History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand, prior to 1840
Kiki-Whenua and Maru. — 1826
Kiki-Whenua and Maru.
* Taimona was his later name.
* We shall see one of the results of this slavery at the taking of Puke-rangi-ora in 1832.
"Waikato were many days hunting our people, and at last finding that no more were to be found retired to the coast, and thence back to their own country, taking with them numberless prisoners. Waikato did not proceed further south on this occasion."
Te Awa-i-taia, however, who was with the Waikatos, says (A.H.M., Vol. VI., p. 5) after the occurrences at Maru that the remnant of Taranaki fled to O-rangi-tuapeka and Wax-mate pas (three miles south-east of the town of Manaia, on the coast), which were taken by Waikato, after which they went in pursuit of Te Hana-taua of Ngati-Rua-nui (by whose advice Te Karawa had been killed—an incident that gave rise to this expedition of Waikato and Ati-Awa). But they did not succeed in catching him. The party then went on to Wai-totara and fell upon the people there, many of whom were killed, whilst Waikato lost Tupuna, Te-Uru-korari, and Te Ahiahi. This avenged the death of Te Karawa, nephew of Raua-ki-tua, and after that Waikato returned to their homes. This is corroborated by Wi Karewa of Ati-Awa, who says that Waikato took O-rangi-tuapeka on this occasion, and Ngati-Rua-nui lost the chiefs Te Pewa and Te Ahuru. W. Karewa adds, "One of the principal chiefs of Puke-tapu hapu named Te Huia was with the Ati-Awa contingent, and when they reached the Ngati-Rua-nui country a battle was fought out in the open, where Te Huia distinguished himself by killing two of the enemy. He was without any arms, but seized and killed these men with his hands and then shouted, 'Ko te tangata o te ringa maui'—('The work of the left-handed man.') Hence was the death of Te Karawa avenged."
Te Kahui continues, "When the Waikato forces reached their homes, the chief women of Taranaki were taken to wife by the chiefs of Waikato. Hence originated two classes of descendants—those born of free women (Waikato) and those born of the slave women of Taranaki—who were thus tutuas, or common people—i.e., of no consequence. Some of the men slaves also formed connection with the Waikato women; some even went to Nga-Puhi and there formed connections, both men and women. Here, again, another feature was developed; the enslaved women were given to the Europeans that came there in the whale-ships in exchange for guns, powder, balls, etc. The favours of others again were sold by page 418their masters for pots, tobacco, biscuits, etc.—some of the girls were even given to niggers who were on board the ships at the same price as the others. Hence there sprung up another description of people in New Zealand, the half-caste, making three—i.e., Maoris, half-caste Europeans, and half-caste Negroes.* But it was not the slave women alone who were thus treated, for the free women of Nga-Puhi and Waikato were also sold to the Europeans of the ships in the strong desire to possess the foreigners' goods. Guns, pots, biscuits, tobacco, etc., were the inducements to these connections, so that the tribes might possess weapons to use against others. Thus Hakirau (Love) and Tiki Parete (R. Barrett) of Nga-Motu, who had wives from the Ati-Awa women, supplied that tribe with guns, and from the same source Taranaki obtained some muskets in later years, prepared flax being the payment. Hence came the musket of Wiremu Kingi Matakatea, which he used in the defence of Te Namu in 1834. Those of Taranaki who migrated to Kapiti and Port Nicholson acted in the same manner, and from the connection of the women with Europeans our people became possessed of guns and half-castes. Hence were they able to cope with Ngati-Kahu-ngunu.
"It was in after years, after Wiremu Kingi Matakatea had defeated Waikato at To Namu (in 1834), that our people came back after exile at Port Nicholson and Kapiti, and each family again occupied its own lands."
During this campaign Tama-whero of Ngati-Rua-nui was killed by some of the Ati-Awa and in revenge for the death of Te Karawa; his rape also was brought back and placed on the eel wiers—a great insult.
* It must not be supposed from Te Kahui's remarks that the Negro element in the Maori population is great—on the contrary it is only seen very rarely. Perhaps there are more half-caste Maori-Negroes in the Taranaki tribe than elsewhere. But these are nearly all the descendants of old Black Davis, who lived at Oakura in the early fifties of last century (and probably long before). This old fellow, who was as black as soot, used to say that he was the first white man! who ever visited Kawhia. As a rule the Maoris have a dislike to Negroes and ridicule their black colour, so different to the light brown colour of their own skins.
Te Kahui, in referring to the offspring of sailors and Maori women, used to call them utu-pihikete—paid for with biscuits!
Plate No. 14.
Maru Hill, on slopes of Mt. Egmont.
Te Kahui, in his account of the slaves taken back to Waikato, states that some of them went (or were sold) to Nga-Puhi. The "Missionary Record" often refers to these slaves, and I remember myself seeing several in Kaipara in 1859. At this time they were treated kindly, but it was not always so, as the following extract from Rev. Mr. Hamlin's Journal, whilst at Manga-pouri (on the Waipa), 24th September, 1836, will show—see "Church Missionary Record," 1836, p. 239. "Tidings of a dreadful murder which was committed within a mile of this place about an hour before I arrived. The murdered man was a slave from Taranaki; he lately met his wife who has been recently brought from that place a captive, but the property of another master. Love to the partner of his bosom and false hopes of being able to escape home inclined them both to take to the bush, where they were found this morning—not by their proper master but by another native, who immediately brought his piece, and in spite of the heart-touching appeal, `Aua au e kohurutia'—('Don't murder me') and in the presence of his wife, sister, and father-in-law of the deceased, this ruthless brother of Cain fired a ball through the body of the unhappy man, who fell dead at his feet."
Since the account of the incidents at Maru printed above, I have had the opportunity of visiting the slopes of Mount Egmont, where that and other places are situated. Plate No. 14 shows the site of the Maru settlement, which was on the rounded hill on the right of the picture; Pakihere is a little further to the right, across the Okahu Gorge, which is here nearly five hundred feet deep, with perpendicular cliffs falling directly from Pakihere. When the Waikatos took both Maru and Pakihere they descended on to them by the spurs of Mount Egmont (indistinctly seen in the picture through the mist). Te Ahu-kawakawa is the name of the swamp lying between Mount Egmont and the Pou-a-kai Ranges, the drainage of which forms Bell's Falls, or Te Rere-a-Tahurangi—named by Tahurangi, who first ascended Mount Egmont, as related in Chapter IX. Puke-kokako lies to the south-west of Pakihere, and the other places mentioned a few pages back in connection with Maru are all in this neighbourhood, page 420and all are at an elevation of some three thousand to four thousand feet above the sea. It is a broken forest-clad country, very picturesque, with the noble peak of Mount Egmont forming the back-ground. On some of the flat spurs the Maoris grew both kumara and taro. The site of Te Kahui Mountain House (from which the photo No. 14 was taken) was cultivated at the time of Maru. The people who first owned and lived in this country were the Ngati-Kaikaka tribe—probably a branch of the Kahui-maunga aboriginal tribes. They wero exterminated by the Taranaki tribe.