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Salient. Victoria University Student Newspaper. [Volume 39, Issue 8. April 1976]

Black Political Movements from Rebellion to Revolution:

Black Political Movements from Rebellion to Revolution:

Several organisations, consisting mostly of disenfranchised Blacks, seek to gain power by extra-constitutional means and create a non-racial democratic state. Since 1960 they have been for the most part functioning underground pursuing revolutionary goals by violent as well as non-violent means. This was in reaction to the Government's systematic and violent suppression of all forms of Black protest, climaxing with the banning of both of the major Black political organisations, the African National Congress and the Pan-Africanist Congress.

The African National Congress (ANC) was formed in 1912, but the distinction of being the first Black political organisation of non-violent nature belongs to the Imbumba Yama Afrika, the Union of Africans, which was formed in the Eastern Cape in 1886.

The formation of the ANC was a significant event in the history of the Black people of South Africa. It gave them hope that one day they would reverse their military defeats and win back their political power through the ballot-box. The ANC was essentially a reformist elite-led association for the betterment of Black economic, social and political conditions within a non-violent legal frame-work