Other formats

    TEI XML file   ePub eBook file  


    mail icontwitter iconBlogspot iconrss icon

The Early Journals of Henry Williams

VI — January to December 1832

page 211

January to December 1832

War party to Tauranga — Peace parleys — Pomare plans attack on Waikato — Land troubles — Ceremonial with heads.

Sunday, 1 January, 1832. Four boats full of people came to attend service. Numbers of strange natives also. Much fatigued, did not move out.

Monday, 2. Numbers of canoes left Kororarika on their way to the Southd. Heard a number of guns in the way of Rangihoua, concluded that Warepoaka was on the move. The boys who were going with us in the boat, emp'd through the day in concluding all preparations, stowing the various boxes, &c., &c., containing our provision and clothes, our camp equipage, and putting all things in order, the sails and paddles, that nothing might delay us in the morng., observing as much ceremony as tho we were to undertake a voyage to Europe. Tohitapu and the crews of the two canoes no less occupied, placing their potatoes, garments, and lesser matters according to their respective wishes. The boys had made for the boat a kind of wickerwork covering to lay upon the thwarts, which answered the purpose of a deck to stand upon without disturbing any of our packages in the body of the boat. Everything was prepared with great neatness, and with strict economy to weight and room. Before sunset the boat and canoes were put afloat with great form. Most of the natives remained on the beach all night, talking and singing.

Tuesday, 3. Slept but little. Morng. cloudy, appearance of wind from N.W. At 6 having taken leave of our families and all who were remaining behind for we knew not what period, to set out on our novel expedition to Tauranga, Mr. Fairburn and I embarked on our boat, Tohitapu and Toe in their respective canoes, and pulled off amidst the cheers of all who had assembled to see us depart. There was something affecting in the scene, from all the connecting circumstances. We rounded Tapeka with a fair wind. Spoke Titore page 212 at Ko Pito. He wished us to land and remain till the weather should be more favourable, as the wind was now strong, but it was too near home, we preferred moving on, and sailed to Korokaua, a quiet shady place in Paroa Bay. Here we shall probably remain for the night. At sunset wind strong. Pitched our tent and spread out our beds. We had provided four pieces of canvass, 7 feet by 4 each, painted to use as occasion might require; to protect us from the damp from beneath, and from any leak in the tent in heavy rain. Assembled all for evening service, our party consisting of about 40. Matiu engaged in prayer in a very pleasing manner, imploring the Divine presence to go with us, to give us grace in the sight of all, to terminate the horrors of war, and to prepare a way for the spread of the Gospel, that this people who had long been the captives of Satan, might become the children of God through the merits of Jesus Christ. Many of the youths discharge this important duty far better than we can, having a greater command of language, abounding in figures of speech. The night was fine.

Wednesday, 4. Passed a good night; free from fleas, considering the natives were on all sides close to the tent. Wind strong and in the same quarter. As there was appearance of abundance of rain, the natives emp'd in preparing against it, in making sheds, which they do with great quickness, and perfectly secure from all weather. They cut a few sticks, which are everywhere to be obtained, tie them together with the flax plant, and thus form the frame of their shed, and cover it with toetoe, a kind of long grass, four to five feet long, and so also at the sides and ends as they may require. In the afternoon heavy rain were glad to avail ourselves of our painted canvass to put at the top of our tent. Natives feasting and making themselves comfortable, occasionally relating some old tales of former deeds. At sunset more favourable in appearance.

Thursday, 5. Fine morng. no signs of movement among the natives, the discharge of several muskets which we concluded were from Titore, put all in motion, and in a short time we were on the way. In less than an hour landed at Ko Porua, a comfortable sheltered spot. Titore at a short distance from us. At low water we went to see him and spent some time with him. Some were making up cartridges, some making paddles, but the great number sleeping. This will form our greatest point of duty to embrace every opportunity to see and converse with the people to endeavour to moderate their feelings towards Tauranga, and also the natives in the Thames. In the afternoon Tohitapu pretended to be very sick. I fear we shall have a good deal of trouble with him. At sunset very fine, everything prepared for moving at break of day.

page 213

Friday, 6. At break of day Tohitapu called out that a gale of wind was coming on, which induced the natives to lay still. To be unnecessarily hindered by the fears of these people, we felt would be a great trial of patience, but the expedition was theirs, and it was our desire to remain passive. Mr. Fairburn and I arose to examine for ourselves. Obs'd the wind from S.W., the fine weather quarter. After some trouble all began to move. Titore clear off the ground; pulled on and doubled Cape Brett, at 7 o'clock. Thus have we been 3 days moving a distance of 20 miles, but so superstitious are these people, particularly in their war expeditions, that they must not take any cooked food in their canoes, and should but a few drops of water be shipped, they immediately land in great fright. If they should be in a situation that they cannot land, everyone immediately ceases talkg., and they commence “Karakia” their incantations. But our object being to keep close to the leading men, we must even endure the tardy movement. Smooth water as we stood for Moanarua, obs'd several canoes standing to the Southd. At 10 joined Rewa and others pulling into Wangaruru, but a few hours walk across to Waikari, which is a short distance from Paihia, the place from where we returned to Paihia in our late visit to Rotorua, not being able to enter the bay of Islands. We here breakfasted and soon found that it was not the intention of the natives to move. We went to pay the natives a visit, who were near us. While talking with Rewa the sea breeze set in which was as fair as we could desire, but he would not move, as it was contrary to custom to be in a hurry. This was truly vexatious as all were eating and sleeping. Everyone however was very civil, and Rewa enquired as to the general idea of making peace. Some fears expressed respecting the natives in the Thames, as to what part they would take in the war. He spoke of his going with me on board the Active to Haureke.

In the afternoon being weary with laying about the weather being very hot we pulled out to fish, and also to examine this part of the bay. Where we were there was not shelter for a vessel, the water being shoal. We caught a few fish and called on Titore. He proposed that we should move early in the morng. which was very congenial to our wishes. I asked him why the natives did not keep closer together. He replied that it was their usual way for each party to go where they liked, that every one was his own chief. What want of wisdom even in a worldly point of view, but thus it is. Without any one to direct, not only does each tribe act distinct from the other, but each individual has the same liberty. If one be bent on mischief, he cannot be restrained by the others. Thus tribes frequently suffer owing to the obstinacy of an individual. On returning page 214 to our quarters we found Tohitapu in a great fright lest we should move off in the night and leave him. He said he would break all the canoes, and the people should go back, but as he had not much ground for his fear we laughed at him and requested him to compose himself. Evening very fine.

Saturday, 7. All in motion before day, and having finished our morning devotion on the beach while it was yet dark, we embarked and were soon in the midst of a formidable fleet. Several strong contests in pulling. We kept our station very well, tho weak handed in comparison to several of the canoes. We landed at Mangati to breakfast. Here were remains of several sheds, built by some party which had preceded us, and our natives set to work to calculate numbers by the stones which were laying, used for the purpose of pounding fern root, counting a certain number to each stone. They concluded it was Rewarewa, and pointed out where he sat, and where others sat. In about an hour we sailed pleasantly onwards with the sea breeze. The coast very rugged, no appearance of natives. We arrived at about noon at Tutukaka, a beautiful little place with several deep coves where small vessels might find shelter at any time, tho some sunken rocks at the entrance. All the party put in here, in consequence of Titore's canoe having taken in a little water, they all made for the shore as fast as they could, exclaiming that he was upset. No more moving today. We pulled into snug quarters for the morrow, and pitched our tent. The natives prepared their houses of Nikau. The spot we chose was on the bank of a river, amongst beautiful shrubs and karakas, a tree very like the laurel; the ground was covered with grass. We were perfectly shaded from the sun. About 1, the Active passed close to the entrance, but she was too quick for us to make any signal to her. After dinner, we pulled round to see Warepoaka, Rewa, &c., &c. All in good humour; concluded to sit quiet tomorrow. Tohitapu in a strange mood unable to comprehend him. He has been complaining ever since we have been out, sometimes flourishing as in health, at other times rolling about and turning his eyes as tho he was at his last gasp. I view this as part of the farce, as having much to do with the movements of the expedition, as the old priests dream dreams and tell unaccountable tales. He is now encouraging the boys to sing and make a noise. Spent an agreeable evening under all circumstances. The natives talking and singing in groups around fires. The night very fine.

Sunday, 8. Cloudy. Tohitapu very busy in decorating his person in his european clothes, and in directing the preparations for our page 215 service, ordering the ground to be covered with small boughs of shrubs. At 8 o'clock all the natives in our neighbourhood assembled and behaved well. It was the first Sabbath that had ever been regarded here since the creation. It was truly pleasing thus to be met together, a congregation of New Zealand Warriors, here called aside from their usual horrid conversation to sing the praises of the Lord, and to hear of Redeeming love. They all acknowledged that it was a good thing thus to be assembled together.

Some of Titore's people contrary to his desire were in the woods shooting pigeons and hunting pigs. After dinner we went round to Rewa, Warepoaka, &c. with whom we held service by their especial desire. In the evening cloudy. Tohitapu very noisy respecting appearance of the weather.

Monday, 9. Much rain in the night. Musquitos very troublesome. At 6 rain ceased. Signal given for moving. No wind. About 11 a breeze from S.E., the canoes were afraid to venture round Te Wara, the outer head of Wangari, but knowing that the Active was in the Harbour, we pulled on in company with Toe in his canoe. As we drew near the Headland, it presented a most singular appearance, at a distance it is very striking, but on coming close there are various pieces of rock, representing human forms. The entrance to Wangari is good, the shore on the right being bold, and immediately round the outer point is fine anchorage. The Active was at anchor and we were glad to get on board to change our society, situation and diet, for tho our good wives had made every provision for us which could be devised,—in pies, plum puddings, preserved fish, pickles, hams, bacon, eggs, &c., &c., all in compact order in boxes for the purpose, so as to keep good for months, merely being to be boiled one hour, when required to be eaten,—yet nothing could compensate for the want of order and regularity known to an english man. We were happy to find ourselves once more at home, for such we considered the Active. Mr. Kemp and Cap. Wright soon came on board and delivered letters for us all from Paihia. The natives were highly delighted with theirs and we were soon very comfortable. We learnt that Tarea, Warerahi, Moka, &c., with the Hokianga natives were here, and that a serious disturbance had taken place between the Ngapuhi and the natives of the Pa, but that it was now settled.

Tuesday, 10. Cloudy. Much refreshed by a little rest and quietness on board, Pulled down to the natives, all very civil, but anxious for the arrival of the other canoes. Delivered to each principal chief a small quantity of Kao, remained some time amongst them, and page 216 returned to the Active. Mr. G. D. Brown1, a young man of considerable respectability, formerly a merchant in Sydney, but now residing here for the purpose of procuring flax, called on board and represented his precarious situation. Tended our services as far as respected his private property, but that muskets, powder, &c., &c., must run their chance.

Wednesday, 11. Cloudy. Fresh breeze from S.S.W. No signs of Tohitapu, Rewa, Titore, &c. Moka came on board, peculiarly polite. Active shifted berth closer to the natives. Pitched my tent on shore for the purpose of being near the natives and to keep a watch over their movements. Our encampment was on a woody point, projecting some little distance into the bay, perfectly screened from the scorching sun. None of the main body of natives came near us. Tarea was on our left, about 400 yards. Warerahi, Moka, &c., &c., on our right about the same distance, but a little in the rear. The Active at anchor about a quarter of a mile in front.

Thursday, 12. Fine. After breakfast went up the river with Cap. Wright, Messrs. Kemp and Fairburn, to Ko te Kapaha, the Pa of Motutara2, a most singular and romantic spot, being a pile of huge stones of all sizes and shapes, standing by themselves and as a native fortification impregnable. Conversed with the natives as long as the tide would allow. Called on Mr. G. Brown on our return.

Friday, 13. Titore, Rewa, &c., &c. came round from outside. Warepoaka had passed on, owing to the improper conduct of the natives here in going to disturb those of the neighbourhood. After breakfast we went to see them all, they were very glad to see us and gave us the usual welcome, haere mai, haere mai, Come, come. They concluded that as tomorrow was Saturday, it would be well to move on in the morning, and sit quietly on Sunday, and expressed a wish that we should communicate with the Popoto on the opposite side of the bay, that all should assemble for general muster, as they had not done so since their leaving the Bay of Islands. About 4 all page 217 were engaged in preparation rubbing up their muskets decorating their heads with feathers and tying round their waists shawls and handkerchiefs of various colours as aprons. Some few of the leading men had a mantle of scarlet cloth trimmed with dogs' hair, others had splendid native mats: thus equipped with two or three cartridge boxes each, and here and there a sabre. Each tribe or party formed into a body by itself at their respective places, waiting a signal for their movement, during this period all was noise and confusion, each giving his opinion how the whole should act, the women, children and dogs contributing their share to the clamour, running this way and that. At length one party moved with their arms (muskets) erect, slowly, but without step, on to the beach, the usual parade, having more room, and also being level, the tide being out. Having taken their station, they were followed by a second and third, and so on until all had joined that party who intend as they reserved part of their force who took up their station some distance off, in order to give them a meeting, which is universally done by a wild savage rush amongst each other, or the two parties pass each other, turning again and forming one body. They now prepare for their Haka, or dance, accompanied with horrid yells and screeches, throwing their bodies into frightful attitudes, distorting their countenances, turn their tongues nearly to the back of their heads, and their eyes rolled inside out, each jumping as high as his strength would allow him, tossing up at the same time the stock of his musket, to display the brass, which is kept perfectly bright. This being repeated two or three times to the admiration of the beholders, and the exultation of all, they sat down, leaving a space in the centre, room for the speakers to run backwards and forwards, as they deliver their sentiments. This duty is generally taken by the chiefs, tho anyone is at liberty to speak. Upon this occasion, the speeches were very poor, and their numbers roughly calculated at 400 under arms, which, with those already passed on, will make up about 800. Some of our friends expressed a wish for some stirabout, and as the boys had caught a great quantity of fish we did not hesitate to comply with their request. However, Moka, that evil disposed creature, found an opportunity to make a disturbance, wishing to obtain two shares for himself, which caused a great deal of noise and angry expression. Several of the Chiefs spoke seriously to Moka on acct. of his conduct. The boys low spirited owing to what had passed.

Saturday, 14. At break of day I was woke by voice of Titore, who said he had come to speak respecting the disturbance of last night. He is always very well disposed, and stated that the chiefs had all been very angry on account of Moka, but that everyone knew that page 218 he was a bad man. In the eveng. Moka very vociferous urging the natives to go up in the morng. to strip the potatoes plantation. Titore would not allow any of his people to join him. Hearing that others were going, we sent a messenger to Warerahi and Tarea, to request their interference with the canoes. They behaved very well and said they would keep off the people. Moka was very angry and spoke for a considerable time, frequently firing his piece to denote his anger more strongly. He talked till past midnight. They invariably chose the evening or night for their discussion, when all is still, as each remains at his own place, though perhaps ½ a mile apart, and thus carry on their debates.

Sunday, 15. Moka's voice again saluted the ear at dawn of day but I was thankful to learn that he had prevailed nothing. Thus are we encouraged to use the means, leaving the result to our heavenly Father. At 8 we held service on shore with our boys, and all others disposed to come. Our congregation not very large. At 10 we had service on board with the crew of the Active. Mr. Fairburn went up to the Pa to converse with the natives there. In the afternoon I pulled over to the Popoto across the bay. Spoke to two distinct parties of Jesus and the resurrection. They expressed themselves very much interested, and were very encouraging. In the eveng. the Karere arrived, bringing letters from the Bay of Islands, and a supply of Peach pies, &c., and some green peaches. All were well at home, a grateful piece of intelligence. About 9 o'clock a canoe came off, pulling close to the Active, makg. a great noise and singing with voice of victory. In passing us they called out that they had caught 4 englishmen. We told them to come alongside. The men were part of the crew of the Lucy Ann, laying in the Thames. They had left her 23 days, and were on their way to the Bay of Islands. The natives had stripped them of nearly all they possessed, but afterwards returned some of their things to them. Much consultation amongst the natives as to what should be done with the english men. Most were for harnessing them to the great guns, that they might work them against the enemy. The natives very busy preparing to move before daylight.

Monday, 16. Fine morning. All in motion at 2 o'clock. Had the baggage put into the boat, and joined the canoes, pulling out. Tarea's people called out to us to know what was to be done with the 4 men. We advised them to let the men go, which was done. Had a very pleasant sail as far as Tokohore. Pulled into Mangawai3, an important river, tho very shoal at the entrance. Formerly this page 219 part of the country was thickly inhabited by Natemaru, but now no one to be seen, all having fled through fear. Everything is desolation. Up this river Hongi landed, when he went against Kaipara, and drew his canoes overland a distance of sixteen miles, to the head of Kaipara river. We here obs'd large slabs of freestone, which will prove, on some future day, of great importance in building. Moka fired a number of rounds from his great guns here, termed paura mamai, sacred powder, which is expended, as this was the place where he received his wound in the thigh.4 There were many pretty places up here, and marks of former settlements, but the people had been swept away as with the besom of destruction. Former residences of tribes now no more, are continually pointed out to us, but we may hope the day is at hand when the Lord will grant deliverance to this people, and stay the arm of destruction. The canoes continued to arrive till 4 o'clock, unable to count them so dispersed but suppose between 40 and 50. The Active and Karere passed on to Maha, our old anchorage at the entrance of the Thames. Pitched our tents in a snug, retired spot. In the evening Warerahi, Tohitapu and Tuwakatere came to talk upon state of affairs.

Tuesday, 17. Rose at 3, cloudy, appearance of rain, but wind fair, determined to proceed to the Active. Spoke to Warerahi upon the subject, to which he consented, but desired us not to make any noise, to disturb the people generally as the weather appeared bad. At sunrise, clouds cleared away, and presented a fine morning. We sailed with a fair wind, a considerable distance, and soon perceived the fleet in motion. We arrived at Maha about 10 o'clock, and in the course of the day 12 canoes came in. The others put on shore on the way, owing to the shift of wind from the sea. Titore pulled round in his boat leaving his canoes outside; he had long consultation and wished us to go round in the morning, to speak upon further proceedings. Pitched our tent in a very retired spot amongst the bushes secure from the sun. The natives of six canoes, in distinct parties, around. The remainder of the canoes in a cove a short distance from us.

Wednesday, 18. Much difficulty to arrange the potatoes on board the Active, belonging to the different chiefs, owing to the stupidity of the men on board. After a good deal of trouble, put all right. We afterwards proceeded with Tohitapu and Rewa overland to Titore, or rather to endeavour to find him out; but after wandering through thick bush, and over several high hills, we discovered that page 220 we had taken a circuitous route and gone eight times greater distance than was required, and now obliged to return, without accomplishing the object, as the bush was on fire through which we wanted to go. We were all much fatigued with our rugged road, completely destroyed a pair of new shoes, which was a source of considerable regret, as my possessions were very scanty. The natives very apprehensive that Tarea would return to the Bay of Islands, as he had not yet joined the main body, and was in a large canoe, with no other persons except three of his wives to pull her along. The canoe was Tapu'd, having conveyed the body of Hengi, the principal chief killed at Kororarika, to his former place, and was now being taken to the place where his sons were killed, for the purpose of being broken up and burnt, and was consequently termed a Waka mamai. There are very many things, such as garments, war instruments, paddles, &c., &c., amongst the different tribes now going up, which are on their way for the purpose of being, I think I may say, offered up to the manes of the dead. They are therefore all sacred, and thus the whole of the natives are detained, because no one can enter this said canoe but old Tarea and his three wives. This was now the second time of his being left behind. A circumstance happened this afternoon which had nearly proved serious to many, or perhaps to the whole. A large shark had been caught, which turned round and fastened upon a man's shoulder, his companions immediately came to his assistance, but not succeeding in extricating him, an attempt was made to kill the shark with a hatchet, when the unfortunate man received a cut on the back. The mad creatures, without considering the cause of the accident or indeed that it was an accident immediately flew to arms, and would have fought, under the idea of having satisfaction. How lamentable the state of this people, even as respects this world.

Thursday, 19. At daylight pulled round with Rewa and Tohitapu to Titore &c. Vast quantities of fish. While here Tarea arrived with his canoe. Everyone concluded he would be very cross; better than expected. It was proposed to take him across the Thames to Barrier island in the Karere, and tow the canoe, and the party for Hauraki to embark this evening on board the Active.

Friday, 20. Active sailed at daylight. Weather unpromising. Wind from the Eastd. with a good deal of sea. Natives around generally at work digging fern root, and making paddles. Walked round to Popoto and others. Saw Mr. G. D. Brown, who returned with me to dinner and spent the evening.

Saturday, 21. Fine, but wind from N.E. No appearance of making any progress. This however would be of little moment were the page 221 natives more orderly; they form a complete troup of uncontrollable fellows. Have been much concerned to hear that the Popoto, the natives from Hokianga, intend going in different directions up the Thames5, to endeavour to fall upon the women and children of the Allies of Tauranga. Some of the chiefs have been protesting against it, but we must commit the cause to the divine guidance of the great disposer of all things. Titore indisposed, sent round for some medicine, tea and sugar.

Sunday, 22. Wind still the same. Passed a more comfortable night, having sent for my bed from the Karere, as there are no signs of moving onwards yet, the weather against us. My bed hitherto has been formed of ferntops. Considerable exclamation amongst the natives at the sight of some excellent fern root which was dug up yesterday. Moka immediately gave order to launch his canoe for the purpose of going in quest of fern root. All immediately in confusion. I felt that to speak to him was of little use, yet it was my duty. I sent therefore to say that it was the Ra tapu, and that he must not resist the command of God, that tomorrow we would all go. He desired his people to remain quiet, which called forth marks of approbation from those near me. Thus are we encouraged to use the means, with simple faith in the Lord to accomplish the end. This Moka is brother to Warerahi and Rewa, a daring, impudent, self willed savage, of considerable influence in way of mischief, possessing I believe no one good quality. At 8.30 assembled all in the neighbourhood to service. They behaved very well. After dinner went round to the Popoto, not many there. However I had a pleasant conversation with Taonui6 and others. He appears a man of much observation and reflection beyond the natives generally. Towards latter part of the afternoon, the natives sitting round had much to endure to refrain from working. Huki, a man of great respectability, sitting at the extremity of the beach, was at work with his people, but immediately laid it aside on my approaching him. In the evening, Moka and Tohitapu put their canoes in order for moving in the morning, and from a few expressions that escaped them, I could perceive that their intentions were bad respecting any natives they might see. They told me they were hungry, and as the wind continued from the eastward, they must go and dig fern root, and cross the river at a narrower part, and that I had better remain with Tarea and Titore, but as I considered page 222 they were disposed for mischief, I determined to keep close to them, and leave the Karere to Titore, but first to send a messenger in the morning. Much cast down at this effort of Satan. Oh, when will the arm of the Lord be revealed in New Zealand.

Monday, 23. The canoes did not move, as the weather appeared more unpromising. Sent Matiu and Taui7 over to Titore to acquaint him with the position of affairs here. They returned at 10.30. None of the natives there approved of the projected movements. They were very angry with Moka and Tohitapu. As Titore was still unwell I sent him some tea and sugar. In the afternoon I was obliged to strike my tent, and shift my quarters on board the Karere owing to the unbearable stench, which had been increasing for some days, owing to the number of natives around being too great for so small a place, which brought together such multitudes of large flies, buzzing on every side, that I could not endure it any longer. The place quite stank of rotten fish from the vast quantities which had been caught and suffered to lay about. Wind still the same N.E. unable to proceed on, all at a stand. May the Lord bless our feeble efforts, then will our trials and perplexities be light indeed.

Tuesday, 24. Three weeks this morning since we left home, and not more than a day's sail from thence. Fresh gale with rain. The little vessel riding very easy, tho the sea directly in. I do not allow my thoughts to be disturbed by any anxious feelings respecting the weather or the movements of the natives, so as to hasten them, wishing to leave this important matter between the Lord and them, feeling assured that in this respect, he will do all things well, to their good and his glory.

Wednesday, 25. Weather more modt. but considerable sea outside. Wind nearly the same. Went on shore to see the natives. All in much want of food. Felt strongly disposed, should wind change in the morning to N.W. to run over to Hauraki.

Thursday, 26. Thick weather, but little rain through the day. Wind about Nth. Mr. G. Brown came and spent the afternoon. Complained bitterly of the delay of the Natives. He would gladly pass on in his boat, but the natives will not let him pass. In the evening rain. Natives calling out for food.

Friday, 27. Weather more modt. no rain. Took up my quarters on shore for a change. Far more comfortable. No news, no movements, sad sacrifice of time, which would not be endurable but in the hope of rendering important service to this people, temporal and spiritual. Was enabled to pass my time tolerably well in reading, writing and drawing. This last greatly astonished the natives, to see page 223 the effect of a few pencil marks on paper. Several the canoes left for the purpose of digging fern roots. Some of our boys returned in the evening with a considerable quantity. Sharp times for all.

Saturday, 28. Weather cloudy and unsettled. Several persons came from Te Wakatuwenua, to enquire after the Active. Many doubts and fears expressed lest the natives on board should be killed. They related superstitious conduct of their party in consequence of having burnt some sticks which were sacred, the remains of some old sheds, and also some flax. A son of old Tarea who had died long ago, and turned into a Tanewa, God of the Sea, had appeared to him and upbraided him and his party with great wickedness, and that he would not be quiet until he had some men as a satisfaction for the sacrilege done, that the present strong winds were on that account, that he would upset their canoes, and the sea should be rough for a considerable time. Old Tohitapu and others listened with great earnestness during the relation, and confirmed the opinion that the gale was in consequence of their trespassing on the sacred spots. Their fears of the Tanewa are very great. They must not put cooked food into their war canoes, eat, or spit while afloat, or even have any fire in them, or smoke their pipes, which must certainly be a considerable exercise to their faith. I told them that the people of England were the great men of the ocean, they went everywhere without fear of the Tanewa, that were their vessels larger, they would move as we did fearlessly from place to place, but this they could not see. They speak of remaining many days, that the sea may be perfectly smooth. At sunset, wind from S.S.W. fair for the bay of Islands. Intimated my intention of sailing immediately as we could be back before any movement. They approved of our proceedings. We accordingly got underweigh and were soon on our way with a good breeze, leaving my boat and the lads excepting two.

Sunday, 29. At 1.30 close to Wangari, fine night. At day light abreast of Tutukaka. As we drew near Cape Brett, wind very variable, and considerable swell. Could not round the Cape till sunset.

Monday, 30. Fine night, but little wind. At 8 a strong breeze from N.W. which carried us soon to Motu-o-rangi, where we were boarded by the boat from the Settlement, and learnt the grateful intelligence of all being well, in my family, and in the mission. In the course of the day Mr. and Mrs. King and family, Mr. Baker and Mrs. Wright, Messrs. Clark and Davis, arrived, bringing their children to school. In the eveng. all assembled in my house to tea. Nineteen adults and thirty-three children.

page 224

Tuesday, 31. Weather very unsettled, felt very weary.

Wednesday, 1 February. Wind S.E., appearance of a gale. Boys emp'd making preparation for our departure which we must do as soon as the wind is fair.

Thursday, 2. Wind same but more modt.

Sunday, 5. Cloudy, wind in same quarter, S.E. Much refreshed by the services of the day. In the afternoon went to Otuiho, very indifferent attention. Eveng. fine.

Monday, 6. Fine morng. clouds moving from the Westd. Took my departure after breakfast for the Southd. tho somewhat apprehensive we should have to put back. As we rounded Cape Brett wind shifted to South. Made but little way. Worked up close in shore, wind strong, natives very sick. At 8 p.m. wind shifted to S.E., squally, bore up for Paihia.

Tuesday, 7. Thick, squally weather. At daylight observed the colours on board the Nelson hoisted half mast, signal that the Captain was dead, whom I interred in the afternoon. It is but a month since Cap. Davey was buried, and now his successor, who was then in perfect health. Mysterious providence. A solemn call to all but especially to his unthinking crew. I addressed a few words to them at the grave. All very serious, but I fear would soon forget.

Wednesday, 8. A gale from the Eastd. with rain. No prospect of moving. How thankful we ought to be in remembrance of the innumerable blessings we live in the constant enjoyment of both the temporal and spiritual beyond those around us. Several natives from inland enquiring the news.

Thursday, 9. Not much rain, but sultry, little wind from Eastd.

Friday, 10. No rain former part of the day. The Master of the Fairy called. As he had just returned from Maketu in the neighbourhood of Tauranga we were desirous of learning the state of things there. He however spoke with utter indifference of the position of the natives, and of their disposition to fight. It grieved my heart to hear an english man speak so carelessly upon the subject as it is much to feared that many of our countrymen have a great deal to do and say in this matter in exciting them to every ill feeling. May the Lord frustrate all their evil designs. In the afternoon heavy rain, wind freshened in old quarter.

Saturday, 11. Wind and weather same. Gave up idea of moving.

Sunday, 12. Two native children baptised, and the sacrament administered to some of the natives. The first time since the establishment of the mission, a pleasing service.

Monday, 13. Wind against us. As very much time is every day lost page 225 fetching water from a distance, for the use of the house, I set the boys to dig a well close to the house, which it is my intention to brick round. Found water about 7 feet below the surface.

Tuesday, 14. It being uncertain how long I might remain at home, set part of my boys on the well. The remainder with myself occupied in taking down the chimney in my study and rebuilding same.

Wednesday, 15. Wind from the Eastd. The Active arrived, all well. Some of the natives had crossed the Thames8 others had gone up, and were amongst the different islands there. Determined to remain till Monday. The well and chimney going on, but not finished.

Thursday, 16. The well had given way at the bottom; held a survey upon it, when it was concluded to make a cylinder of boards and brick inside to keep the sand from falling in. Finished my chimney, which was a great improvement to my little room.

Friday, 17. Finished my well, fixed the iron pump sent out from England, which answered admirably. Rec'd a letter from Mr. Yate to call a committee to detain the Active from proceeding to Tauranga. Kauwiti and others called to speak of the affairs to the Southd.

Sunday, 19. After service, went up to the Pa, not many natives, but attentive. Kaka behaved well. Much difficulty to keep them from speaking upon the present expedition. The Nelson sailed for the Colony.

Monday, 20. Little wind all day. The brethren arrived from Rangihoua, Waimate and Kerikeri. No business, as the Nelson had carried letters. Much rain in the afternoon, very sultry.

Tuesday, 21. Fine. My boys employed putting our things on board and preparing for departure. At noon a sea breeze, weighed, and sailed in the Karere, with a better prospect of proceeding than when we went out last. At 4 spoke the Clarkson Bark. 11 months from Port Jackson, no news, eveng. cloudy, with drisling rain, wind variable.

Wednesday, 22. Cloudy, light wind S.E. At 8 calm, at 11 breeze E.S.E. which carried us past Wangaruru. Good prospect before us.

Thursday, 23. Light winds from the Southd. At daylight Tutukaka about 6 miles on the weather bow. Weather very fine, had good view of the harbour. Wind shifted about noon to N.E., very page 226 light. At sunset changed to South. Passed outside the Hen and Chickens, pleasant breeze through the night, a good deal of swell, boys stupid with the motion of the vessel.

Friday, 24. Fine. At daylight Hauturu ahead about 4 miles. Calm most of the day. At sunset a light air from N.W., made all sail.

Saturday, 25. Fine and calm. Ko Moehau about 3 miles, at 8 breeze from Eastd. which shifted in course of the morning to N.N.E. Sunset cloudy. Mercury Islands East 5 or 6 miles. No appearance of our people. Very apprehensive they have all passed on and probably commenced their murderous and wicked proceedings unless restrained by the mighty hand of God. Poor creatures how greatly they need all we can do for them. Every man's hand is against his brother, surely the land is polluted with blood. Fresh places are pointed out to me where recent conflicts have taken place, but to the Lord do we look who alone can deliver them from their cruel bondage and make them willing to turn to himself.

Sunday, 26. Fresh breeze from the East'd working up between the islands and the main, a good deal of swell. At sunrise North head of Mercury bay on our lee bow. At 7 bore up and stood into the bay, in hopes of seeing our friends, or at least of obtaining shelter against the impending gale. Run nearly to the bottom of the bay but could not discover any coves or bays where we might anchor as marked in the chart, and considerable sea setting in directly on the shore. In our perplexity we sent the boat to reconnoitre and in about an hour she made signal to proceed in, which we accordingly did, and were considerably relieved by finding an entrance close under a point into a fine commodious river capable of receiving any vessel. The country appeared well wooded but no inhabitant, tho marks of former residences. Alas what a dreadful scourge is war even in this remote corner. No sooner do strangers meet than fear is expressed. When shall the glorious day appear when the sword shall be turned into ploughshare and the spear into a pruning hook, and the nations learn war no more. In the afternoon much rain. At sunset heavy clouds rolling over us from the Eastd. every prospect of a rough course night. Exceedingly thankful for the shelter obtained.

Monday, 27. Fine. Wind more from the Southd. A canoe with three men came down, but with much caution. We learnt from them that the Ngapuhi had passed about 3 days since, that Moka had been up the river, and they were now at Tairua, that the advanced guard or first division had arrived at Katekate, and the natives at Tauranga were sitting in two Pas, and had a number of great guns. This news did not correspond with anything we had heard before. page 227 At 2 p.m. wind strong from S.W. Weighed and made sail out of the river. A very heavy ground swell setting into the bay owing to the shoalness of the water, being 5 or 6 fathoms. In heavy gales I have little doubt but that the sea breaks across. A most dangerous place for a ship to run into unless willing to enter the river. When out of the bay we obs'd the fires of Ngapuhi on the main and on an island about 15 miles distant. At sunset light winds and variable. At 8 strong breezes from the S.E., and increasing, obliged to bear up with much regret.

Tuesday, 28. Strong breezes, heavy swell from the late gale, hove to under the lee of Mercury isles. At daylight obs'd several dangerous rocks and wind continuing directly against us, we kept on our course, intending to run under Cape Colvel. At sunset modt., with smooth water under the lee of the land.

Wednesday, 29. A quiet night which was of much importance to us, as we stood in need of rest. At daylight close to a number of small islands. Calm and fine. The boys catching fish. In the course of the forenoon a light breeze sprung up from N.W. which inclined us to haul to the Northd. At 4 wind shifted to S.W. and blew smartly which carried us along at a good rate and soon regained our station amongst the islands. At midnight light winds and fine.

Thursday, 1 March. Little wind during the night. At daylight close to the heads of Mercury bay. Calm caught number of snappers. At 10 a breeze from North which carried us by sunset to an island called Wakahau off Tairua where were our natives. They made fires to us and a canoe came off, but a considerable swell rolling in we felt it needful to hasten to and anchor before dark, under the lee of the Island; a snug place, well sheltered. Thankful to be once more fast by the nose.

Friday, 2. Fine. Passed a comfortable night. At daylight hoisted the boat out and went on shore. The boys kindled fires as signals to those on the main. Heard some muskets from the opposite side, but no appearance of boat or Canoe. Close to where we lay were marks of a large party of natives having been here some time since. The boys completing wood and water. At noon heard a great gun at Tairua. We kindled fresh fires and shore and hoisted the Colours on the point of the island. At 4 obs'd a cutter going into Tairua, which we concluded was the one belonging to Pi and Patuone.

Saturday, 3. Fine, at break of day weighed and made sail for Tairua. Wind S.S.W. As we approached the entrance obs'd the canoes coming out and were happy to observe my boat in the midst of them, and the boys all well. All appeared glad to see us. I again page 228 took my seat in the boat with considerable pleasure and pulled in with the canoes to Wangamata, a fine river for small vessels. After some refreshments, pulled out to conduct the Cutter in. The country appeared fine, well wooded and watered, but no inhabitant tho multitudes in former days. In the afternoon natives mustered their forces, but did not turn out more than 400 fighting men, this is termed an army. Can anything shew the poverty of the land in point of number, more than this, when we consider the great efforts which have been made to raise this expedition. True we have to add those with Rewarewa and Warepoaka9, making perhaps in all 600 besides women and children. Their speeches poor. Much distressed to hear that Warerahi and a large party10 had passed overland to surprise the Natewatua11. Had a good deal of conversation with the Chiefs. Titore well disposed. The natives appear to have paid generally external respect to the Sabbath during my absence, not to change their quarters, and they move today in order to sit quietly tomorrow. On Monday they propose to move to Katekate. The vessel12 belonging to Pi arrive in the eveng. He has made a trip to “Tuhua”, Mayor island, to endeavour to surprise the natives there, but were unable to accomplish the deed, from the following circumstance. The vessel put into Hauraki in the Thames, where her object was well known. A messenger from thence passed over to Tauranga giving a description of the vessel belonging to the natives that she had a red streak and 60 natives on board, that the missionaries had one also like her but she had a white streak. Consequently when she appeared off the island they did not go on board, but seeing none but englishmen on board they launched a canoe, but kept at a distance. At length the natives on shore, feeling sure that it was the vessel in question, opend fire upon her which was returned by an Englishman on board with a great gun, but without effect.

Sunday, 4. The natives making a great noise; talking long before daylight on all sides. When in want of my breakfast I was told that fire and water were tapu'd and that none must eat or drink until the oracle was consulted, and that the Tohunga or Priest was in preparation for the ceremony at a short distance. I went and found about 8 chiefs assembled in a retired shady spot, and was at first forbid to approach, but after a little conversation was permitted page 229 under the plea of my being a white person. They were all entirely naked, and were fixing sticks about a foot long in the ground in rows, according to the number of canoes, the same was also done according to the chiefs of their opponents. Against each of these were placed two others of the same length, each stick being tied round with a piece of the flax plant. When all was in order we were required to withdraw except an old wretch who had scarcely five pounds of flesh on his bones. In about half an hour the old fellow, with an air of great self-importance, came out and sat down amongst us. He enquired of Tohitapu his dreams, and related his own last night, which are too long to relate. We then with much caution approached the scene of action, where he had been at work and found the sticks in great disorder, as tho a cat had been at play amongst them. About a third of them lay on the ground, by which he would denote those who were to fall in battle. He had one set of sticks for the boat, that is for myself and my boys, we were all safe. In a few minutes after our arrival a large body of the natives, rushed up with a great noise to learn the fate of the expedition, each making enquiries respecting himself with such vociferation and earnestness that it was impossible for any to hear. At length partial silence being obtained the old man began to relate particulars but did not advance far before he was confused and the ceremony was obliged to be begun over again. The sacred spot was consequently cleared of everyone except the old Priest, and we waited his pleasure on the beach. Several enquired if I had had my breakfast and expressed themselves pleased when they learnt I had not. During this interval, I conversed with all around. They appeared to put as implicit faith in what this Tohunga should effect, as they would in the direction of the wind by observing the motion of the clouds. I assured them they would soon abandon such things as our forefathers had done and embrace the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. Some acquiesced in what I said others did not. At 10 o'clock all being tolerably quiet we rang the bell for service. It had been sent from home in the vessel belonging to Pi and now used for the first time. It was a pleasant sound in this wild place, and in the midst of a still wilder mob. We assembled about 100. Rewa and Te Kohikohi were the only chiefs of note, but all were attentive. After service Rewa told me they should soon believe our message. All were now tired of the expedition.

In the afternoon went and paid a visit round for the drop a word as occasion might offer. Had a pleasing conversation with Temoranga and several with him. Orders given for preparing to move at break of day. Several prognosticating a gale of wind.

page 230

Monday, 5. In the course of the night, Tohitapu arose and exclaimed that it was a gale, and was well laughed at. Before day a general bustle, all afloat. As we were pulling down, I was called by some of Titore's people to say he would not move today as he and Tarea had had a row in the course of the night, respecting the weather. Went on shore to Titore considering he only wanted a little persuasion. After a little talking he began to move and we all proceeded on our way. It was a fine morng. Called alongside of Pi and gave him a word of caution how he manoeuvred his craft as he would endanger some trading vessels amongst the natives through his having english men on board. It was only on Sunday last he was at Tuhua. The wind favoured us to Amaru, a delightful spot, where we landed, seven canoes in company to breakfast. All most respectful and drew around to see me writing and to examine my books. We have now arrived within seven miles of Katikati a river which runs up to Tauranga, which is in full view and the fires burning at the Pa. I have many hopes and fears, but a few days will decide this important question. Many talk of taking slaves, but perhaps they do not as yet consider that such a step will be attended with some inconvenience. At noon the tide having ebb'd considerably we proceeded on but did not arrive at the entrance until past two the tide being against us. It was most formidable as the breakers were lifting up their heads in a terrific stile on all sides. Several canoes were ahead of us to lead the way, and by following them we entered safely by passing between the rollers. I was certainly glad when we were past, and am at a loss to conjecture how the natives ventured in. The river appeared very extensive, and will no doubt some future day be an important place. We landed at the beach where Rewarewa and Warepoaka13 had been but a few days since. Ascended the hill which forms the headland of the river with my glass, to reconnoitre at the request of some of the Chiefs. I had a good view of the country and of the two Pas but could not distinguish Rewarewa, the Pas seemed enveloped in smoke. The coast between this and Tauranga forms an island which is very level and from the number of Pas deserted was doubtless formerly thickly inhabited, but now in a most desolate state from the effect of war. Nothing particular transpired during the eveng. All being tired, retired to rest early.

Tuesday, 6. At daylight again afloat to pass on with the flood tide. About 10 o'clock landed at Matakana14 to put up for the day. page 231 An old woman belonging to Nate Maru was here caught by Tarea's people who had great news to impart. She stated that great deeds had been done by Warerahi and those with him against natives of Waikato, which I felt persuaded were all false while she was speaking, but it was painful to observe with what greediness her wicked expressions were received. She, however, gave information of Rewarewa being only a few miles distant on the opposite side of the river. In a short time five canoes crossed over to learn the news. We soon heard that the Nate awa had given Rewarewa four or five meetings, and that severe engagements, had taken place, but I was much relieved to learn that none were killed or wounded on either side as they had observed open order. About midnight when all were asleep the camp was alarmed by four guns being discharged close to the beach, and not knowing whether friends or foes all were soon under arms. The sound of the shot those messengers of death flying over our heads waking out of first sleep was truly heart sickening, and represented to my mind the awful state in which these poor creatures are. We however soon learnt that it was an express from Rewarewa. The messenger came forward in silence, which struck a degree of awe over the assembly, who were sitting down, several fires being scattered about to give light, which considerably heightened the effect. The person who now stood before us was a stranger to me. He was a fine looking man, tho wild in his appearance. He stood in silence leaning on the end of his musket, a billhook bright as silver in his belt in front, and a handsome dogskin mat thrown carelessly over his shoulders, and by the light of the fires presented a fine specimen of savage nobility. He first spoke of the expedition of Warerahi against the Natewatua, then of their own interview with the enemy here who had given them a meeting this afternoon. Several rounds were exchanged, but so respectful were they, that no mischief ensued.

Wednesday, 7. At daylight all in motion, launchg. canoes, and strikg. sheds, and talkg. over the news of the night. Paid a general visit, various feelings expressed. My opinion required respecting the proper charge for their great guns, declined the honour. At 10 all embarked in closer order than heretofore, and presented a formidable body. They now displayed their various flags, which they had obtained from the shipping. We were as near as I could count about 80 boats and canoes. About noon arrived at Karopua where Rewarewa was sitting. Took a view of our position. Otumoetai the Pa of Na te awa, 2 miles, several persons outside the Pa, taking a view of the fresh arrival. The Active and the Cutter belonging to Pi, arrived. At low water all our people set off in fighting trim for the page 232 professed purpose of foraging on the plantations very near the pa, some few however, went directly towards the pa, to the edge of a stream of water which was deep. Only two of the opposite party were observed for a considerable time who stood the fire of the Ngapuhi very stoutly. After some little time the numbers increased on each side and the parties closed as near as they could the bed of the river separating them. They kept up a brisk fire until dusk and the tide flowing obliged them to retire. None of the chiefs were amongst them, and I could not but marvel that none were hurt on either side. The skirmish lasted about an hour and a half. This affair gave fresh subject for conversation, which lasted nearly through the night. My mind much distressed at the spirit generally manifested. Tohitapu was amongst the worst. I spoke to him upon his deceit, at which he was very angry. I was glad to retire into the tent, and seek relief where alone it is to be found.

Thursday, 8. Sent to speak with Titore who came immediately, but did not afford much satisfaction. He seemed well disposed himself but spoke of the determination of others. However I was glad to hear the chiefs generally speaking upon these things. In the afternoon as I was going on board the Active I spoke to Titore to prevent any repetition of proceedings of last eveng. He promised that all should be quiet. I therefore left with satisfaction. It was a considerable relief to be again in civil society for a short time. In the eveng. returned to the camp, all quiet.

Friday, 9. Paid visit round. All very civil, most expressed themselves for peace. Rewarewa reserved. Mr. Kemp and Cap. Wright came on shore, accompanied them round the camp. At high water, the flotilla put out into deep water, ready for movement in the night. After sunset, many speeches, but no apparent conclusion come to. About 9 o'clock alarm given of two men15 having gone over to the enemy, both of them belonging to this part of the island, each had taken a musket and catouch box. This circumstance caused great confusion and quarrelling in one of the parties which threatened to be serious until some of the leading men came forward and put matters quiet.

Saturday, 10. After midnight orders given to embark which was done with great disorder and noise. It being low water, we frequently got aground. This time was chosen for protection from the fire of the enemy, as we had to pass up the river where the engagement had taken place yesterday eveng. tho by this act they greatly exposed page 233 themselves, in consequence of the continual noise which they made. Had the enemy acted with any thought and that courage known to europeans they might have planted themselves within 200 yards of the canoes and thrown all into confusion, but they were savages and consequently their movements less destructive. When all well afloat, we presented quite an armament, the surface of the river appeared covered; our force multiplied from the face of the country about 2 miles distant in the rear being all on fire, which illuminated the sky and was again reflected upon the water, so that we appeared, taking into connection the desires of the people and the object on which they were bent, issuing as it were from the infernal regions. We landed in the rear of the Pa and in a few minutes about 300 lights were in motion, and gave the appearance of a large town. I felt it was more prudent to remain in my boat until morning, not knowing how near the enemy might be, nor wishing to be run over by our people. At daylight there was a general movement towards the Pa, all perfectly naked except here and there one with a shirt on or a handkerchief round his waist, and a catouch box buckled round before and behind close under the arms, or round the loins. The Nateawa were out to receive them, and firing soon commenced on both sides. I ascended to the summit of an old pa, from whence with the aid of my glass, I had a clear view of their movements, and soon obs'd Ngapuhi driven out of some bushes where they had taken up their station and Nateawa shewed in considerable numbers in battle array. The firing lasted I think three hours and various reports were brought of the killed and wounded. They then returned to the camp having expended all their ammunition, and bringing with them one killed and a second who had been struck on the catouch box which was buckled round his waist by which he was preserved. I was struck with horror to observe the carelessness of all particularly of the women and children. The firing ceased and was succeeded by the clamour of Ngapuhi relating their great deeds during the action. Retired to my tent overwhelmed with the transactions of the morning. About 2 Messrs. Kemp and Fairburn came on shore, and after some conversation determined to take up my abode on board the Active, considering that our counsel was rejected on every point of view, and that they had better now be left a little to themselves. On going out of the tent, I was much surprised to observe the enemy in possession of the heights about ½ a mile distant firing down upon some wild fellows, who were exchanging shots with them in full view of our whole party, occasionally dancing, brandishing their muskets in defiance. As we passed down to the boat several of the chiefs sat by the canoes page 234 and appeared crestfallen. None spoke but Moka who desired we would not attempt to dress the wounds of their enemy. I told him all were our friends through the island and would all receive like attention from us. Some of the Nateawa were on the side of the river as we passed but none attempted to molest us, being fully aware of our object in being amongst them.

In what a wretched state is this people, sitting in darkness and the shadow of death, destitute of every hope either in this world or the world to come, not knowing who are friends or foes but daily dreading an attack from some unknown quarter. Many have expressed to me during our present expedition, how gladly would they receive a party of soldiers amongst them to preserve peace through the land. We trust however tho dark and dreary as the prospect is at present that the Lord will cause this to work for their good and his glory. It is he alone who maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth. He breaketh the bow and cutteth the spear in sunder.

Sunday, 11. All remained quiet through the day. Messrs. Kemp and Fairburn went on shore to the Pa. I held service with the natives on board in the morng. and english service in the afternoon. In the eveng. guns occasionally fired on each side as indicative of their intention for tomorrow. The Karere arrived in the afternoon from Wangamata.

Monday, 12. The firing continued through the night, but at daylight Ngapuhi drew out on all sides, and pressed close upon the Pa. I looked to the Lord for help that he might spare this people for they knew not what they did. At one time our people were within 200 yards of the fence of the Pa. About 40 or 50 took up a strong position amongst some bushes and long grass, but were soon dislodged by Nateawa tho under great disadvantage, as the one party lay concealed while their opponents were completely exposed. The most brisk part of the action took place in full view of the vessel. Number of children from the Pa were out digging up the shot as they fell about them. Poor things I trembled for all and my soul was cast down within me when I reflected upon the unjustness of the war, speakg. after the manner of men, and to be the act of those natives with whom we have been so long in connection, and on whose account so many thousands of pounds have been expended, but the race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. The Lord will yet be exalted amongst the heathen, he will be exalted in the earth. After dinner an English man came on board from the Pa16, with a Chief, to see if something could not be done page 235 to establish peace, but the proposal must be made by Ngapuhi. We learnt that four belonging to the Pa were wounded but not seriously. Mr. Kemp and I went to the Camp intending to sleep there, that we might learn their intentions, but they seemed so abominably disposed and to reject all that we could say that we thought it best to return on board, which we did greatly dejected in mind at the desperate wickedness of our people. It appeared that only one of the Ngapuhi was wounded though seriously.

Tuesday, 13. All appeared quiet this morng. and we were in hopes that it would continue so. After breakfast Mr. Fairburn and I went to the Pa to see Kiaroa, who had come down during the morng. with his people to join those in the Pa. We were received most graciously. It was distressing to reflect what judgements awaited all. There were multitudes of interesting children. We took a survey of the works, which for a native affair is well constructed. While here we observed the Ngapuhi approaching, and learnt that a young woman had just been wounded in the arm. We felt it needful to take our departure, the contending parties not being at any great distance from each other. When on board we obs'd some close struggles on the beach. The firing continued more or less upwards of 2 hours, and we saw two persons belonging to the Pa carried off apparently dead. The Fairy Cutter arrived from Maketu. A European17 came on board and said he had come to see if Ngapuhi would accept the services of the Rotorua natives18 against Nateawa. He spoke of the cutting up of these poor creatures with apparent relish, as tho he would join the natives in their savage repast. A schr. arrived and anchored at some distance. Sent the boat to the Pa to enquire the loss, answer 4 killed and 3 mortally wounded. Could not learn what the Ngapuhi had suffered. The firing did not cease until dusk. A boat came alongside from the Ngapuhi and informed us that 1 was killed and some wounded. The european who came in the boat expressed his intention of supplying Ngapuhi with arms and ammunition as much as they required on trust. His expressions were disgusting and we were relieved by his departure.

Wednesday, 14. Calm, clear night. The natives in the Pa pouring forth bitter crys and lamentations, bewailing their loss, and a gun occ'ly fired, adding to the solemnity of the scene. At break of day two canoes came from Ngapuhi alongside the Fairy for some great guns and small arms ammunition &c., &c. The Pa opened page 236 fire upon them but the shot fell short. The natives seemed to scowl upon us, knowing that we disapproved of their proceedings. Titore being amongst them we sent the boat for him. He was friendly but did not give us any hope, nor could we indeed feel any ourselves after hearing and seeing all we had last night and this morng. After breakfast we paid a visit to the Pa but did not remain long. The natives appeared in better spirits than I expected, endeavoured to induce some boys to accompany us to the Bay of Islands, but they were afraid, not being able to judge for themselves. In the afternoon Mr. Kemp and I went to the Ngapuhi. Some were as usual others would not speak and appeared quite intoxicated with the fresh supplies they had obtained from the Fairy. We were determined to ascertain their real disposition with respect to Nateawa. Every voice was for war, every wicked feeling seemed to be let loose. About 8 o'clock they commenced their speeches, but all the same tone. Tohitapu was as wicked as anyone. One of the chiefs, belonging to the Waimate, named Tinana, said that we had been giving their description to Nateawa in order to pick them off; but he was soon put down.

Thursday, 15. Passed a sleepless night, the awful state of the people weighed much upon our spirits. Our fears were great on behalf of Nateawa. Ngapuhi had the advantage in experience. How little do the natives know their best friends and their best interest. We concluded that our efforts were now come to a close amongst these people and that it would be best to return home as soon as possible. We accordingly passed through the camp and returned on board. After breakfast hoisted in my boat and prepared for sea as soon as the winds and tides should permit. Several natives on board from the Pa, amongst whom was Kiaroa. They did not appear to suffer as much as we did, but spoke of their hope that we should soon return, and that some missionaries should be sent to their place, but I fear there is not hope that they will be able to oppose the great force brought against them, supported as their enemy is by the aid influence and superior knowledge of the European who is in close connection with them.

In the eveng. being high water, weighed and made sail. The wind directly in. Passed safely over various banks, but when close to the great hill which forms the south head the vessel missed stays owing to the swell caused by the ebb tide and there appeared every prospect of going on the rocks, which was alone prevented by letting go the anchor, and taking in the sail. Everyone was much alarmed and the sea breaking on all sides, but as the tide was setting to windward there was no strain upon the cable. In about page 237 an hour the sea subsided. We again weighed, and in a short time, were out of all difficulties.

Friday, 16. Fine. Wind directly against us. White Island East about 15 miles at day light. At sunset passed close to the south end of Mayor island. A musket fired from the shore. Tauranga on the lee quarter. Painful feelings respective its inhabitants.

Saturday, 17. Fine, wind more favourable. At 8 o'clock passed close to leeward of The Aldermen. At sunset close to the south end of Barrier island, appearance of rough night.

Sunday, 18. Wind scant, a good deal of swell. At 8 o'clock passing between the Poor Knights. At 4.30 rounded Cape Brett, and at 8 landed unperceived at Paihia, and with inexpressible delight and gratitude found all well.

Monday, 19. Felt very weary in body, and much distress of mind at the present state of things in this land. All is dark, dreary and dire confusion. By vessels from the Southd. we hear of nothing but war and blood shed, of the assemblies of large bodies of natives armed with muskets gone forth utterly to annihilate all whom they may meet, but we have this assurance—the Lord is faithful, he cannot err. It is a season which demands earnest and constant prayer of the church on behalf of the nations of the earth, that they may be delivered from the chains of darkness. The great struggle seems to be at hand here and most seem to be aware of it and gazing in anxious expectation for the result. Should Ngapuhi persevere in fighting, should they disregard our message, then all will be involved in wars. Again should they be disposed to hear, then we may expect many openings for the introduction of the Gospel in various parts of the island. O Lord make bare thine arm and come and help us.

Friday, 23. Much recovered since my return. The general opinion here that it would be desirable to pay the natives a visit at Tauranga for a few days, previous to the sailing of the Active for the Colony, to see in what temper of mind they may be in at present.

Sunday, 25. Fine. Thirteen boats' crews and various officers of the Shipping at Service. Chapel very full. In the afternoon went to Otuiho, saw Hihi and Pomare, attentive and thoughtful.

Monday, 26. Messrs. Kemp and Hobbs arrived from the Kerikeri. At sunset, Mr. Fairburn and I went on board the Active; weighed and sailed for Tauranga. At 8 o'clock spoke a ship working in but she would not shorten sail, could not learn from whence she was.

Tuesday, 27. Wind strong from S.S.E. At 10 bore up for the Bay. At sunset wind shifted from the westd. put about and stood to the Southd., strong wind through the night.

page 238

Wednesday, 28. Strong breezes. Noon wind S.E., stood in shore.

Thursday, 29. Aotea 4 miles at daylight. At sunset close to the last of the islands towards Tauranga. Little wind. At 8, heavy squall, shortened sail.

Friday, 30. The wind heavy till near morng. At day light Mayor Island S.W. 6 miles. Modt. weather, made sail, wind S.W. At 3 p.m. strong breezes. Sunset, wind same. Shortened sail apprehensive of being driven off the land. Obs'd the fires near Tauranga. Maunganui about 6 miles to windward.

Saturday, 31. Clear sky but wind occasionally very heavy. Standg. off and on through the night to keep our ground. At daylight made sail but did not save the tide. At 9 o'clock came to an anchor close to leeward of Maunganui. Did not observe any fires this morng. Cap. Wright and Mr. Fairburn went on shore to reconnoitre. While they were away Cap. Williamson and two other Europeans came off in a canoe, from whom we learnt that Ngapuhi had shifted quarters and were on the opposite of the river to Maungatapu, that several skirmishes had taken place and some few killed and wounded on both sides. The Rotorua natives had come forward, and divided themselves between Ngapuhi and Nateawa. Also that the New Zealander Schr. had been in, when a large party of Ngapuhi had fired upon her for a considerable time from the shore, which was returned by the schooner with her great guns, not known whether any killed or wounded. At 2 p.m. the flood tide making in, we weighed and made sail and worked into the harbour. No one from Ngapuhi came near us.

Sunday, 1 April. At sunrise upwards of a dozen canoes obs. pulling towards us from Ngapuhi full of men. They landed some distance from us and came running until they came abreast of us, each with his musket. We hoisted a white flag, but they were not satisfied what vessel it was until they hailed us, when they set up a haka and called us to go on shore and see them. We were rec'd by them in a very friendly manner. They told us they had thought we were the schr. which they engaged ten days since and had now come to take her and had brought six great guns. They related their proceedings during our absence and appeared glad to see us. Titore with 3 canoes remained with us until the tide flowed, for the purpose of conducting us up the river to the Camp. The others returned immediately. At 10 o'clock held service on board. In the afternoon we went up the river by ourselves, the canoes going in another direction, having observed some men on an island near us. We met a canoe coming to us in which were the principal chiefs of page 239 Ngapuhi. They were very friendly and returned with us. Tohitapu with considerable self-importance related their great deeds, magnifying the loss of the enemy. We passed through the camp and were thankful to the God of all mercies for the great change in the tone of this people, from what it was when last amongst them. Many shook their heads signifying they were tired, and others complained of want of food. Their attempts had failed. They found that their opponents were not backward to meet them, and their great guns had been brought into action but of no use. They had dragged them close to the Pa two days after we sailed for the bay and were firing nearly the whole day without any effect, but had sustained some loss themselves, and the two guns belonging to Moka had nearly fallen into the enemy's hands. News just arrived. A large reinforcement at Otumoetai from Waikato. We felt much encouraged to hope that peace might yet be established. We took our departure at dusk, with the understanding that we should return in the morng. all exceedingly civil.

Monday, 2. In the afternoon, Mr. Fairburn and I went to Ngapuhi. Paid a visit to all, many appeared desirous to return but others obstinately bent on remaining. Pitched my tent close to Tohitapu, who was very polite.

Tuesday, 3. At break of day firing commenced by natives of Rotorua upon Nateawa, but did not long continue as it came on to rain. Tarea sent a message for us to go to the Pa, previous to which we called upon the various chiefs to endeavour to learn their ideas. Tohitapu expressed his desire to return with us. All complaining of want of food but we could not obtain anything satisfactory. On approaching the Pa multitudes came to meet us. All appeared in good spirits disposed either for peace or war. Our old friends Kiaroa, and Kaiawa, spoke with considerable spirit, they were willing for peace but prepared for war. We took a view of the fortifications which were stronger than those of Otumoetai.

Wednesday, 4. In the afternoon returned on board. Received a letter from Mr. Montesrior19 a resident at Otumoetai requesting that his property consisiting of muskets, powder, &c., &c., might be received on board as he considered it in danger.

Thursday, 5. After breakfast Mr. Fairburn and I went to Otumoetai, returned answer to Mr. Montesrior, that we could give any or page 240 all of them a passage to the Bay of Islands and receive any property excepting arms and ammunition. Had short interview with the natives and proceeded on to the Camp of Ngapuhi. We had not been long here before seven Canoes pulled up from Otumoetai to challenge Ngapuhi, and remained for some time pulling in defiance. Titore's boat pulled towards them and a few shots were exchanged. At length some canoes were launched and gave chase to the enemy. We remained some time in conversation with Rewa and others. Considerable bustle while here, everyone under arms, lest the people from the Pa Maungatapu should cross over, as the Ngapuhi were divided. Returned on board about 3 o'clock. The two parties firing at each other at long range on the beach opposite the vessel. The Ngapuhi it appears had chased Ngateawa in all directions and tho not more than 200 had driven them up close to the Pa. They afterwards retired gradually and took up their position about 1½ miles from the Pa, and detached from the main body. This will doubtless be regarded by all as a decided victory tho hi all probability none were hurt on either side. At 7 a canoe came off from Otumoetai with an English man wishing for a passage to the Bay of Islands. From him we learnt that one or two of Nateawa were slightly hurt. The fires of Ngapuhi burning bright in full view of the Pa, expressive of their intention for the morng. How feeble the judgement of man in reasoning on the dealings of God.

Friday, 6. Early this morng. Mr. Fairburn and I pulled up to Ngapuhi and were not much surprised to learn that Tohitapu had declined going with us to the Bay of Islands. Called upon him, he stated the objections of the Chiefs to his leaving them. He was very civil, nay even kind, desiring that we would not spare his kumara when we should arrive. We took leave of all regretting that they retained dispositions to war, but pleased at their general behaviour. They were a good deal elated at transactions of yesterday. All enquired when we should return and when told that the Active would proceed to Sydney they desired that Karere might come and meet them. Returned on board by noon and as the wind was East we determined to proceed to the Bay of Islands immediately. As it was now high water we weighed and made sail, but were considerably baffled under the lee of Maunganui, the eddy wind catching us first on one side then on the other put us in imminent danger of running on shore. The entrance was narrow on our right, and a bank on our left, with a head sea caused by the tide now setting out strong. As we drew from under the high land the wind was more steady, and the tide assisting us, were enabled by a few tacks to get well clear of the land, tho we much regretted that we had page 241 moved from our anchorage, as we found the wind stronger than we had expected, and not so fair for us, being E.N.E. but we could not run in again. Were obliged to haul close to the Starbd. tack, and carry all possible sail, to endeavour to clear the Aldermen. Sunset, cloudy, symptoms of a gale. At 8 passed close to leeward of the Aldermen, and stood on for the Mercury isles, had great apprehensions that we could not weather, the sea getting up. At 11 saw the islands close to leeward. Wore and stood to the Southd. a rough course night. Waited anxiously for the morning, that we might run in amongst the islands.

Saturday, 7. Strong breezes and squally. Wind the same. Could not sleep, fearing that we might fall to leeward, and not find shelter in any place. At daybreak Mercury bay on the lee beam. The course through the islands where we wished to anchor N.W. wore and stood between them; wind free. Occasionally so thick that we could not see a ¼ mile round us. As we passed along the weather cleared up a little and the wind being fair it was concluded most advisable to proceed on to “Aotea”, the Great Barrier island, as there were two good anchorages known. As we drew under the land the gusts were so violent that we feared that either the masts or yards would go. The vessel became unmanageable and it was with many painful feelings we were necessitated to take in sail and let the vessel drift, which we soon found to be very considerable. As the darkness set in so also did our fears and apprehensions grow upon us. We could not keep the weather shore, what were we to expect from a lee one. The wind and rain now increased and brought before us all the horrors of Shipwreck in its worst form. It was an iron bound coast, with rocks and small islands scattered up and down. Our personal fears were not great, but we had wives and children, who in all probability might never learn our fate. Eleven hours night, a painful thought. Should we escape the fury of the sea, and obtain a landing, what then? There is no christian hand to befriend us, none from whom we could obtain relief. Should any natives be near us, they would but add to our distress. But oh my God, thou has been my refuge in distress, my help in time of need. It is thou only whom winds and seas obey.

Saturday night. We frequently spoke during the hour of prayer at our respective settlements, and reminded each other of their blessed employment. They little thought of our distress, but would be mindful of us; this supported us much.

Sunday, 8. A most anxious and agonising night. The gale very severe accompanied with heavy rain, and so unusually thick we could not see the length of the vessel. The wind shifted in the course page 242 of the night to North. Spent the whole night in prayer to the Lord for His protecting care. Unable to close my eyes, though up the whole of last night. Anxiously counting the lingering moments as they passed away, watching for the morng. Oh it was a dreary night. My soul much refreshed and kept alive by reflecting upon the texts of the day, contained in a sweet little book sent out by some christian friends, termed Daily Food for Christians, both for this day and yesterday. As I felt it most applicable, I will even add it, as it stands on the little page:

Jerh. 17.7 Biessed is the man who trusteth in the Lord, and whose hope the Lord is.

Begone unbelief, my Savour is near
And for my relief will surely appear
By faith let me wrestle and He will perform
With Christ in the vessel I smile at the storm.

Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from the Lord. Jerh. 17.5.

At first dawn of day Mr. Fairburn and I were up to discover where we were and as the light came on, could perceive the dark hazy gloom of high land close on the lee beam, as the King of Terrors frowning upon us as he sat, brooding over the storm, ready to snatch his victims. We wore in haste and made sail under the impression that it was Cape Colvel, but soon perceived that it was the north head of Port Charles, in which there is no shelter. Stood on under all possible sail to endeavour to weather the point which presented itself for a few moments on our lee bow, but despairing of this, as the sea was setting us fast to leeward, we determined to try and stay her, as the only alternative, there not being room to wear. She had missed stays several times yesterday by which circumstances we were brought into the present situation. Every countenance spoke alarm, and it was declared impossible to save her. But what is impossible with man is possible with God.

Tho seriously impressed with our great danger I felt a strong faith or secret conviction, that the Lord would shew Himself a refuge and strength in this our time of need.

We watched a smooth of the sea to put the helm down, and thanks be to the Lord at that interval it was particularly so, and she came round in a surprising manner, though to all human appearance it was impossible she could weather the land, owing to the heavy sea which was running. We settled fast down upon some frightful rocks which were close to leeward and soon brought them in our wake, but after a short time we were relieved by perceiving that we gradually drew off shore. We stood on wishg. to regain the islands page 243 to windward of Mercury Bay but still the weather was so very thick we could scarcely see the vessel's length around her. After standing with intense earnestness looking out, for our danger was not yet over, land was announced on the lee bow, close to us, which we perceived was the desirable point. We bore up in haste and were soon in smooth water under the lee of the Mercury islands and discovered what we had never before seen tho often in this neighbourhood a commodious bay in which we anchored about 10 o'clock, to the unspeakable relief of our minds and bodies. At 6 p.m. we all assembled in the Cabin to offer up prayer and praise to the God of all mercies for our late deliverance, every one being too weary to attend earlier.

On reflecting on the deliverance of the past night and this morng. my soul is overpowered with gratitude to the Lord our Shepherd. Who can declare our danger or the protecting arm of the Almighty. We had sought for shelter in a known harbour but were prevented from obtaining it, tho close at the entrance and lay exposed during a long night to danger on all sides. Land was around us, and our chart incorrect, the weather so thick that we could not perceive land until close upon it, but at the moment when it became needful for us to act, the day dawned, our danger at that interval was pointed out by a break in the haze, and we were enabled to do what alone could save us. The Captain commanded to wear, which would have been inevitable destruction. This was overruled, and she was thrown in stays as the last and only resort.

Oh may it be a Sabbath long to be remembered with gratitude and love. Our lives have this day been given afresh to us and to our families. The thought is overwhelming, what would have been their state had it pleased the Lord thus to have removed us from them, for scarcely would it have been possible that any should have been spared to tell the mournful tale. To his name may we ascribe all praise and dedicate our services afresh to him.

Monday, 9. A strong gale through the night from N.W. Let go the second anchor. Greatly relieved by a good night's rest.

Tuesday, 10. Mod and fine. Wind S.S.W. At 7 weighed and made sail and worked out of our bay of refuge, with thankful hearts for the protection afforded to us while here from the raging of the tempest, and for the wind now favourable for our return home. While here we discovered a safe and beautiful harbour in which the Active could run and be sheltered from every wind, a place which may hereafter prove of great importance. Passed outside Aotea, and at 11 were close to leeward of the Poor Knights.

Wednesday, 11. At sunrise Bay of Islands open to view, wind page 244 against us. Worked up by the afternoon, and were thankful to learn that all were well. The Sisters, Cap. Duke, in the Bay from England with letters, also Mr. Mathews20 from the Colony, to join the Mission.

Sunday, 13 May. I this morng. baptised an interesting youth by the name of Hemi, he has long lived in the Settlement, and has always conducted himself with great propriety. He is highly connected and may prove of great assistance in the Mission. I was much affected with the solemnity of the season, and the beauties of the service. Many strangers were present both European and native.

Monday, 14. The Chiefs Hiamoe and Pukututu21 came from the Kauakaua to request some of us to go up to attend the Hahunga there, the feast which takes place at the removal of the bones of the dead. We consented to go up in the morng. tho it would be attended with loss of time and inconvenience, still it affords us an opportunity of speaking, tho not viewed by us as the most favourable, as at these seasons their minds are more particularly filled with folly and wickedness, and much noise and confusion prevails for many days without intermission. In the evening our natives in high bustle makg preparation for the morng.

Tuesday, 15. At 4 Mr. Brown and I left the beach with two boats and one canoe for the Kauakaua. We landed at break of day. Thick foggy weather, everything wet and dirty. Had prayers with our natives and took breakfast, before we joined the multitude. The ceremony had commenced some time previous to our arrival. The speeches poor. Rawiri and several of our leading youths delivered their sentiments among the rest. All very attentive in their supplies of food cooked and uncooked. In the afternoon, i turia te ngaratau the forces were assembled to Haka. Returned home by 8 in the evening. The boats were loaded with kumara. Much wearied with the noise of the people. About 3000 baskets of food were provided, besides pigs, and one Cow in calf, which had been shot for the occasion, three or four days before, and had now become highly flavoured.

Wednesday, 16. The boys preparing a Wata, a high stand for page 245 native food, about 16ft. long and 10 wide, 16ft. from the ground, to preserve it from the English rats which are now beginning to infest all parts of the land having found their way by means of the shipping. The natives have expressed considerable alarm and have brought this forward as another evidence of the anger of Atua for not observing more rigidly their religious ceremonies. Thus we find the great adversary meets us at every point and disputes every inch of the ground, attributing all evil to the presence of the Missionaries. But the Lord he is our God, our shield and strength.

Thursday, 17. Again required to comply with the request of some of our friends to pay a visit to Wangai to attend a Hahungu. Nothing particularly interesting. 30 baskets of Kumara brought forward for our party, which is always expected to be carried away. These feasts take place at this season of the year, called the Ngahuru, or tenth month, when the harvest of Kumara is gathered in and they cease to count the months until the time of planting again comes round.

Friday, 18. Mrs. W. and I with our two eldest children crossed over to the Wahapu to see Mr. and Mrs. Mair, Cap. and Mrs. Powditch22, a point of duty needful to observe, where it can be done. A party of natives landed from the Thames23, held communication with them. They enquire why the Missionaries are all congregated in this neighbourhood, when the whole land is without any one.

Saturday, 19. In the afternoon Mr. Brown and I went over to see Mrs. Wright and family in the absence of Cap. W., and brought them to Mr. B's to remain till Monday.

Sunday, 20. After service Mr. Brown and I went up to Otuihu The natives from the Thames were very attentive and appeared much interested with what they heard and asked many questions, those of the Pa very careless.

Monday, 21. The main chimney of my house condemned for its bad qualities in not carrying the smoke tho it had been erected by a professional man. Made preparation for taking it down. Boys mixing mortar. In the eveng. many of the natives came as usual to page 246 enquire after truth. Tho these assemblies frequently occur when we are weary with the fatigues of the day, still it is impossible to refuse their solicitations. I have known them often waiting for hours with a desire of having a few words from us.

Tuesday, 22. After dinner commenced the work of demolition upon the chimney and enveloped in dust until long after dusk. Levelled it to the ground. Boys in high spirits, this work of destruction being agreeable to their natures.

Wednesday, 23. Commenced rebuilding. In the eveng. held a meeting with some of the natives.

Thursday, 24. Building my chimney, the erecting not so expeditious as pulling down. Hard work. Severe headache from the perpetual motion of the head. Potahi died, a little girl we had brought from Rotorua, who had always been a sickly child.

Friday, 25. Carried my chimney close up; trying to the back; every appearance of a gale.

Saturday, 26. Occasional rain. Concluded my work in the midst of a heavy squall with joyful hope of being free from smoke.

Sunday, 27. Heavy squalls of wind and rain; could not move from the settlement.

Monday, 28. I married this morng. Hemi and Hera two baptised natives living with Mr. Fairburn. Employed plastering back room. At work till 8 laying hearth in front room, dust and dirt all day.

Tuesday, 29. Plastering both rooms, not yet complete.

Wednesday, 30. Mr. Davis from Waimate to go to Kauakaua. He and my brother went up in little boat to examine some land in dispute. Met several of our natives in the eveng. much pleased with them.

Thursday, 31. Finished in front room.

Sunday, 3 June. Squally with heavy rain. No moving from home.

Monday, 4. Heavy gale through the night. In the afternoon cleared off. Messrs. Kemp and King arrived. Held the prayer meeting. Very gratifying tho but two or three to approach with the assembled multitudes in Europe and throughout the world, around our Father's throne in behalf of the Heathen nations.

Tuesday, 5. Squally with heavy showers of rain. Messrs. King and Kemp with their children departed. Messrs. Clarke and Davis arrived from the Waimate. Very wet.

Wednesday, 6. The Waimate party departed at noon. Showers not heavy.

Thursday, 7. The boys commenced upon the school house clearing away for repairs and to finish off. News that Kawiti was going page 247 to Waikato24 with a large party to obtain satisfaction for Rangituke, who was killed by those natives some years since. Matiu and others came in the eveng.

Friday, 8. Cloudy and calm, appearance of a gale. Boys at school. Several kept without breakfast for ill behaviour, which I hope will have a good effect.

Saturday, 9. Strong breezes and cloudy, no prospect of going to Rangihoua. Noon rain, which increased to gale by sunset.

Sunday, 10. Heavy showers occasionally, no moving out.

Monday, 11. Boys commenced lathg. at Mr. Brown's house, the school house.

Tuesday, 12. Boys lathg. at school house and preparing lime for same.

Wednesday, 13. Lathg. and mixing mortar.

Thursday, 14. Natives in the evening, a good number.

Friday, 15. Boys at the school house plastering.

Saturday, 16. Myself occup'd all day with the boys at School house plastering. Active returned from Hokianga with a cargo of timber.

Sunday, 17. Fine. In the midst of the Sermon put into great commotion by a party of Na te Hine who landed unobserved and had commenced stripping the houses belonging to Mr. Fairburn's boys in consequence of the marriage of Hemi and Hera. Everybody obliged to turn out for a general scuffle. Launched two boats to search the canoes afloat, recovered everything excepting a gown, our boys took a catouch box from them. The victory on our side. The party much ashamed and returned quietly home. This is the 4th disturbance, wherein the natives have watched the opportunity when we have been engaged in our service. Much troubled through the day by the outrage of the morning.

Monday, 18. Heavy shower, prevented from going to the Waimate. In the afternoon the ship Offley arrived. Mr. Mair saw letters for us, but the Captain would not let them come. Sent Mr. Puckey off with a note to the Captain, but unsuccessful. He was desired to call in the morning. Boys at work on Mr. Brown's house.

Tuesday, 19. Fine. The ship's boat brought the letters. The only intelligence to us, the death of our good Mother. My boys as yesterday.

Thursday, 21. Cloudy. Urumihia25 and party landed on her way page 248 to the Thames. All had much to say as to the probable time of our going down to see them, very many solicitations. A good deal of crying with their relatives in the settlement.

Friday, 22. Most tempestuous night with torrents of rain. Urumihia's canoes upset and all their sea stock of provisions lost. The Fairy Cutter arrived from the Southd. brought word that there was no fighting, but quarrelling among the Ngapuhi. Many of their Canoes lost; but little food, and talking of coming back26. I hope this may be indeed the case; that they are at length wearied out, and that they may return more humbled.

Saturday, 23. Heard that the natives up the river were in a state of readiness to move to Waikato. At noon passed on to Rangihoua. New Settlement in prosperous state as respects the two houses, the situation far better than the present spot. Mr. Shepherd and his family in their new dwelling.

Sunday, 24. Fine. Scanty congregation. Service morng. and eveng. Mr. and Mrs. Shepherd and family came over land from Tepuna. Long walk. In the eveng. returned to Paihia.

Monday, 25. Fine. Went to Utuihu to see Pomare, to endeavour if possible to deter him from his purpose of going to Waikato with the expedition. He was civil but indifferent whether he went or staid. The natives spoke of their having been makutud, bewitched by us and consequently they were all dying. This has very frequently been mentioned. How wretched is their state by nature, that thus they should reject the only hand extended for their relief.

Tuesday, 26. Boys repairing the front of the Chapel. They are now acquiring the capability of executing this work with little of our attention, in comparison with what they used to require. A Bark arrived from the Southd. by which we rec'd letters from the Colony. Heard also that 10 Canoes had sailed from Wangari against Waikato27. In the eveng. study full of natives to converse. It is very refreshing after a wearisome day to meet with these our adopted children, to speak upon the things which relate to their eternal peace, for we know they must possess a good share of sincerity to induce them thus to assemble together after the work of the day.

Wednesday, 27. Koropu repairing the front of the Chapel. Mr. Yate arrived from the Waimate. A sailor died at Kororarika belonging to a ship lying there. Our native Rawiri had on Sunday last found out this poor fellow, who was laying sick in one of the page 249 native houses, and was observed praying with him. The sailor could not in all probability understand a word of what was said, but Rawiri prayed in the only language he knew, and to the Lord of Heaven and earth, to the disposer of all events. It was a pleasing circumstance for it was done in much simplicity.

Thursday, 28. Wind from N.N.E., prevented going to the Kerikeri, by 10 o'clock it blew a gale which continued all day accompanied with rain. In the eveng. cleared up, wind shifted to the Westd.

Friday, 29. Fine strong wind. Took Miss Williams and the children to the Kerikeri. Squally with rain in the eveng. Could not return home.

Saturday, 30. Ret'd home by noon. Our work at the Chapel nearly spoiled as the Native was left to himself. Obliged to go myself and finish off.

Sunday, 1 July. Kaipau baptised. He was the first lad who attended upon us on our landing in this settlement, a poor little dirty wretched object but now a fine youth well clad in blankets and in possession of a plantation, a house and a wife and I trust above all a new heart. He has undergone strict scrutiny.

Monday, 2. Before daylight in motion towards the Kerikeri, arrived about 11 o'clock. After dinner commenced business. In the eveng. our monthly prayer meeting.

Tuesday, 3. At close business. Sat till 11 p.m.

Wednesday, 4. Finished business by 3 p.m. and arrived at home at 7 o'clock.

Thursday, Friday & Saturday, 5, 6, 7. Emp'd writing. Mr. White arr'd.

Sunday, 8. Several strangers in Chapel. Squally, did not move out.

Monday, 9. Fine. Writing all day.

Wednesday, 11. Messrs. Davis and King with all their children to school. Violent gale in the evening, much rain.

Thursday, 12. Fine morng. Mr. Kemp arrived with his children. Writing all day.

Friday, 13. Mr. Davis returned. Mr. Hobbs arr'd, emp'd writing. Taui, a youth of considerable rank, came in the evening to converse and enquired amongst other things if it were proper for those not baptised to ask a blessing at meals.

Saturday, 14. Fine. Writing till noon.

Sunday, 15. Cloudy. Several strangers at service. In the afternoon Mr. Brown and I went over to Kororarika, mostly women, a few lads their attention surprising, some of them wishing to go with us to the settlement, much enquiry concerning the Cholera.

page 250

Monday, 16. Wind North. Heavy rain generally through the day.

Tuesday, 17. Wind West. Mr. Baker arrived in the afternoon.

Wednesday, 18. Fine. Rode to the Waimate for a change of air and scene and exercise, after so much close writing.

Thursday, 19. Rode in company with Messrs. Clarke and Davis to the woods and saw pits. My horse managed to get into a hole and tumble me into the mud, which was the extent of the damage. The woods were very fine, vast quantities of Kauri of the largest descripttion, many running 70 feet and upwards without a branch, 9 feet in diameter at the butt, and 6 feet at the head: two such trees would build a house for any family.

Friday, 20. Cloudy. At noon took my departure, soon overtaken with rain, continued my journey fearing a gale. Rain increased. My poor Parake slipt so much going over the clay hills that I was obliged to dismount at Puketona28 and walked the remainder of the journey. A dreadful afternoon, and road exceedingly bad, water running in the roads like rivers. My boy with refreshment remained behind, felt very faint and began to consider whether it would be possible to reach home or not. Was obliged to wade through the river at Kaipatiki and in less than an hour arrived at home in sad condition, but with a grateful heart. Never do I recollect to have been in so trying a predicament, it was with very great difficulty I reached home, faint, cold, and weary.

Saturday, 21. Cloudy. In the eveng. news of the return of several canoes from the Southd. and that Kuki a Chief belonging to the Waimate had been killed by accident. He was a quiet well behaved man and much respected by us all. The intelligence of the return of the natives was very grateful, our hearts were gladdened thereby, as we heard that they had altogether failed in their efforts.

Sunday, 22. Several strangers from the Taua at the service, afterwards administered the sacrament to 8 natives. Rawiri from Wangaroa having paid a visit of instruction to his old friends and companions in arms there. Tupe29 a Chief who was wounded at Kororarika wishing for a teacher, if not a European he desired that a native might go to reside with him. We have heard many pleasing things relative to this man. May the Lord grant that a door may be opened in this quarter for the introduction of the Gospel through the means of Native teachers. Several canoes entered the bay from the South page 251 from the expedition30. The natives said their guns would not shoot straight, for tho they were frequently quite close, the shots flew off from the object. This they attribute to the influence of the Missionaries.

Monday, 23. Several canoes arrived in the bay this morng. part of the armament which went to the Southd. various reports respecting the expedition. Titore remaining behind. All appear tired and glad to return. Many canoes broken and some lost in the late gales. Peace not effected. Matapo arrd. in the afternoon and related great news of their wonderful achievements. Certainly the news of the battle of Waterloo and the various incidents relating thereto did not command the attention more than the relation of this man. The boys told him it was well for him to make out a good tale, but asked him where were the spoils of victory. The various parties as they return have seldom any observations to make.

In the morng. attended to the English boys school. In the afternoon at the native girls school to form it into circulating classes 38 present, 10 absentees. Boys preparing land for potatoes.

Wednesday, 25. Much rain. Heavy thunderstorms in the afternoon. Emp'd writing.

Thursday, 26. Drilling the girls at school in the afternoon.

Friday, 27. Employed as yesterday in the afternoon. Two canoes came to the beach from the expedition. Nothing to say. A disturbance on account of Kohine, a girl living at my brother's. Some of the party just landed wanted to take her away as a wife for one of them. Our boys too strong for them. Our visitors rather cast down. In the evening a large party of our boys to converse.

Saturday, 28. Fine. Two canoes passed close to the beach from the expedition, none attempting to speak. In the afternoon went to Tepuna, all well there. Natives who returned from the expedition very quiet. All much ashamed, and moved round to a place on the coast out of sight.

Sunday, 29. Fine. No strangers. Much firing in the S.E., supposed fresh arrival. Returned to Paihia in the eveng.

Monday, 30. In the morng. at English boys school. In afternoon whitewashing the Chapel. Rawiri, Matiu, Maraia and Ripeka in the evening to converse.

Tuesday, 31. Whitewashing and repairing the Chapel. Toe the brother of Rawiri arrived from the expedition, having encountered severe weather on the passage up. Some of the canoes had been driven out to sea and had been three days at the mercy of the waves, and with great difficulty reached the land.

page 252

Wednesday, 1 August. Fine. Learnt sad accounts of Pita, the baptised native who accompanied us down to Rotorua. He there took a second wife, and ultimately denyed the truth of the religion of the Missionaries. In the afternoon at the native girls school, drilling them at the circular classes. Rawiri and several others going to Waimate to attend the Hahunga.

Thursday, 2. Fine. Boys cleaning windows of the Chapel. Rec'd note from Mrs. Wright, stating that the natives were planting upon their ground31, and that they had expressed their determination to repossess the land already sold. Mr. Brown my brother and I went over to see the good lady as her husband was absent, and walked over the bounds of the land. The natives were civil, cultivating on Cap. Clendon's land. A Cutter at Hokianga said to be lost. Boat picked up and a sail washed on shore.

Friday, 3. An important period with us. Nine years this day since we entered this Bay and came to an anchor. How vast the change in everything around, scarcely a trace of the state of things in those days. We have cause to rejoice at what we now see and hear, and take abundance of encouragement, but we shall see greater things than these.

Boys commenced sawing fencing. In the afternoon drilling girls school.

Saturday, 4. Gale at East. Rain from 9 o'clock. In the eveng. violent thunderstorm, rain and hail very heavy.

Sunday, 5. Fine afternoon went to Kororarika, good assembly. While Rawiri was engaged in prayer with the natives, Gray the Blacksmith, a man who two years since made great professions of religion was carried through the midst insensible from intoxication. Many drunken sailors, and some few natives, among whom was Hakiro, Tareha's son. The natives whom we met behaved very orderly and paid a good deal of attention.

Monday, 6. Wind S.E. appearance of Gale. All morning at native and English school.

Tuesday, 7. Fine. At noon went to the Kerikeri by water, for the purpose of holding service tomorrow. Mr. Brown to Tepuna.

Wednesday, 8. Fine. This day having been set apart as a day of general thanksgiving on account of the return of our natives from their late Expedition, without being able to accomplish their wicked purposes, we assembled at 10 o'clock for service. The natives were attentive. The subject of our meeting was altogether new and I trust will be attended with benefit to many.

page 253

Thursday, 9. Fine. Ret'd to Paihia by noon. The natives up the river troublesome to Mrs. Wright.

Friday, 10. Strong breezes from N.W. Squally. Sent some of my youths to the Karaka to commence for planting, preparing ground, &c., for potatoes. A party at home also preparing ground. Mr. Puckey to plant on Cap. Wright's ground to keep possession.

Sunday, 12. Weather unfavourable. Very cold. Mr. G. D. Brown at service. Did not move out.

Monday, 13. Weather continued the same. Boys employed planting. Conversed with some of the natives in the eveng. An old chief rooted in superstition one of the party.

Tuesday, 14. Exceeding cold day. Squalls and rain. Boys digging and preparing seed potatoes. As our method did not correspond with the native ideas, they were not sparing in their remarks, and quite ridiculed the cutting of the potatoes. They were much astonished that we should be able to gain from books any knowledge of this description, or of the nature of the ground and manure required for it.

Wednesday, 15. Fine weather much warmer. Commenced planting according to the English system. Much laughed at by the natives, many strangers came to look and comment upon our proceedings. Afterwards went to the Karaka to examine the land there for my boys and Rawiri, much very good and a plentiful supply of timber for fencing. While here a messenger came to announce that the natives were very troublesome at Captain Wright's place, taking up seed potatoes and eating it. Returned to Paihia and passed on to Pipiroa, found that the seed was taken up but not eaten. Natives disposed to be civil. After some conversation with the natives, they expressedt themselves satisfied. Returned home much tired.

Thursday, 16. Elder boys absent all day in quest of a canoe gone adrift in the night through their perplexing carelessness. Little boys planting potatoes and girls digging in the garden. At dinner time Tarea came and knocked at the door. He presented as gracious a countenance as he could command and complained of cold which intimated his want of a blanket. As I considered myself in his debt, I provided him with one. He was very importunate also for an axe or hoe or anything else even to a fish hook. As we had experienced much civility when to the Southd. Mr. Fairburn gave him an old adze. He shewed us his hand which had been shattered by the bursting of a gun about two months since, it was a most surprising cure. He enquired after two slave girls who were living in the settlement and from his subsequent conduct toward them it appeared he was prepared to use violent measures had there been page 254 any hesitation or opposition on our part to their leaving us, as they did not properly belong to him. We however told him, that as they were not our slaves, of course they must depart with him if he thought proper. When the poor creatures were brought before him, He eyed them as a hawk would his prey, and spoke to them with great brutality. He however departed in peace convincing us that he had not in any wise profited from the residence of the Missionaries in the land. After his departure Te Kekeao32 came into the settlement, shewing the contrast between these two men. He brought about 30 persons with him, most of them Natemaru returning to the Thames with Patuone33 who was about to settle there. In the eveng. the Chapel was filled with these natives. Rawiri Matiu and other of our Christian youths manifested much interest respecting them. I spoke to them upon their dreadful state by nature and the love of God in giving his Son a ransome for all: but to this they appear entire strangers.

Friday, 17. In the Forenoon Patuone came to call. He is certainly a first rate native, tho as yet no signs of changed nature. Blind to spiritual wants, he knows no Heaven he fears no Hell, and is daily led captive of the wicked one. He stated that he was going to the Southd. to live which was truly gratifying intelligence, as it may tend much to the preservation of peace. In afternoon took Mrs. W. over to call on Mrs. Wright. Heard from Mr. G. D. Brown that Titarau34 had taken a Pa belonging to Waikato—painful news, but the Lord's ear is not heavy that he cannot hear. We must pray, for Satan is up and vigilant.

Saturday, 18. Fine. Boys and Girls at work preparing ground and planting potatoes. In the afternoon heavy rain for two or three hours. Mr. G. D. Brown called and gave much interesting information respecting natives at the Southd. who are in a sad state, few in number and decreasing from war and sickness.

Sunday, 19. Cloudy. Several strange natives at service after which went to Kororarika. None of the leading men joined us, about 70 persons present, many sitting at some little distance wholly regardless of our message. One young man alone, made some enquiries, but stated that the people would not receive our message. Left them and returned home, much depressed in mind at the hardness of page 255 their hearts. After evening service two boys came to unburden their minds, which raised my spirits and encouraged me in the work. Oh that we could believe, that as thy day so shall thy strength be.

Monday, 20. Gale from the S.E. heavy rain. Heard that Hake35, from whom we had purchased the Karaka, as soon as he knew that we had commenced preparing ground, had taken a large party there to cultivate, in consequence of being accused of stealing a small piece of lead from my brother's house. When the weather clears up we shall be under the necessity of entering an action against the said Hake for such uncivil proceedings, which will be attended with considerable loss of time and trial of tempers. These things weary the spirits.

Tuesday, 21. Weather appeared disposed to clear up. Went round to the Karaka by boat. No signs of any work having been commenced, tho large party there. All knew our motive in coming and gathered round to hear the conversation, but we sat in silence for a considerable time. I could not perceive that anything had been done. At length I asked Hake his object in coming. He gave an indirect answer. After a lapse of half an hour one of the party said that he and Hake had been accused of stealing a small piece of lead. They had been examined twice, but it had not been found. However this matter we soon put straight by giving six small pieces of Kao. I then told him he must set fire to their houses and sheds, and we would give them a payment when done. His demand was large, but we moderated it and parted good friends.

Wednesday, 22. Fine. Moved early to the Karaka in company with Mr. Puckey. It was past noon before we could bring the question forward. We then produced our payment as agreed upon yesterday for the burning of the houses. It was examined but rejected as not being sufficient and several began digging. We told them it was for them to consider, but that we should certainly continue there unless driven away by general consent. We were obliged to speak resolutely as there had been an evil disposition towards us and many bad expressions uttered. The boats arrived at this period, when we ordered the things to be taken away, but Hake desired that we might not be in a hurry. He became more sober, and made a movement to put our wishes into execution to burn the houses. All were now in motion to carry their things to the canoes, and the houses soon in flames, which concluded this important matter. I returned home by sunset much fatigued in mind and body.

Thursday, 23. Fine. Rawiri and I with some of the boys went to Waitangi to reconnoitre the position and disposition of the natives page 256 there. None on our land. Commenced clearing away the surface of the ground of the weeds, &c., &c., to signify our intention to plant something. Heard from some slaves belonging to 'Huhu, that he was coming to cultivate on this land. In the afternoon, Te Tao who was cultivating on the opposite side of the river sent some fish over. I crossed the river to see him. He was very civil, and told me all the natives were coming in a few days to cultivate, and spoke of a swamp on our land as the spot. Heard also in the course of the afternoon that the wife of Watonga had been planting on Cap. Wright's ground, which had been prepared by Mr. Puckey's boys. A good deal perplexed by this succession of trespasses, obliged to send up the Kauakaua to Hiamoe to come and quiet this old woman, for we were weary of such a continuation of interruption, that if it should be the general wish to drive us into the sea, it had better be done with one accord. Certainly the conduct of the natives around us would lead us to suppose that this was their wish, it is according to what has been said by them. I have long felt that we might be called to this for surely the enemy will not willingly relinquish his dominion in the land. May the Lord give us grace to act becoming the Gospel we profess. Taui a young chief came in the evening to converse upon spiritual things.

Friday, 24. Fine. Had further consultation amongst ourselves concerning the intention of the natives, concluded to send messengers to call the principal chiefs together that we might learn their determination and they ours. My brother with all the boys went to Waitangi to express our opinion in going through the form of preparing the land for grass for cattle. Mr. Brown and I went to the 'Haumi to see Hake and to learn his movements. He came across the water, was civil and said we were a jealous people. We told him messengers had gone for the principal chiefs and that we had come to see what he was doing. Ae he said to lift us out if we were cultivating. I nodded assent. He observed they were only getting some shell fish and should remove in a day or two. Hiamoe and Rotokakati came down the river respecting Cap. Wright's land. They appeared disposed to take part with the troublesome woman. We told them that should the Natives prevail against us we should say no more. They observed, who can contend with a noisy woman. It was agreed however to visit her in the morng.

Saturday, 25. Much perplexity and hindrance through the day. After a good deal of trouble, the boys got the boat ready and I passed over with Hiamoe &c. to Mrs. Wright and thence to the old lady who had been so troublesome. She made considerable noise for half an hour saying that the boys had burnt her sacred wood, page 257 and stolen a comb with which her husband's head was dressed, and that I had threatened to shoot the natives as tho they were pigs, at which everyone laughed heartily. I told her to burn the house which had been the cause of so much mischief, and we would give her an iron pot on acct. of it. She ordered some food to be cooked for us, and we left her in good humour.

Sunday, 26. A good number of strange natives at service and as we concluded a fresh party from Waitangi, most of whom remained during the day. Mr. Brown and I went to Waitangi after dinner. A few natives gathering pipis on the beds. As they were somewhat beyond our reach, we sent the boys to converse with them, while we remained on the shore. No one from the vessel to Service. In the eveng. heavy rain, no service.

Monday, 27. Fine. At school with the English boys. In the afternoon engaged with Te Morenga, Motoi, Hiamoe, &c., &c., talking over reports which came to us last week. They spoke in a friendly way, and contradicted the idea of any wishing to take land, but we have no doubt that it was the case. In the eveng. Pomare and his fleet of Canoes returned from his expedition from the Thames, they came in quietly.

Tuesday, 28. Assisting Parata36 at his house. Also with Temorenga.

Wednesday, 29. Kawiti's fleet of Canoes returned, no display. In the evening received letters from England by way of Hokianga.

Friday, 31. Fine. A Schr. obs'd at day light standing into the Bay and in a short time a boat pulling on shore. All was anxiety to know who it might be, when the name of Cap. Clendon was passed in an instant along the settlement. We were soon in possession of numbers of letters, and learnt that Miss Coldham37 was on board and well.

Saturday, 1 September. Boys very unsettled, doubtful whether remain or go, rec'd several boxes and cases &c. from vessel; more letters; a season of much excitement. Heard that Mr. G. D. Brown had been stript in the Thames. Learnt more authentic accounts of an attack upon a Pa at Waikato38, loss of 1 European, and three others taken prisoners, who were afterwards ransomed by the Captain of a ship then in the Thames. They were three respectable young men, one of them was brother to the Cap. of the ship by whom they were redeemed.

page 258

Sunday, 2. Fine. Chapel overflowing. In the afternoon good attendance of Europeans.

Monday, 3. Forenoon engaged with Cap. Clendon and Pomare about his land. Many difficulties through the ill conduct of some europeans. In the afternoon engaged with the brethren from the other settlements. In the eveng. held our monthly prayer meeting.

Tuesday, 4. Appearance of a Gale from the S.E. Mr. White arrived from Hokianga in the evening. Marupo made his first appearance since his return, very polite.

Friday, 7. Fine. Planting in the garden. Case of goods for myself and brother brought on shore from the Fortitude, nearly everything in it spoiled from salt water, sad loss. In the evening Rawiri and others came to converse. Very pouri from the idleness of the boys.

Saturday, 8. Showers through the day. Employed planting in the garden. Boys at the Karaka at their plantation. Rewa came to see Captain Clendon respecting his land in Paroa Bay. Much hindered by them.

Sunday, 9. Fine. Large congregation of Europeans and natives. In the afternoon went up the river. Saw Kiwikiwi, attentive and civil.

Monday, 10. At the English school in the forenoon. In the afternoon engaged planting seeds from Cap. Clendon, who has kindly favoured us with a good sample. Pomare and Kiwikiwi came to see Cap. Clendon, required to negotiate their business between them as interpreter, which occupied a good deal of time. Several boys in the evening to converse. Spoke to them upon the necessity of dispersing among the natives to carry the Gospel message. This is a subject they appear to have felt for some time and several would gladly go forth, but they are weak and cannot be trusted far by themselves, they need continual watering and watchful care.

Tuesday, 11. Left early for the Kerikeri to attend a special meeting; uncomfortable pull across the bay; commenced business by 11 o'clock; read the public letter from London just received relative to the two persons coming out from England as Farmers. Returned by ½ past eight in the midst of heavy rain.

Wednesday, 12. Fine. Planting seeds all day in the garden. Mr. Baker arrived in the evening from the Kerikeri.

Thursday, 13. Much conversation respecting the formation of a new Settlement.39 Rain latter part of the day. Mr. Hobbs from Hokianga to see Cap. Clendon, and to obtain his things. After dark Mr. White arrived from same place. Koropu, one of my best lads page 259 who has had an obstinate fit for the last three months sent me a very civil letter to solicit peace. We settled our differences.

Friday, 14. Messrs. White and Hobbs returned to Hokianga. Fine day, everyone employed planting. In the evening spoke to the natives in the Chapel. Thoughts much engaged upon the necessity of a Settlement to the Southd. Heard that a fresh expedition was in contemplation to Waikato in the summer.

Sunday, 16. Fine. The Chapel very full of strangers, not many Europeans. After service went to Waitangi, wind too strong, could not cross the river. Large ship working into the Bay.

Monday, 17. Fine. Strong wind from the S.W. Report of a disturbance amongst the natives. Pomare the principal agitator.

Tuesday, 18. Fine. Rawiri and I went over to Kororarika. Saw Rewa. The general conversation upon the present disturbance. He expressed a wish that we should go up to Otuihu and see Pomare and the opposite party, which we accordingly did. We found them well disposed to listen; they of course threw all the blame on the people of Kororarika. The dispute arose about a small patch of potatoes, but when the mind is predisposed to displeasure, it does not require much to raise a flame.

Wednesday, 19. Fine. Girls in the garden digging.

Thursday, 20. Gave a portion of ground to the girls for their own potatoes. Squally through the day. Went to the Karaka to see the cultivation there; admired the place; too wet to plant. In the evening Mr. Davis arrived from the Waimate.

Friday, 21. Wintry day. At girls' school in the afternoon, drilling the girls.

Sunday, 23. Gale from the Eastd. Occly rain. No strangers. Administered the Sacrament to 10 natives. Captain Clendon and Mr. Smith in the afternoon. In the eveng. rain, no service.

Monday, 24. Heavy gale with continual rain. Writing all day.

Tuesday & Wednesday, 25, 26. Writing generally through these days.

Saturday, 29. Writing the whole of these days with occasional interruptions.

Sunday, 30. Cloudy and rain. Active arrived from the Colony by 5 o'clock. Mr. Davis and his eldest daughter arrived in the midst of the rain from the Waimate, on acct. of the illness of Mrs. Puckey.

Monday, 1 October. At sunrise on the move to the Kerikeri. Commenced business by 10.30. About noon hail storm so severe that more than 20 panes of glass were broken in the Chapel. In the eveng. held our prayer meeting.

page 260

Tuesday, 2. Fine. Messrs. Davis and Clarke from the Waimate, full assembly! Continued close business till 8 p.m., disposed Settlement question. Messrs. Puckey and Mathews with a third to go to the formation of the same.

Wednesday, 3. Fine. Concluded by Noon. Ret'd to Paihia in the eveng.

Thursday, 4. Very unwell through the day. Obliged to keep quiet.

Friday & Saturday, 5, 6. Emp'd writing to the Colony.

Sunday, 7. Fine. While absent at Otuihu in the afternoon Wakarae40 died. Mrs. W. on returning from School passed the door of the house where he was; it was closed and many were assembled inside singing a hymn. They had been with him in his last moments. How different to former days, they were then dark but now light in the Lord. They sorrowed but not as those without hope. Their faith tho simple enabled them to receive with joy those many great and precious promises held out to all who mourn in Zion. This youth was long a Candidate for baptism before he was admitted into the Church.

Monday, 8. Committed the body of Wakarae to the dust in sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life through our Lord Jesus Christ. Many living without observe that the believers die as well as they, that all alike die. This leads to much conversation upon this interesting subject, and thus we find that Satan is foiled by his own weapons in this attempt to weaken the faith and destroy the hopes of those disposed to enquire after truth. It is a solemn subject and the mind generally in a quiet frame. Led to reflect upon the eternity before us. Emp'd in writing the latter part of the day.

Tuesday, 9. Showers through the day. Could not go up the River. Mr. Yate arrived from Waimate.

Wednesday, 10. Heavy showers through the day.

Thursday, 11. Fine. Miss Williams departed for the Kerikeri, to be in connection with that settlement. Called on Mrs. Clendon. Much alarmed at the number of Europeans prowling about.

Friday, 12. Fine. Went up the Kauakaua to see our cultivation, a tolerable piece.

Saturday, 13. Cloudy. Employed writing. In the eveng. Tupe arr'd from Wangaroa. Gale with heavy rain from the Northd.

Sunday, 14. Mr. Brown and I went to Kororarika. Tohitapu met page 261 us on landing, but learning that we were going among the less important part of the community to hold our usual service, he turned back with an exclamation of, “Who is going to sit among those slaves?” As we drew to the spot, the tinkling of a little bell saluted our ears, and in a few minutes about 100 persons were assembled. An armchair was brought forward for the Patene, Parson. We formed a snug congregation in a small enclosure and I found everyone very attentive. They informed me they had just concluded school. Very much has been said lately among the natives concerning the great mortality which has long prevailed in the land. This they have attributed to the influence of the Missionaries, and I have learned that Warepoaka and Waikato, when with the expedition at Maketu, circulated the idea that the Missionaries were he iwi makutu, bewitching people, and that they had obtained their information from Europeans of the ships and in the bay. These two men have always been regarded as very substantial friends of ours and externally have appeared to be such, but they have certainly been the authors of much mischief amongst their countrymen. In the affair at Kororarika, they publicly withstood us, and urged the expediency of satisfaction; so also in exciting the natives to go against Tauranga, and moreover to the prevention of peace being made after that much fighting had taken place.

In the eveng. had a pleasant conversation with Tupe, the Chief from Wangaroa. He is very desirous of instruction. Rawiri gave in his report from Puketona, his auditory very attentive.

Monday, 15. Fine. Went up the Kauakaua to visit the plantation, the seed potatoes bad, commenced planting.

Tuesday, 16. Thunderstorm in the night. Commenced heavy rain at 4, which continued till 9 o'clock. Returned to Paihia in the afternoon. Waha and Tangata to converse in the eveng. much pleased with them.

Wednesday, 17. Went to the Wahapu, and on board the Active on business with Mr. Mair and Capn. Wright.

Thursday, 18. Cloudy. Mr. Brown went to the Waimate. Disturbance at Mr. Mairs. Messrs. Fairburn, Puckey and self went over. A party of the Kapotahi had been there very troublesome, but were clear off before we could get across.

Friday, 19. Mr. Brown returned from the Waimate, with information that certain papers had been forwarded by the Active 3 months since.

Saturday, 20. Active's sails ordered on shore owing to the number of suspicious characters in the bay, and no ship laying here. Went up the Kauakaua to hold service tomorrow with the natives.

page 262

Sunday, 21. Fine. Held service with all the natives and afterwards went on to Waiomio. Saw Wini41, Tioka and others, The weather sultry, and hills fatiguing. While with these people an Englishman came to trade with his muskets and powder, which called forth the observations of all present as to his setting at naught the command of the God of Heaven. At 4.30 left the Kauakaua. As we drew near Otuihu we obs'd several canoes and much firing. We learnt that it was Pomare and party crossing the river, and that this was a salute in honour of his son and heir, who had been recently born to him.

Monday, 22. Kept school in the morng. with the English boys. At noon brethren arrived to special Committee.

Tuesday, 23. Fine. Assembled early in committee and closed in the afternoon.

Wednesday, 24. Fine. Writing all day. At evening service spoke to natives in the Chapel.

Thursday, 25. Emp'd in writing. Boys planting potatoes.

Friday, 26. Fine. Spoke to the Natives in the Chapel, after which a young woman and Toe came to converse upon their state and condition.

Saturday, 27. Fine. Report of the day. All the natives of Tauranga killed by Titore's party42 in conjunction with the people of Rotorua. In the eveng. several boys and girls in my study to converse. The meeting our natives in the evening is a considerable demand upon our time, but one of too pleasing a nature to be denied. They come like children to be taught, after the duties of the day, and have been frequently waiting till 8 or 9 o'clock before we could possibly see them. By this we may somewhat judge of the sincerity of their motives.

Sunday, 28. Heavy rain could not move out of the settlement.

Tuesday, Wednesday & Thursday, 30, 31 & 1 November. Writing through the day.

Friday, 2. Writing. In the evening natives came, too numerous for my study. Met them in the Ware paru. Rawiri observed that the natives were worse than children, they would only be content with their proper nourishment, and would not hear the voice of strangers, but that the natives regarded not the voice of their Father and their instructors, neither did they seek the food which was provided for their souls. He is one of our substantial hands, and page 263 affords us much comfort, when anything goes wrong, he is always in the way to put it right.

Saturday, 3. Writing. Met several of our natives in the eveng.

Sunday, 4. Strong wind from West. Remained in the Settlement all day.

Monday, 5. Strong wind. An American Ship arrived. Closed and sent my letters with a drawing of Tohitapu.43

Tuesday, 6. Cloudy. Recommenced school with the boys, as all have been off preparing ground and planting potatoes. Set two parties upon getting posts for fencing, and some to saw fencing.

Wednesday, 7. In the afternoon went to see Mrs. Clendon, who is in difficulties.

Thursday, 8. Gale from the N.W. The Active sailed from Rangihoua, and in the eveng. returned to old anchorage at Motu-o-rangi. We held a court today with our natives for going males and females together to collect shell fish. Spoke to them upon the impropriety of such proceedings and cautioned them to be careful in future. Appointed them their respective places where each may go without interfering with the other; some few expressions of displeasure. Met more than 20 of our natives in the eveng.

Friday, 9. Strong breezes and squally from the Westd. Met 3 natives in the eveng.

Saturday, 10. Strong breezes. Mrs. W. very unwell. Did not move out.

Monday, 12. The Active sailed for the Colony.

Tuesday, 13. At 6.30 p.m. Mrs. W. mercifully delivered of a little girl44, after very great suffering.

Saturday, 17. h.m. Ship——45 came to an anchor at Kororarika. Mr. Brown and I went on board; no news, and but few letters. Learnt this evening that Titore was dead, in about an hour it was contradicted.

Sunday, 18. Baptised Tangata and Waha by the names of Himiona and Hakopa. After service an officer of the Man of War came on shore but did not remain, as it was a public day on board. Poor fellows very ceremonious in their way, tho unmindful of the one thing needful.

Monday, 19. Fine. The Captain of the Man of War and one of his officers came on shore but did not remain. Our proceedings strange to them.

page 264

Tuesday, 20. Fine. All the former part of the day assisting Parata at his oven.

Wednesday, 21. All day upon the oven, an important piece of furniture. Gave Mrs. Clendon a lesson upon the construction of an oven and the art of erecting one. Finished our work.

Thursday, 22. At work in the garden, very hot.

Friday, 23. Cloudy. At work in the garden. Rec'd a letter from Haua mentioning his desire to come with his people, his relatives &c., from Kororarika to attend service on Sunday morng. as they were passing a few days there. Met several natives in the eveng.

Saturday, 24. Cloudy. Boys at work in the garden. Natives in attendance previous to receiving the Sacrament.

Sunday, 25. Cloudy. Two Canoes came over from Kororarika with about 100 natives to attend service. Several other strangers here also. Crowded to excess. Administered the Sacrament to our natives.

Monday, 26. Fine. Went up to Kerikeri to attend special meeting respecting the mill. Ret'd in the eveng.

Tuesday, 27. Tohitapu made his appearance from the interior, came down to see Titore46 and to attend the meeting of the natives. The party arrived this morning with the heads of those fallen, both belonging to themselves and their enemies. Many fears of a general assembly of the natives as the summer advances. Satan has a strong hold here, but in the Lord of hosts is our consolation, he will overrule all this for good. Intended to cross over to learn the state of things, but prevented by Tohitapu, who proposed tomorrow morning, as more of the Natives would be assembled. Our Natives at school in the evening by their own desire to prepare for the examination.

Wednesday, 28. Immediately after breakfast Mr. Brown and I went over to Kororarika with Tohitapu in the boat, to see Titore, &c. After a good deal of ceremony and preparation on the part of Tohi, we walked toward the party, who were all tapud, and consequently sitting by themselves without the enclosure, with the heads of their friends and enemies in full array before them, 14 belonging to the Nateawa, and 3 to themselves; these last were a short distance from the others, being worthy of more honour. The sight was most disgusting; the heads were dressed with feathers, and the teeth exposed to view gave a ghastly appearance, which was sickening in the extreme. Some of the heads I recognised. The page 265 countenances of all around seemed to partake of the image of their father the Devil. It was truly satanic, a grin was on every countenance. I could not hold conversation with any of them. Tohitapu, before taking notice of anyone present, walked towards the three heads belonging to Ngapuhi, and addressing Tu, who may be termed the god of war, as from whom all the art of war is considered to proceed, bravery and cunning. Having addressed himself to Tu and extolled the acts and brave deeds of these warriors, and viewed the payment (the fourteen heads of Nateawa) he expressed his approbation and turned to Titore, fell on his neck, and immediately both began a New Zealand howl. This lasted a few minutes, after which all began to talk together, enquiring and relating the scenes of the campaign. We left Tohitapu here, glad to retire, being much cast down at witnessing the apparent joy of these poor deluded people

In the eveng. two boys came to converse upon heavenly subjects.

Thursday, 29. Cloudy. Went up the Kauakaua. The natives generally cast down, as Tauranga is in close connexion with them.

Friday, 30. Stormy night. But little rest, owing to the dreadful proceedings of the natives at the Southd., reported numbers killed, 200 of the leading men; two battles were fought; each on the Sunday, and commenced by Nateawa. The natives attach great weight to the circumstance of the Tauranga people turning out on the Ra tapu, and consequently attribute their loss to this. Had much conversation with Toe and others, felt strongly disposed to go to the Southd. in my boat to see what could be accomplished. The fault of these late proceedings wholly on the part of Tauranga. Several natives came to me in the eveng., their answers to my questions good.

Saturday, 1 December. Squally with rain. War the general topic of conversation. Everybody going in the course of two months.

Sunday, 2. Squally, violent wind from the Westd. Did not move from home owing to the weather. Taui came in the evening to converse.

Monday, 3. Squally. Engaged in the English school all the forenoon. In the afternoon assisting Mr. Brown in finishing off.

Tuesday, 4. Fine. Assisting Mr. Brown in his house. Conversation with Tohitapu upon the affairs of the Southd. Went to the Toretore47 to see a sick Englishman, who had expressed a desire to page 266 see me; I could not remain long with him as it was late, promised to see him tomorrow. The poor fellow appeared in a sad state both of body and mind; gave a word to those around. It might almost be said that he was laying in a den of thieves. It was a pot house, and a place of resort for characters of the worst description of drunkards and gamblers.

Wednesday, 5. In the afternoon went over to the Toretore. The poor sick man appeared desirous of instruction; left some tracts for general use.

Friday, 7. Fine. Finished at Mr. Brown's house, tedious work. In the evening went to see the sick man.

Saturday, 8. Fine. Tohitapu came to talk upon State affairs. It appears that many are desirous to go to the Southd., but nothing determined as yet. I shall propose the question at our next meeting, in order to obtain the opinion as to the propriety of a visit to Tauranga. Tupe a chief from Wangaroa landed in the afternoon. Tohitapu again in the eveng. did not withdraw till late.

Sunday, 9. Fine. Good assembly at the Chapel. Several stranger came to converse. They are in a pleasing state. Also Tupe and his people.

Monday, 10. Cloudy, rain occasionally. My brother returned48 after a prosperous journey to the Northd. in quest for a desirable situation for a Station in the neighbourhood of Knuckle point. Warerahi and Nene came into the Settlement, had some conversation respecting Tauranga, they agreed with us in our opinion. The remarks of the natives generally here strengthen my desire to go to the Southd. Heard that Wera49 and Rauperaha50 intended to come up from the East Cape and Entry Island51 with their people, to take part in the war.

Rawiri came in the eveng. to state that all the plantations of potatoes belonging to the natives living at Paihia were stript, and consequently his among the rest; he conducted himself very properly. I reminded him that the reports were not always true, and consequently we were not bound to receive them, but that I would page 267 examine the matter in the morning. About 10 at night Tohitapu very vociferous on account of one his Wahitapu (sacred spots) having been invaded by some of the lads belong to the Settlement. Continued his noise till midnight. The boys repairing the Wareparu.

Tuesday, 11. Went up to Otuihu to hohou i te rongo (make peace) with Kawiti. As we had not had any communication with him since his party came upon us on the Sunday during service, it was needful to establish a good understanding with him before Titore should persuade him to join in the Expedition against Tauranga. He met me in a gracious manner, and ordered some potatoes and pipis to be cooked for me, and told me he expected a visit from Titore and Tarea, but did not wish to go to fight. Everyone in the settlement busy in preparation for the examination.

Wednesday, 12. Fine. Boys repairing the Wareparu. In the afternoon rec'd a note from Mr. Baker, stating Titore's intention to apply to us for some of the Missionaries to go up with him to the Southd. to see and make peace, that all may return to their own places. What an answer to prayer. Oh for greater faith in the Lord and in the word of His grace. It is thus we would desire to act as mediators between the parties whereby a door may ultimately be opened for the introduction of the Gospel of peace between God and Man.

Thursday, 13. Held a court of enquiry this morng. as to trespass on a Wahitapu belonging to Tohitapu, the spot where his son and several of his relations had been deposited. About 20 of the lads were implicated; gave them a severe reprimand for thus violating our good faith with the natives, and bringing reproach upon all in the Settlement. Deducted a week's payment from each of the 20 boys and sent an iron pot to his Highness Tohitapu. This kind of proceeding on the part of the natives living with us, the entering of the sacred spots to cut firewood &c. is what they have greatly delighted in, not being able to discern that the damages will fall on them; this they will learn probably in the repetition of this morning's lesson. Tohitapu expressed a wish to Rahue the spot, which was granted. The act of Rahue is the fixing of a piece of carved wood, about 5 feet high, smeared over with red ochre, in some conspicuous spot to signify that no one must trespass, or that it is Tapud. Received a note from Mr. Chapman to see one of his girls who was in a dying state. Went up immediately by boat, and arrived by 11 o'clock.

Friday, 14. Cloudy. Strong wind. Saw Aroha the young woman who has been ill for a considerable time, but she was so very deaf, we could not communicate with her; she appears near her bitter page 268 end. Returned by 4 o'clock to Paihia where I met Mr. Hobbs from Hokianga. A few boys came to me in the evening.

Saturday, 15. Fine. Kawiti came in the morng. to hear the news of the day. Obs'd a canoe pulling up the river; reported to be Titore; sent an express to call him to shore, but it was Kaitara, one of Wera's sons, lately from the East Cape. Titore had left Kororarika for the Northd. at daylight. Occupied in close conversation all the morng. with the natives, hearing news from the Southd. A party of Natives also from the Thames, much pleased with them.

Sunday, 16. Strong wind from the n.w. Rain at noon. I this morning dedicated my ninth child to the Lord in Baptism, may she be baptised with the Holy Ghost and with Fire, and never be ashamed to confess the faith of Christ crucified, and manfully fight under his banner against sin the world and the Devil, and continue Christ's faithful soldier and servant unto her life's end. A large assemblage of natives at the Chapel. In the evening Warekaua52 a chief from the Thames came to me, with whom I had a long conversation; he pleaded hard for Missionaries to live in his neighbourhood, as they would never be ora by the Pakeha Maori, they should never obtain peace and quietness by means of the Traders who reside amongst them. I told him we would consider his application, but that so much fighting had taken place in the Thames and elsewhere, we were afraid to move. He replied that all this originated in the Ngapuhi, our own people, who were he iwi tutu (A quarrelsome people).

Monday, 17. Cloudy. Strong wind. Rain occasionally. Everyone very busy concluding for the meeting.

Tuesday, 18. Very cloudy. About 10 o'clock Mr. and Mrs. King arrived from Tepuna, Mr. Kemp and Mrs. Chapman from the Kerikeri, and Mr. Clarke from the Waimate. All well at the different settlements. At 3 held our service in the Chapel, and at 6.30 the English Girls examined.

Wednesday, 19. At 9.30 commenced examination of native boys and girls, the Infant school and English boys, all acquitted themselves well, concluded by 1.30. About 3 o'clock dinner was served up, a good mess of potatoes and a piece of pork to each, and some stirabout for the natives outside. At sunset some tea and a cake to each. All were satisfied.

Thursday, 20. Fine. Distributed prizes to the girls. All fatigued. Turned the boys out to play at cricket by way of a finish, and to prepare them for operations in the morng. Very expert, good bowlers.

page 269

Friday, 21. The boys recommenced their regular work. In the afternoon went up for the new boat to Cap. Clendon's.

Saturday, 22. Expended much time with strange natives. Learned that Paura, Tamati and Hera had eaten tapud food, Hemi, Hamura and others being present; much grieved at the circumstance, as it gave the enemy cause to blaspheme, they being baptised natives, Tohitapu took occasion to notice it. In the eveng. Tupe arr'd from Wangaroa, also a cance from Kororarika to be in readiness for tomorrow's service.

Sunday, 23. Fine. 3 canoes came over to service. Hakiro, Son of Tarea, of the party. Could not all enter the Chapel. Administered the Sacrament to three natives, those concerned in partaking of the tapud food not permitted to be of the number. In the afternoon went up to Otuihu. Saw Pomare. All in a state of alarm at the news of Ururoa and party coming against them. An old woman much in character to the witches of former days, had a great deal of news to impart. She appeared their oracle, and had revealed by her dreams the desires of Ururoa, who lives at Wangaroa. Poor wretch, she set at naught all I had to say, and amused herself and others occasionally by a pukana, one of their hideous stares, accompanied with a Satanic grin and twirl of the tongue. She spoke of the excellency of the Reinga as having conversed with many from thence. Took the evng. service, much cast down respecting our natives of whom I learnt yesterday.

Monday, 24. Fine. The boys at their respective work, fencing and preparing ground at the back.

Tuesday, 25. Christmas Day. Service at 9 o'clock; but few natives except those of the Settlement in attendance. In the afternoon Mr. Brown and I went up to Otuihu, as it was reported that the natives were assembling there. Found Pomare exceedingly indisposed, having sustained considerable injury from a flying leap he had taken down a bank of some depth in consequence of a quarrel with some of his wives; he had nearly broken his neck. Our words could not administer comfort to him. In the afternoon Karekare53 arrived from Mangakahia; accounts of the movements of Moetara54, Tirarau &c. against Waikato.55 When shall this dreadful work come to an end, but it is thou O Lord who doeth what seemeth good unto thee among the armies of Heaven, and among the inhabitants of the Earth.

page 270

Wednesday, 26. The boys at work getting fencing and preparing ground.

Thursday, 27. Fine. Boys as yesterday. In the afternoon a number of canoes came in from the Northd. expected to be the Rarawa with Titore. Many conjectures. They proved however to be a trading party from Matauri and Oruru.

Friday, 28. Fine. Went over to Kororarika. Rewa not there. Saw Moka on the beach and several of his party preparing flax for a fishing net. All were tapued. I sat down in the midst of them, and began to work with them, and to converse upon the past present and future. We had plenty of subject matter to speak upon, and I have not had so agreeable a season for a long period as the present. They frequently laid aside their flax in earnest attention to what was passing. He had several strangers with him, and tho they might not receive my message, which was Jesus and the resurrection, they certainly listened with apparent desire to learn what this new doctrine should mean, for tho to many of those around us it is nothing new, yet to others it is altogether strange. Moka was particularly well behaved, which for so turbulent a creature must have required no ordinary exertion. Hakiro son of Tarea, that overgrown butcher, came up and listened to all that was going on. He told me as I was entering the boat that 30 persons at his place had regular prayer. This may or may not be perfectly true, but they certainly keep regular school at this place, and the Catechisms are generally known. Passed up the river to see the party who arrived yesterday. Haumia and party purchasing oil. Old Tupou56 a wicked fellow from Matauri was among them: he grinned a ghastly smile, and would fain have been friendly, but I could not. I was unable to learn their ideas and intentions respecting an expedition to the Southd. Tohitapu crept from under a shed and came forward. From some expressions he used, I much suspect his evil intention. How gladly would all these poor creatures again go forth to war if they thought their enemies could as easily fall before them as they once did, when one party had every man his musket, and their opponents merely sticks, but the story is now changed. Tohitapu would like to go, but would wish to be ensured and have all expenses paid. They have not recovered from the expenses of their last campaign.

Passed on to the Toretore. The sick man something better. Saw some Natives from Kororarika. They mentioned Titore's observations to apply to us to accompany him in order to make peace and return. May the Lord guide us and accomplish so great an object.

page 271

Saturday, 29. Fine. The lads at work. Spoke to the natives who had been for the last fortnight up the river at their cultivation, those who had eaten the Tapud food, of whom I heard last week. They acknowledged the impropriety of their conduct.

Sunday, 30. No strangers at church. In the afternoon went to Kororarika, and met a pleasing and attentive congregation; they were engaged at school on landing. The singing was some of the best I ever heard in the land. Before the conclusion of the service, we were disturbed by some native youths who were intoxicated and boxing in true English style. The principal persons were a son of Warerahi and one of Rewa's. After they were parted, which was effected with difficulty, they fell upon every one they met, like two young bulls, upsetting old and young. This is a new acquisition, and will ere long prove destructive to many. Rum is now imported in large quantities, and several of the Chiefs are acquiring a relish for it: but notwithstanding the great opposition made by the enemy of truth, there are enquirers after the way to Zion. This cheers our spirits and bears us up.

Monday, 31. Mr. and Mrs. Brown returned from Tepuna. Had a long conversation with some natives from the Northd. asking counsel and desiring instruction.

1 Gordon Davis Browne came to New Zealand in the 1820s and was associated with the firm of Raine & Ramsay in the ship-building yards at Horeke, Hokianga. He returned to Sydney destitute in 1828. Captain Ranulph Dacre brought him and fifteen men in the Belina to establish a spar station at Mahurangi in 1832. The Admiralty, however, took forcible possession of the standing trees, and in 1836 Dacre transferred Browne and his workmen, thirty Europeans in all, to his old station at Mercury Bay. Here disaster overtook Browne. By the carelessness of a workman two shiploads of spars were condemned by the Admiralty, and the news drove Browne into a mental breakdown.

2 Motutara; a chief of the Parawhau tribe of Whangarei. This tribe was allied to Nga-Puhi, and in 1824, as the result of pressure from the tribes of the Thames, left Whangarei and came to live about a mile from Paihia. Motutara was involved in several war expeditions, notably in Pukerangi's attack on the Waikato in 1832. [W.W., Christianity Among the New Zealanders, p60; Lt.-Col. St John, Pakeha Rambles Through Maori Lands, p19.]

3 Mangawhai. The reference is to the famous battle of Te-Ika-a-Ranganui in 1825. [Smith, Wars, p329ff.]

4 In the battle of Te-Ika-a-Ranganui, Moka was severely wounded, but was rescued by Taiwhanga. On his recovery he took the name of Kainga-mataa (“wounded by a bullet”) in memory of the incident.

5 The Popoto tribe, under Taonui, went with the Nga-Puhi under Rewharewha to Tararu, Thames, and there joined Te Hira of Ngati-Maru to attack Matamata. [Smith, Wars, p445ff.]

6 Taonui, a leading chief of the Popoto tribe, who lived at Otakura. He was one of the great chiefs of Hokianga.

7 Taui, a young chief of Te Morenga's tribe at Taiamai.

8 This refers to an expedition of about 200 men which, early in February, separated from the main party and, under Ururoa [Rewharewha], Wharerahi and Wharepoaka, made a raid on the people of the Thames Valley, penetrating as far as Matamata, and causing great destruction among the Ngati-Haua and other tribes. [Smith, Wars, pp444-6.]

9 In the taua attacking the Thames Valley.

10 This is the same taua as that mentioned above.

11 After the battle of Te-Ika-a-Ranganui the Ngati-Whatua scattered in small parties, the main group to the ranges near Waitakere, and eventually to the Waikato.

12 The Taeopa, a cutter.

13 Rewharewha [Ururoa] and Wharepoaka had returned from the Waikato expedition, Wharerahi and the others being still absent.

14 The name is now given to the island.

15 It was a common practice for captives of former expeditions to join new expeditions of their captors as warriors, as perhaps the only means of regaining self-respect. These two men were obviously captives from Tauranga, or perhaps their allies, taken at an earlier date.

16 This could have been any one of the four pakehas then trading there, viz., Scott, Montefiore, Nicholas and Farrar [or Farrow?].

17 Tapsel of Maketu.

18 A party of Arawa had come down under the influence of Tapsel to assist Ngapuhi, but some took sides with Ngaiterangi.

19 Montefiore. There were two men of this name trading in New Zealand at this time; J. Israel Montefiore who established himself as a merchant in Kororareka and later in Auckland, and Joseph Barrow Montefiore who came to New Zealand in 1830 with the intention of establishing trading stations throughout the country. He visited Kapiti and was on board the Elizabeth when Tamaiharanui, the captured Akaroa chief, was finally handed over to Te Rauparaha. [McNab, H.R.N.Z., pp580–2] It was probably J. Israel Montefiore who was at Otumoetai at this time.

20 Joseph Matthews was appointed assistant-chaplain on a convict ship to Sydney in 1831. He came to New Zealand as a catechist, arriving in Paihia on 26 March 1832, and next year married the eldest daughter of Richard Davis. He assisted Puckey to establish the Kaitaia station where he served for many years. He was ordained priest in 1859 and died on 3 November 1895. [S. C. and L. J. Matthews, Matthews of Kaitaia.]

21 Tamati Pukututu, a chief of the Te-o-te-Hawata tribe, whose pa was situated on the Kawakawa River. He fought on the Government side in the rebellion of 1845–6.

22 Captain William Powditch commanded the Royal George which brought Sir Thomas Brisbane to New South Wales. He lived for a time at Valparaiso and came to New Zealand as commander of the brig Bee. From early 1831 till late in 1832 he was in partnership with Gilbert Mair at Wahapu. While there he was appointed postmaster, being the first postmaster in New Zealand. Between 1835 and 1837 he purchased over 4,000 acres of land round Whangaroa Harbour. He took a prominent part in public affairs, and, after his removal to Auckland in the 'forties, served periods on the Auckland Municipal Council and the Auckland Provincial Council of which he was Speaker from 1857–65. [Anderson and Petersen, The Mair Family, p304.]

23 This illustrates one of the puzzling Maori customs that enemies felt free to exchange visits of this kind.

24 Kawiti and Pomare sailed late in June and returned in August.

25 Urumihia, the daughter of Te Rauroha, chief of Ngati-Paoa, who was at the Totara pa in the Thames when it was captured by Hongi in 1821. She was captured and taken to the Bay of Islands, where she remained for several years before she was permitted to return to the Thames. [Wilson, Te Waharoa, p8.]

26 Titore and his taua were accomplishing very little at Tauranga. They began to return in July, and the missionaries held a service of thanksgiving on 8 August.

27 This is part of the taua of Kawiti and Pomare referred to in the journal entry, 7 June 1832.

28 Puketona, a pa in the Oramahoe Valley and the district named after it, was situated a little distance above the Haruru Falls, now called the Waitangi Falls. A noted battle, Taumataiwi, was fought here about 1793 between a raiding party of Ngati-Maru and Ngati-Rangi of Ngapuhi.

29 Tupe, a chief of Whangaroa.

30 Of Titore's Tauranga expedition.

31 At Pipiroa.

32 Te Kekeao, chief of the Ahuahu hapu.

33 Patuone married the sister of Te Kupenga, the Ngati-Paoa chief of Whakatiwai, and went to live with his wife's people.

34 Tirarau. This is the taua of Pukerangi and Tirarau to the Waikato in 1832. Consisting of 3,000 men, the taua, led by Tirarau, Pukerangi and Motutara, met the Waikato tribes at the mouth of the Waikato River, caused them to retreat, and followed them to Lake Whangape.

35 Hake, a chief of the Urikapana tribe, who lived at Manowhenua.

36 Parata, the Maori transliteration of “brother”; a name given by the Maori people to the Rev. William Williams.

37 Miss Coldham was a sister of Mrs. Henry Williams. She later married the Rev. John Morgan.

38 Probably further news of the taua of Pukerangi and Tirarau.

39 Of Kaitaia. [See entry for 2 October 1832.]

40 Wakarae, a Maori youth baptized by the Rev. W. Williams. [W.W., Journal, 4 October 1832.]

41 Wini, the elder brother of Christian Rangi.

42 A great exaggeration!

43 This sketch has been reproduced many times in books and articles on the period.

44 Caroline Elizabeth, who later married Samuel Blomfield Ludbrook.

45 h.m.s.Challenger. [Archdeacon Brown, Journal, 17 November 1832.]

46 Titore, who has just returned from the south, was sitting on a bank [at Kororareka] relating his exploits. On the right were fourteen heads stuck on short poles, which the natives seemed eyeing with fiendish exultation.” [A. N. Brown, Journal, 28 November 1832.]

47 Toretore, an island at the mouth of the Kawakawa River, Busby was asked to adjudicate on the subject of the ownership of this island between Gilbert Mair and John Poyner.

48 From Kaitaia.

49 Te Wera of Mahia Peninsula.

50 Te Rauparaha, the famous Ngati-Toa chief, victor in many battles, and especially renowned for his remarkable achievement in 1821–2 of conducting his people from Kawhia to Kapiti Island through hostile tribes and many battles. He did not rest at peace in Kapiti, and not only did he succeed in defeating attacks made upon him, he also led successful expeditions deep into the South Island. After the so-called Wairau Massacre, when several pakehas were killed, he was absolved from punishment by Governor Fitzroy. In 1846, however, Governor Grey, suspicious of his influence, arrested him and kept him prisoner until 1848. He died in 1849. [See Buick, An Old New Zealander.]

51 Cook's name for Kapiti Island.

52 Wharekawa, a leading chief of Whakatiwai, a pa in the Thames.

53 Karekare, a chief of Mangakahia.

54 Moetara of Pakanae, near the mouth of the Hokianga River, was a powerful chief of the Ngati-Korokoro, who welcomed the early pakehas and actively promoted the traffic in spars.

55 This is the taua referred to in the entry of 17 August 1832.

56 Tupou, a chief from Matauri Bay.