical solids.

Solids combining curved and right lines. Solids in relation to each other.

Given the plan and elevation of any solid to find its perspective representation.

Given the perspective representation of three or more points, to find the length of the lines joining them, and the degrees in each angle, (a) when the points are on the ground plane, (b) when the points are in space.

Advanced Perspective.

Perspective of Interiors. Representation of lines and solids.

a.In a plane perpendicular to the ground at an angle with the picture;
b.In a plane perpendicular to the picture at an angle with the ground;
c.In a plane which ascends or descends directly from the picture;
d.In any plane inclined obliquely upwards or downwards.

Shadows.—Sunlight—when the sun lies in the plane of the picture—behind or in front of the picture plane—in a vertical plane perpendicular to it or at an angle with it. Shadows on two planes—horizontal and vertical—oblique planes. Shadows cast on curved surfaces. Shadows by a curved surface on two planes—on curved surfaces. Shadow cast by a sphere.

Artificial Light.—Interiors, one light—two or more lights on planes at any angle.

Reflections.—Angle of incidence and reflection. Point of incidence. Horizontal reflecting planes—still water. Vertical reflecting planes—perpendicular, parallel, or at an angle with the picture, lnclined reflecting planes at any angle with the picture.

page 19

Light and Shade. Colour.

Light and Shade.—Materials used to represent it—pencil, chalk, charcoal—water colour and oil. Different methods of work.

Shadow and reflected light. High light and half tints. Tone. Breadth of light and shade.

Importance of shadows as to form and proportion.

Colour.—General considerations. Primary, secondary, and tertiary colours. Shades, tints, and hues.

Contrast and harmony. Qualities of colour—warm and cold—advancing and retiring.

Local colour. Influence of light and shadow. Colour of shadows.

Characteristics and selection of colours for water-colour and oil painting. Brushes and implements.

Hints on study and manipulation.

Model Drawing. Drawing from the Cast Composition of Line.

Model Drawing.—Position of the model with reference to the Student. Line of Direction and Picture Plane. Facts connected with vision. Education of the eye.

Means for determining the direction of a line, and its angle with another—plumb line and level.

Conditions under which parallel lines appear parallel. Convergance of parallel lines, whether horizontal, ascending, or descending.

The geometry of solids. Method of building up a model drawing. Measuring the apparent length of lines and surfaces. Model drawing and its relation to Landscape.

page 20

Circular Models. Foreshortening of circles at the same or different levels on a common axis, when vertical, horizontal, or inclined. Cylinders, vases, &c.

Drawing from the Cast—compared with drawing from flat examples, and from models.

Relief. Position of the eye with reference to the cast. Importance of keeping the same position during the progress of a drawing from a cast in high relief—how this may be done.

Relation of one part to the other. Difference between model drawing and drawing from the cast in this respect.

Examples of ornament and figure work.

Composition of Line—illustrated by natural objects. Contrast. Conventional ornament. Grouping of forms and the arrangement of lines in design. Radiation of line. Drapery. Panels from the Ghiberti Gates.

Plant Form.

Fresh specimens of the plant required for each Lecture must be provided by the students.

Position of the plant in the Vegetable Kingdom—Natural Order.

The Stem, its form and branching. Leaves—their venation and margin, simple and compound leaves. The leaf stalk and its insertion. Sessile leaves. Stipules, spines and tendrils.

The leaf and flower bud partly expanded. The fully expanded flower, its petals and sepals; relation of the calyx and corolla. Filaments and anthers. The fruit and seed.

Sketching flowers and foliage from Nature. Relation of the flowers and leaves to the stem. Pose of the plant and leaves.

Linear perspective applied to sketching flowers and foliage. Aerial perspective and its value in outline drawing.

page 21

Design and Historic Ornament.

Design—constructive and ornamental.

Constructive Design.—Technical knowledge required. Elementary facts connected with mechanics. Nature of the materials used.

The relation of constructive and ornamental design as illustrated by Furniture, Earthenware, Glass, and Metal work.

Suitability of material. Fitness of form. Quality of workmanship. Hand-made and machine-made work.

Ornamental Design—its nature and character. Work of Savage tribes—New Zealand, Fiji, Sandwich, and Friendly Islands, as illustrating unconscious intelligence in design.

Principles of Ornamental Art.

Equal distribution. Symmetry. Repetition. Variety. Contrast. Composition of line. Radiation. Tangential composition. The Anthemion.

Elements of Ornament.

1.Geometrical forms.—Straight lines. Frets, interlaced patterns, square and lozenge diapers. The circle, spiral and volute.
2.Vegetable forms—Foliage. The Acanthus as illustrating the principles of Ornamental Art. Flowers—the rosette.
3.Objects.—Shields, Medallions, Masks, Vases, Labels, and Ribbons.
4.Animal forms.—Shells, Horns, Dolphins, Birds, Griffins, Lions. Parts of these combined with foliage and other ornamental forms.
5.The Human Figure—combined with other ornament—symmetrically disposed. Compositions of the Figure without or with background.

The proper distribution of Ornament. Power of ornament to express feelings and ideas.

Historic Ornament.

Ornament of Savage tribes—Tatooing, Stamping, and Weaving. Carving. Geometrical patterns, interlacing. Curved forms. The Human Figure. Clubs and paddles.

page 22

Egyptian ornament—its symbolism. The Lotus and Papyrus. The Palm branch. Plaited patterns, mats. The fret. Carving and painting. Colours used by the Egyptians.

Assyrian and Persian ornament—its origin. Bas-relief. Painted ornaments, bricks, and pavements. Colours used. Sacred trees, the pine-apple. Sculptured ornaments, pilasters.

Greek ornament—purely aesthetic. Forms derived from Egypt and Assyria. Conventional rendering. Representative forms. The zig-zag, wave scroll, and fret. The Echinus and Anthemion. Greek pottery.

Roman Ornament—an elaboration of the Greek. The scroll and acanthus. Animals and the Human form in Roman ornament.

Byzantine Ornament—its character. Symbolic forms—the lily, cross, and serpent. The Trefoil and Quatrefoil. Painting and sculpture. Mosaics. Development of antique types. Delicacy of treatment.

Arabian Ornament. Governing principle of Mahometan decoration, and circumstances favouring its development. Absence of symbolism and the exclusion of natural forms. Geometrical symmetry. Moresque ornament, its equal distribution, radiation, and continuity of line. Technical methods of decoration. Colouring of the Moors as illustrating fixed principles.

Romanesque Ornament. Imitation of Antique art. Human and Animal forms. Tracery. Painting on glass. Enamelling.

Gothic Ornament—its conventional character. Symbolism. The use of foliage, animals, and the human figure. Early English, its harmony with structural features. Tracery. Ornament of the Decorated period compared with Early English. Undue elaboration. Its defects and decline.

Renaissance Ornament—its origin and development. Scroll work and interlacings. Revival of classic forms. Arabesques and scroll. Painted and carved panels. Natural and conventional decoration of the Sixteenth century. Sculpture and painting. The Rococo style. False principles of decoration. Ornament of the present century.