History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand, prior to 1840
Hao-Whenua. — 1834
In the fighting that occurred at this period both sides were well armed with muskets. Rangi-pito says, "Then the enemy in their thousands advanced against Ati-Awa in their pa at Hao-whenua, but Te Rau-paraha remained in his pa at Otaki, whilst Ngati-Rau-kawa and Waikato advanced to the attack—he was afraid of Waikato, kei apititia mo nga he o mua—(lest he should be killed on account of his former evil deeds against that tribe). So the ope came on to Hao-whenua page 518full of bravado and anxious to exterminate Ati-Awa and their allied tribes—Taranaki and Ngati-Rua-nui. The pa was held by the chiefs Tu-whata (Hone), Huri-whenua, Te Hau-te-horo, Raua-ki-tua, Rere-tawhangawhanga, Rangi-wahia, Tau-tara, Te Tupe-o-Tu, Te Manu-toheroa, and others. It was a very large pa, palisaded with pekerangi (the lower line) and kiri-tangata (the upper and inner line), about two miles long (sic.) On the arrival oil the enemy before the pa, three ngohi, or companies, were sent out by the pa to meet them, each two hundred men topu (four hundred), under Hone Tu-whata, Te Ua-piki, Rero-tawhangawhanga, and Huri-whenua as leaders. So they went forth, and were given over to death by the guns (ka tukua ratou katoa hei ngaunga ma te pa). As they went forth, those divisions under Hone and Te Ua-piki led the advance—the other two remaining in the rear as a whakahoki,* or support. Then the enemy fled, followed by Hone's party. After watching his advance for some time, the two other ngohi gave chase also as a support—for by that time they knew it was a real retreat and not a feint. They only followed the enemy as far as a swamp, however; and from there the enemy returned to their punis, or camps. The first attack on Hao-whenua was at an end, and the victory lay with Ati-Awa.
"The following day the enemy returned. They advanced by way of Pahiko, which is the same place as Muka-kai, a place on the south side of Hao-whenua, where Hau-te-horo and Te Tupe-o-Tu were posted with a small party of Te Ati-Awa. The enemy fell on them and killed most of them. This event occurred early in the morning. Ati-Awa only got one man in payment for these deaths—one Kuri, of Taupo, who was shot by Te Whaiaipo. Te Tupe-o-Tu was shot by Puke-rua of Ngati-Mania-poto. Then the enemy came on towards the sea-shore, where they fell across a party of women belonging to Ati-Awa, who were bringing food to the pa; many of these were killed, whilst several escaped to their friends—na tana kaha ki te tahuti ka ora ai etahi—(by their powers of running did several escape). This occurred on the beach at a place named Te Mahia, which was not far from Hao-whenua pa. the enemy got on all sides and enclosed them, as it were. This event occurred in the forenoon.
* If the hunuhunu or advance party, were driven back, then the matua, or main party, served us a whakahoki (to return, or, in fact, as a support), and they would then join in the advance. If any evil omen had occurred to the [gap — reason: illegible] such as a kohera (when the leading men turned to the left by mistake after he had cast the spear of defiance at the enemy), then would the people say, "E" He tai tahae! Unnhia!"—("Ah! There is the devil to pay! Withdraw! (free translation) and advance no further!"
"Then the enemy came on towards Hao-whenua, when Ati-Awa went forth in force from the pa to stop them. The two parties met about a mile distant from the pa, when the firing commenced. About noon they came to close quarters, and here Papaka—younger brother of Te Heuheu of Taupo—fell, shot in the forehead (by Te Naeroa, says old Taiata of Ngati-Tama, and his death squared that of Te Tupe-o-Tu). The Ngati-Tu-whare-toa, the Ngati-Mania-poto, and Ngati-Rau-kawa (the two first the allies from the north) suffered severely in this engagement—toto ana i te ngaunga a te pu—(the ground was covered with blood through 'the biting' of the guns). The enemy then retreated, carrying off Papaka's body with them, but leaving the rest of their dead lying in heaps on the battlefield. There were no other men of consequence who fell there besides Papaka (kaore he ingoa a roto i a ratou).
"The enemy retreated under the cover of night, for evening had come by the time the fighting had ceased—it was in the month of March—lest they should be seen by Ati-Awa, who had remained watching on the battlefield, but did not follow the retreating enemy. The following is the order in which the Ati-Awa allies remained on the field:—Ngati-Tama, nearest the sea; then inland of them the sub-tribe Kai-tangata; then Puke-tapu; then Manu-korihi; then Otaraua; then Ngati-Rahiri; then Nga-Motu; then Ngati-Mutunga. After some time, finding the enemy did not return, they all went back to the pa at Hao-whenua, for they did not care to follow up the enemy in the dark for fear of ambushes. The enemy retired to Pahiko, and thence to their punis (camps) at Otaki, where was Te Heuheu, the head chief of Taupo lake, to whom was shown the dead body of his brother Papaka, who had been persuaded to join in this affair by his elder brother. No one equalled Papaka in arrogance; he was a fine, handsome man of great personal attractions and of an aristocratic bearing. Te Heuheu was much cut up at the death of his brother, and proceeded to lament his death in the following tangi:—
Taku tirotiro noa i te hono tatai,
Ka wehe koe i ahau!
Te murau a te tini—
Te wenerau a te mano.
Taku manu tioriori
Mo nga hau kopanga-rua ki te tonga
Ko Te Tupe-o-Tu, ko Hau-to-horo
Ka whakairi te toa.
Rangahau atu ra
Nga titahatanga ki Pahiko
He kauterenga nui na koutou
page 520 Nga taumata i Te Horo
E whakamakuru ana ko aitua tonu
Ko Tiki raua ko Te Toa,
Ko whana-ihu, ko whana-rac
Ko te tama i aitia
E tera wahine, e tera tangata
I whakatutuki ana
I nga waitete a Tu-matauenga.
Taku whatiwhati-ki ka riro,
Tuku poroporo tu ki te hamuti
Taku wai whakatahetahe,
Ki te kauhanga riri.
He unuhanga a toa.
He rutunga patu,
Na koutou ko ou matua
Ki te one i Purua
Ka whakina atu ra,
Kia whana ai ou ringaringa,
Kia hokai ai ou waewai,
Hare ra, E Pa!
I nga tai whakarewa kauri,
Ki te uru,
Tutanga pononga e, roto i a au,
Kei te aha to hara?
Kei nga hara tata nunui,
Kei o hianga i tuku atu ai,
Ka moe koe i te kino,
To continue Rangi-pito's narrative:—"Ngati-Rau-kawa, Waikato and their allies now remained in their camp considering what they should do. It was finally decided to proceed against Te Kenakena (a place near the mouth of the Wai-kanae stream, and close to a little lake thero now—1897—covered by the sand hills), which was occupied by that branch of Ngati-Toa under the chieftainship of Te Hiko-o-te-rangi, son of Te Pehi Kupe who was killed at Kai-apohia, South Island, in 1830. This branch of Ngati-Toa had divided off from those under Te Rau-paraha, because of the relationships of Te Hiko-o-te-rangi's mother to Ati-Awa.
"In the morning the toro, or scouts, went forth from Te Kenakena pa, and discovered the advancing enemy" (who apparently had slipped past Hao-whenua in the dark); "but nothing came of this just then—the fight commenced later in the morning, and continued until the afternoon. During this engagement, AVaikato made a dash at Ngati-Toa (under Te Hiko), who were sent reeling backwards in page 521confusion, but none were hurt. As they retired they carried their guns at the trail (raparapa toia te pu). They fell back on the main body of Puke-tapu, Manu-korihi and Nga-Motu" (who had apparently came to assistance of Te Hiko'). "Then Ati-Awa charged down on the enemy, and Ngati-Mania-poto, Waikato and Ngati-Tu-whare-toa wore worsted in the fight and fled right away.
"Meanwhile Hone Tu-whata and Te Ua-piki were ongaged with Ngati-Rau-kawa. Ruru of the latter tribe distinguished himself by flourishing about with his tomahawk; Rakatau and Hakaraia (of Ati-Awa) both fired at him, but missed him, being too excited to take aim. In this affair Waikato and their allies were on one side of a hill, and Ngati-Rau-kawa on the other facing Wai-kanae. Hone and his party of Ati-Awa repulsed Ngati-Rau-kawa. These fights all took place on the same day, and on the following came the peacemaking by Nini.
"Nini was a high chief of Ngati-Tipa, of Waikato Heads, and had come down with the Waikato party to help Ngati-Rau-kawa in their distress. After the defeat of that tribe and their Waikato allies, they came to the conclusion it would be well to make peace." After all, though both sides had scored against the other, Ati-Awa were getting the best of it. " It was now arranged that overtures should be made, and with that view Nini was despatched to Hao-whenua to open the negotiations. On his arrival the usual feast was given by Ati-Awa, and numerous speeches made. Then Nini declared his errand, which was favourably received by Ati-Awa and their allies. Nini requested that some one of rank should accompany him back to the Ngati-Rau-kawa stronghold to set on foot the negotiations. So Te Patu-kokeno (son of Te Manu-toheroa of Puketapu) accompanied Nini on his return. After this thirty chiefs of Ngati-Rau-kawa and their allies returned to Waikanae, where many speeches were made, and the peace concluded. Nini declared this should be an enduring peace; his final words to Ati-Awa on leaving were, ' Hei konei, E Ati-Awa! E kore au e hoki mai. Ki te tae mai he iwi hei patu i a hoe—ka mate.'—('Farewell, O Ati-Awa! I will not return. If any tribe comes to make war on you, they will die').* On Nini's return home to Waikato Heads his father, Kukutai, approved his action.
* Te Whetu told me that after leaving the Hao-whenua pa, Nini advised that the emissaries should return by the inland road; but Ngati-Rau-kawa insisted on going by the beach, where they fell into an ambush and some were killed. This was at a hillock called Taranaki. But it requires explanation, after a peace just made.
"This peace was not ever broken by Ati-Awa; but Ngati-Rau-kawa trod on it by attacking Ati-Awa at Te Kuititanga in October, 1839 (see Chapter XX.); and the Taupo people did the same against Ngati-Rua-nui at Patoka in 1841.
"It was shortly after Hao-whenua that the bulk of us (Ati-Awa) moved over to Port Nicholson to join our relatives there."