The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 6
I.—Paper from Barks
I.—Paper from Barks.
1. Eucalyptus Obliqua: L' Herit.—The Stringybark Eucalypt of Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.—The paper prepared from the bark of this tree is not merely suited for packing, but also for printing, and even writing. It may also be employed for mill and paste boards. The pulp bleaches readily. I regard it as the most important material drawn on this occasion into use, for be it remembered that this tree covers many of the barren ranges from St. Vincent's Gulf to Gipps-land, and that it equally abounds in Tasmania. Its bark, as is well known, is extremely thick and bulky; it moreover separates with the utmost facility, and is hence universally used for thatching rural dwellings in or near the ranges. Indeed, the supply is available by millions of tons. It has been argued that sad inroads would be made into our forests by turning this material as indicated to account; but even the bark left unutilised by the splitters would furnish an enormous supply; and if the sacrifice of small portions of widely-extended forests were brought within page 30 judicious limits by legislative enactments, possibly not any injury could occur; while indeed at present the annually more or less extensive conflagrations of the Stringy bark forests destroy an infinitely larger number of trees, than ever could sink under the axe of settlers scattered through the mountains. The area within Victoria alone wooded almost exclusively with Stringy bark forest extends over many thousand square miles, generally as yet without any habitations. Allied trees, likewise with thick, fibrous bark, occur in West Australia, Queensland, and North Australia, though not so extensively. Other bark may be similarly converted into paper. The whole thick stratum of the bark was employed. It yields readily to mechanical appliances on account of its lax and loose texture, and is also easily acted on by caustic soda for conversion into pulp.
2. Eucalyptus Rostrata: Schlechtendal.—The Red Gumtree of South-Australia and Victoria (but not of West Australia).—The paper prepared from the bark of this tree proves much coarser than that of the Eucalyptus obliqua; the pulp may be either used as admixture to that of packing paper and pasteboards, or in the composition, or perhaps as sole ingredient, for blotting and filtering paper. The species ranges nearly over the whole Australian continent along river flats.
3. Eucalyptus Amygdalina: Labillardière.—One of the so-called Peppermint-trees, more oily in its foliage than any of its congeners. It extends through the southern and eastern parts of Victoria, the whole of Tasmania, and the southern parts of New South Wales. The inner bark is adapted for the preparation of all kinds of coarser paper.
4. Eucalyptus Globulus: Labillardière—The well-known Blue Gumtree of Victoria and Tasmania.—Paper prepared from the bark of this tree answers for packing and perhaps for printing.
5. Eucaylptus Goniocalyx: Ferd. Mueller—One of the White Gum-trees, called in some districts the Spotted Gumtree.—It is confined to the more fertile ranges of Victoria and the south of New South Wales. The foliage is rich in volatile oil. The bark yields a good packing paper, but hardly material for any good writing paper.
6. Eucalyptus Corymbosa: Smith—The Bloodwood-tree of East Australia.—Occurs from the southern part of Queensland to the eastern part of Gippsland. The paper from the bark of this Eucalypt is remarkable for its great firmness. It makes thus a very strong wrapping paper.
7. Eucalyptus Leucoxylon: Ferd. Mueller.—This tree passes in various districts under varied names—for instance, it is the White Gumtree of St. Vincent's Gulf, the spurious Ironbark-tree of some parts of Victoria, and the Mountain Ash and Ironbark-tree of parts of New South Wales. The bark can be converted into rough packing paper.
8. Eucalyptus Longifolia: Link.—The Woollybutt of New South Wales and Gippsland.—The fibre of the bark again adapted for packing paper.
9. Eucalyptus Stuartiana: Ferd. Mueller.—One of the White Gumtrees of the eastern parts of South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and the south of New South Wales. Called, strange to say, the Appletree, about Dandenong; the Water Gumtree of Tasmania may belong to the same species; it is designated locally with still other names. The bark of this often very big tree furnishes again good material for packing paper, and like others, for pasteboard.
10. Acacia penninervis: Sieber.—A tree, not of very large size, extending from South Queensland through New South Wales to East Victoria; of page 31 rather rare occurrence in Tasmania. The bark of this acacia was chosen merely to demonstrate, that also from the bark of very many species of this great genus a rough kind of packing paper can be produced.
11. Melaleuca ericifolia: Smith.—The so-called Swamp-Teatree. Universal in inundated places and stagnant waters, both of the littoral and mountain tracts of south-east Australia and Tasmania. The friable lamellar bark can be converted into an excellent blotting paper—perhaps, also, filtering paper. It is worthy of record that many species of this genus yield a very similar bark, formed of innumerable membranous layers. The most gigantic species of the genus Melaleuca leucodendron, which is common in South Asia and tropical Australia, exhibits such a bark, which thus may be turned to account.