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The Early Journals of Henry Williams

II — January to November 1828

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January to November 1828

Problems of food — Interview between Ngapuhi and Kawakawa — Hongi's death — Whareumu killed — Peace expedition to Hokianga — Arranging escape for Rotorua party — Voyage to Whakatane, Opotiki, Tauranga — Rangituke killed — Litany read in Maori — Peacemaking at Waitangi.

Tuesday, 1 January 1828. New Year's day. As we have again arrived to another period in our journey thro' life, I can scarcely proceed without stopping a moment to take a view of the past. The last year commenced in trouble in the overthrow of the Mission at Wangaroa and we ourselves were sitting in considerable expectation. But through all the Lord hath brought us. Not a hair of our heads has yet been suffered to fall. Our influence has advanced with the natives as we have increased our acquaintance. The schools have augmented and improved greatly and we ourselves have made considerable progress in the language. All the members of the mission have been preserved in health, and each family has received an addition of one infant. The arm of the Lord has been very visible and we daily have had evidence of his care concerning us. The feelings of all have been alive to the magnitude of the work before us on whom alone we must depend.

As we have not been able for many months to purchase a single spar from the natives, all the brethren from the settlement excepting Mr. Davis and myself went up the river with about 30 natives to cut down some timber for laths for the Chapel

Friday, 4. The party returned from the Kawakawa about noon very much fatigued bringing with them a considerable quantity of the kauri which was deemed fit for the purpose.

Saturday, 5. In the afternoon the news arrived that 'Hongi was dead which put our thoughts immediately in motion, but as no message arrived from the Kerikeri which was to be the case as soon as the brethren there should receive a creditable report we were inclined to disbelieve it though it was confidently declared.

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The Beehive, the Williams Family's First House at Paihia From a sketch by Henry Williams soon after its completion in September 1823.

The Beehive, the Williams Family's First House at Paihia
From a sketch by Henry Williams soon after its completion
in September 1823.

“Passing through a Swamp in New Zealand” From a sketch found among Henry Williams's papers. The artist is unknown.

Passing through a Swamp in New Zealand
From a sketch found among Henry Williams's papers.
The artist is unknown.

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The First Church at Paihia, Built between 1826 and 1828 From a watercolour sketch by Dr. J. Kinder.

The First Church at Paihia, Built between 1826 and 1828
From a watercolour sketch by Dr. J. Kinder.

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Sunday, 6. Service as usual. Before we had concluded some strange natives came to the door, and appeared to be troublesome. Some of us concluded that a plundering party was at hand in consequence of 'Hongi's death. But we soon learned that it was a person come for the purpose of claiming one of the girls in the settlement for his wife. The girl did not wish to go with him but she was obliged by the law of the land. Went over to Kororareka and held service in Capn. Duke's house. Afterwards to the 'Haumi Tohitapu affected much concern at the report of 'Hongi's death and said that in the morning he should go to Wangaroa, he should have gone then but as it was the sabbath he would not move.

Monday, 7. At daylight, Tohitapu came with two canoes and wanted some tea sugar flour and medicine for 'Hongi for perhaps he was not quite dead. He repeated his application at each house. After breakfast my brother and myself left the settlement for the Kerikeri to attend the Committee. When we arrived we learnt that 'Hongi was not dead but had fainted away from great weakness Commenced our business in the afternoon. In the evening held the prayer meeting as usual.

Tuesday, 8. All day engaged on the Committee business.

Wednesday, 9. Could not conclude the business as several points of importance were under consideration.

It was this day resolved: That a general examination should take place of all the natives in the settlement at Paihia towards the close of the year, that it should embrace every branch of knowledge. It will require this space of time to bring all things into order and to present something worthy of notice. My expectations are very great. It will be a general spur to both missionaries and natives.

Thursday, 10. Retd. to Paihia. All well.

Sunday, 13. Mrs. W. called up in the middle of the night to attend Mrs. Davis who had been unwell all the evening. Mrs. W. was saluted with the cries of an infant as soon as she entered the house. Our service did not commence till 9 o'clock and as Mrs W. was much fatigued I was prevented from seeing Capn. Duke. In the afternoon went to the 'Haumi.

Wednesday, 16. As we had been in considerable distress for food for the natives in the school we sent off 10 boys and two men to purchase some potatoes and corn if possible though but little hopes. We were obliged to exercise every thought and contrivance to keep the boys together.

Saturday, 19. About noon the boys who had been in quest of provision returned with some, though part of their trade had been taken from them. At 4 p.m. a sail appeared standing in with a fine breeze from the Northd. We soon discovered that she was a page 98 schooner, and in the course of an hour had the great pleasure of knowing that it was the Herald from Port Jackson. On going on board we were introduced to Mr. Yate1 but were sorry to learn that there was no Mrs. Yate. Our letters as usual were of a most pleasing strain, and we were much cheered by all we saw and heard.

Sunday, 20. Service as usual when Mr. Yate addressed us in a most pleasing manner from I Jno 4.16 after which I went to Kororareka where were about 15 europeans present at Capn. Dukes. In the afternoon I went to the 'Haumi. Tohitapu was very gracious. In the evening I addressed our natives at the evening service.

Monday, 21. The boat arrived in good time from Rangihoe and the Kerikeri. After tea held a committee the first under the new regulation in which Mr. C. Davis occupies the seat of Mr. R. Davis. The public letters from England and Port Jackson were read. The destination of Mr. Yate was fixed for Kerikeri where I doubt not he will be extensively useful. A considerable portion of the stores landed.

Tuesday, 22. Landing stores. Held another Committee; when the natives of each settlement were brought under a regular and general scale of ration. Our own Natives are all served by one person each taking the office of cater for the week.

Thursday, 24. After school Mr. Fairburn and I went up the Kowakowa to visit the Natives. Tekoki appeared glad to see us and all the Natives. They are in a very dark state. They enquired when the sabbath was to see if their calculation was right. It was so at which they were much pleased. They said they understood when the sabbath arrived but they could not comprehend the nature of our religion. As we were coming away we bought 20 large baskets of potatoes which was highly important. The old man and his wife came down with us to the settlement to see the alterations and the advancement which we had made.

Friday, 25. In the evening there was a considerable disturbance between the girls and boys and one of our girls ran out and it was not until a general chase that we discovered the fugitive. I gave notice to the boys that we should hold a court of inquiry with them on the morrow.

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Saturday, 26. Obliged to take down the top of my oven and build it up again, which occupied the whole day. The weather extremely hot. About noon I called the boys who had been the cause of the disturbance last evening. I told the youngest that I should flog him when he immediately fetched me a slight stick for the purpose and delivered it into my hand. I therefore felt myself required to favour him with a specimen of english chastisement. Several of the boys were looking on. He took it as tho' he felt he deserved it his blanket had been taken in the morning. The second boy was much older. I sent one of my leading natives to order him to deliver up his greatcoat and blanket. He sent the greatcoat but said he should keep the blanket but considering that my orders must be obeyed I went myself and remonstrated with him upon the impropriety of his conduct that he must give up the blanket and in future he would know better how to behave. The lad was obstinate for some time but at length gave up the blanket at which I felt that I had obtained an important victory and after a short admonition returned it to him. A third boy had his blanket taken away for a season. I consider my boys have learnt an important lesson this day, and feel thankful at the result. They require much thought to keep them in any kind of order.

Sunday, 27. After service went to Kororareka where I met but few Europeans. I spoke to them as seriously as possible. I then sat down amidst a number of natives with whom I felt more at home. Here was Tarea Warehumu2 Motohi and several others men who seldom hear anything from the word of God as they will universally avoid giving any attention. I found them however well disposed and was enabled to speak to them with little interruption. At length, Motohi (who has ever been considered by us all as a very bad blood-thirsty savage who once lived near us and has at all times been spoken to by different members of the mission) himself took up the subject, and told them of the origin of evil the confusion of tongues and many other important truths. In reference to the formation of Eve he said that she was made of one of Adams ribs while he was asleep, therefore are the lower ribs shorter than the upper ones and in order to account for there being black people in the world he said that the tempter came to our first parents as a black man therefore are there black people now. I was much astonished at the man's knowledge and manner and at the attention which he commanded. I afterwards went to the 'Haumi but the people were all dull and heavy.

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Monday, 28. After dinner we all commenced upon the shingling of the Chapel and made a good beginning.

Wednesday, 30. Much rain yesterday could not work at the Chapel. About 2 o'clock Capn. Gardner came on shore as we were all well engaged on the roof of the Chapel; and hindered us during the remainder of the day. Poor man he thought he was paying us a great compliment but he might have discovered that his absence would have been more agreeable. As no ship has been in for several months the natives have been flocking to his ship with their potatoes tho they will not bring a single basket to us. How greatly are they governed by the Prince of Darkness in all their movements.

Sunday, 3 February. As it blew a strong breeze from the Eastd. I could not go to Kororareka. Went to the 'Haumi after service where I met a considerable number of natives, they paid good attention. While speaking to them of their dreadful situation and the dominion that Satan exercised over them in holding them in his own power that they should not believe, one man from Wangai where we have been in the habit of going occasionally asked whether it was Satan who restrained us from going to them as we once did to instruct them. I felt this word of admonition very keenly and regretted exceedingly the weakness of our force. Two persons ought to be out daily to visit the natives even once a fortnight but as yet it is very little that we can accomplish.

Monday, 4. As soon as possible we took our departure for Rangehoe tho the wind was from the Eastd. and much sea running in, it rained hard before we landed. All were well, and somewhat surprised to see us. The day was passed as usual. Mr. Yate gave an exhortation in the evening. Much rain during the remainder of the day and all night. With great difficulty and circumspection we moved from one house to the other their situation is so bad. Took up my lodging at Mr. Kings.

Tuesday, 5. The question of removing the Settlement to Tepuna was again brought forward when it was determined to do it by the united effort of all the members for one fortnight. The Kerikeri boat arrived about 3 p.m. Met some of the Rangehoe chiefs relative to the purchase of part of Tepuna.

Wednesday, 6. Ret'd early to Paihia with Mr. Yate. Observed a ship standing in which proved to be H.M.S. Pandora. Mr. Yate and myself went on board to wait on the Capn. He was very polite and requested me to obtain for him two bread bags full of the flax seed to take to Ceylon, as the Adml. had particularly requested some. Returned on shore early and resumed our work on the top of the Chapel to shingle it.

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Thursday, 7. About eleven Capn. Jervoice and two of his officers came on shore and remained about an hour. We were much pleased at finding that their stay in the bay would in all probability be very short and that they did not invite anyone on board.

Friday, 8. Wind strong from the Eastd. Could not conveniently send letters on board though the Pandora is to sail in the morning according to what was said yesterday.

Saturday, 9. At day light wind blowing directly in. The Pandora weighed and made sail working out. Closed the letters and sent the boat, which after pulling about 10 miles overtook her. She did not shorten sail. The letters however were put on board also some flax seed which had been collected with great difficulty. Want of common politeness was never more displayed. After breakfast we were obliged to enter upon a question of great importance. Two of the natives living with us had each taken a second wife though they knew it was contrary to general orders. It was therefore determined to give them the choice either to send these women off or to withdraw themselves. In the evening we heard that the women were gone.

Every spare moment has this week been employed upon the roof of the Chapel by all of us. Building is no trifling matter here. These secular employments unhinge the mind, especially of those who have not been accustomed to them, and retard the progress of the missionary work. My poor raupo house has been sadly condemned owing to its danger from fire but times must greatly alter to induce me to erect one of any other material. I shall endeavour to possess as little property as possible and if destroyed by fire or otherwise the loss will be but small.

Sunday, 10. This morning Mr. Yate preached and has greatly delighted us all. We feel our hands much strengthened already. It is very encouraging to see such men amongst us. We hope that experience of the past will shew the description of men required for this important station. He will establish the Kerikeri on a firm basis. After service Mr. Puckey and I went to Kororareka where we met about 15 Europeans at Capn. Dukes. The room was so very close that I was obliged to take off my coat before the service commenced. It is dry heavy work to speak to these people they are so very depraved and devoted to the work of the Wicked One. However I hope to be grateful for the attention paid to these things —even as they do. They daily condemn their own proceedings by their behaviour: when we go on board any ship the girls are generally ordered out of sight. The same also when we go on shore on that side of the Bay—they withdraw. After our usual stay with Capn. Duke we spoke a few words to the natives near the house page 102 they behaved well. I afterwards went to the 'Haumi but as Tohitapu had had a quarrel with one of his wives and had given her a severe beating he had run off lest he should be reproved by me. Those of the Natives who assembled appeared more than usually lively numbers of children were running about and as our means of supporting the school were increased, I determined to attempt to obtain some little girls. Accordingly I made my inquiries. The children appeared very much pleased, and several were brought: many were too small at present but I nominated three to be brought in the morning. We parted mutually pleased. Our evening service as usual in our kitchen upwards of 80 natives were present several strangers.

Monday, 11. Soon after daylight three girls from the 'Haumi arrived with their relations. They appeared pleased with the idea of coming in. Two of them were very little things. They were immediately led away to have their hair cut and to have a good wash. After breakfast Mr. Fairburn and I went to Wangai accompanied by Mr Yate. We had a very pleasant meeting with the natives. They were somewhat low spirited, as their plantation had been stripped some days before owing to the improper conduct of one man, who in anger had cursed himself which brought the neighbouring tribes upon them. They comforted themselves with idea that in a day or two they should pay the same compliment upon some other party. There were numbers of little children there but I was afraid to say anything about their coming. I brought however one little boy for the school. One of the Chiefs said that he should like to reside with us but this is a question which required considerable consideration. Our numbers are nearly 100 men women and children here, which we shall gradually increase every quarter; but considering their wild habits, they require much care and judgment that they may be kept in their respective stations.

Tuesday, 12. The clouds very heavy every appearance of rain: about noon the rain commenced. In the afternoon a dispute arose between an Englishman from Kororareka and one of our natives respecting a canoe which had been observed adrift by our people and hauled on shore and by the law of land becomes the property of those who find it in that condition. The native asked a hatchet as payment, to which the Englishman replied that he would give him one were it to cut off his head3. This is a capital offence and opened the door for much mischief. The news soon spread and it page 103 was given out that our natives would have a small piece of land stripped which is planted with the kumera: the Englishman may himself also be served out.

Friday, 15. For these two last days we have experienced more rain than I believe we have yet done since our landing. About 10 o'clock three canoes were seen pulling from Kororareka towards Waitangi where was the piece of cultivation belonging to Taiwanga. Our boys were soon in motion. And as we felt it our duty to render every protection consistent with our situation we assembled our party and were soon at the point in dispute. We considered that the canoes did not approve of our numbers as they pulled back again to Kororareka after pulling near the beach. This was an acknowledged victory, at which our boys appeared much delighted.

Saturday, 16. At daylight fine. Tohitapu, with a number of natives, arrived some of whom were parents of the children they were served with a mess of flour. While at school Tohi asked me my opinion as to his going to strip a native who had named his child after 'Hongi. I told him in a few words that the natives were wrong in all their ways. He said he would go but not to strip. He accordingly went but partook only of a small portion. In the afternoon the news was brought that a little girl belonging to the 'Haumi was drowned. Not many days since the parents asked me how soon we would admit her into the school. She was about 3 years old. As soon as the child was dead a slave, an old woman, was ordered to be killed as a companion for her. Our natives in considerable consternation owing to the news of an attack upon the Kawakawa tribes. Many of our boys wanted to go up and see Tekoke but did not as the evening's post was not so alarming. Enjoyed a quiet evening.

Sunday, 17. After service went over to Kororareka, and met about 10 Europeans at Capn. Dukes house. All the natives had removed to the Kawakawa in fear of the Ngapuis. In the afternoon went to the Haumi. Terangi in much distress about his child which was drowned, he is hardened in wickedness from his long intercourse with englishmen of the baser sort he appeared disposed to attend to what I had to say. Tohitapu was sitting nearly alone as he had been angry with the people he said in consequence of the murder of the woman yesterday. It is exceedingly painful to see the dreadful state of these people. The minds of all around are in considerable agitation from fear of other tribes. Every man's hand seems set against his fellow. They are in the gall of bitterness and in the bond of iniquity. Terangi told me he had prayed to Jesus Christ but He would not turn unto him. He would not hear him. Poor fellow, he is insensible to all that is said to him upon spiritual page 104 subjects. He is a dreadful object having been ill for many months. He is uncle to Tommy Tuai4. In the evening we heard that a considerable number of Natives were at Kerikeri on their way down here.

Monday, 18. Several canoes passed in the night, which we hear were the Uritaniwa, allies of Tekoke. In the course of the day numbers of the natives from the Waikari arrived in the settlement prepared for action with their heads dressed their bodies well anointed and nearly every man his gun. The top of the Chapel finished this afternoon.

Tuesday, 19. Tohitapu came to breakfast. He said he had sent a message to Waimate to tell Ngapuis not to come but perhaps they would not attend to him. It appears that the quarrel has continued for many years between this tribe and Ngapuis. There has been much fighting amongst them and many killed on each side. Tohitapu is a Ngapui and consequently opposed to Tekoke though they meet here as friends. It has however been reported lately that some of Tekoke's party have said that they would cut off Tohitapu's head and also that of Tareha a Chief of note (tho nothing can be more untrue) and stick them up in triumph. I feel persuaded that Tohitapu will endeavour to preserve the peace as he has much respect for our approbation.

Wednesday, 20. As we wished to learn the state of the Kawakawa natives Mr. Davis and myself prepared to go up. The first report this morning was that the Ngapuis were at the Kerikeri and might be expected in the course of the day. Before breakfast was concluded a messenger arrived and said that they were planting potatoes at Waimate and never had any intention of coming that the report had been spread by some of the women belonging to the Waikari. At 8 o'clock we departed for the Kawakawa and arrived about 10 o'clock. The natives came running from all quarters to hear the news. The body of the people were at work at the pa whither we immediately went. We were much struck with its rudeness and ill construction. They had erected some logs of timber at considerable labour at the top of a hill which were about 25 feet that is the mean length as some were 20 feet others 30 feet and as irregular in size as possible and about 2 feet apart. I could not but laugh at them, which they were not altogether pleased with. The natives were all here from the various settlements and though they were in great fear they kept their ovens always on the move. A messenger arrived from Waimate while we were with page 105 them who declared the present fight to be perfectly correct and that their opponents might be expected in two days. I asked Tekoke what it was in consequence of. He said that it was owing to some improper language of some one of them which they had forgotten, but that most probably it was poka noa that is a report of their own manufacturing. We spoke to all the natives as much to the purpose as possible admonishing them to flee from these lying vanities and turn unto the Lord. They paid every attention. We left them near 4 o'clock. As we came near the Wangai we observed some war canoes and heard a number of voices all in high gabble. And as we thought they might be the Ngapuis we hauled in to reconnoitre, but soon observed Tohitapu. As it was low water we could not approach owing to the flats. He, however came out to us giving us a considerable portion of news, 1st that they had nearly killed a native in a bustle with those of Wangai and secondly that the Ngapuis were assembling at the Kerikeri and might be expected at his place tomorrow to wait for reinforcement previous to the intended attack. Tekoke had enjoined us to pray that we all might be preserved from the Ngapuis. But that should they come he said we had better send our boat with two of us to see how the affair went. It was past sunset before we landed. Many flying reports had been in circulation through the day. In the evening we were glad of an opportunity to retire from the world for a season and hold our weekly prayer meeting.

Thursday, 21. We learnt the first thing this morning that several of the Chiefs of the Ngapuis were at Korareko on the way up the Kawakawa but that there were but few people as they had been withheld by Warerahi, the general peace-maker. About 8 o'clock one canoe put off from thence towards the Kawakawa. As Tekoke had said much to us about our going up in order to preserve the peace Mr. Davis my brother and myself went up in the boat. We soon overtook the canoes in which were the Kerikeri chiefs. They were exceedingly friendly. We kept company with them to the landing place. As Tekoke had had previous intimation that only one canoe would proceed up his people were greatly relieved. The meeting was imposing as all were armed and decorated with military ornaments tho' their bodies naked. After a few speeches from some of the leading men they retired to partake of potatoes and corn. As soon therefore as we had seen all fears over and joy diffused through the camp we withdrew to our boat and after a little refreshment we took our departure thankful to the Lord our master that he had heard our prayers in this particular. About 10 we discovered a circumstance of an unpleasant nature. One of our page 106 oldest girls had absented herself after that the others had retired to rest and as we are acquainted with the vicious habits of these people we knew that an investigation of a serious nature must take place. After some little search the girl made her appearance.

Friday, 22. The girl in question appeared considerably ashamed but went about her work as usual. In the afternoon she walked out and sat on the beach not wishing to meet the girls of the settlement at school. It therefore became necessary that an investigation should take place. I accordingly assembled my boys and was immediately informed that four had been acting in an improper manner so much so as to require their dismission which was done forthwith. I felt considerably at their going away, as they were four promising lads. They kept near the house all the evening. Capn. Kent arrived from Tongataboo.

Saturday, 23. The boys were still hovering about till after school but as I did not wish to say anything farther till I had consulted with the brethren here I did not hold out any encouragement. We took their case into consideration as soon as we could conveniently but before we had concluded they had taken the advantage of a canoe and gone up the river. Our determination was that they should again be received but each of them fined two months wages. A whaler arrived from a cruise.

Sunday, 24. After our service I went over to Kororareka. Capn. Dukes house was full of men from the vessel. Though neither of their masters were there. I afterwards went to the 'Haumi. Tohitapu was not there. I assembled a few natives at Terangi's place. This man and his family pay greater attention than formerly. I was however obliged to leave them hastily from their frivolous conversation.

Monday, 25. The first news this morning was, that the men belonging to the Herald who are living on the small island Motu o rangi had been plundered while they were at our evening service last night tho' one person was left in charge. All their blanket and many articles of clothes were taken. Our suspicion fell upon the Europeans at Kororareka. In the evening lost much time in conversation with a native of rank whom I had received into the establishment. He is I hope well disposed but wild and proud. He had been ill-treating his wife and had brought two slave girls within the fence. I remonstrated with him with as much care as possible, but he told me that he would leave the place in the morning and began to exclaim against his wife for having informed me. I was therefore obliged to remain until his anger had subsided and he in a better humour. After my return to the house Poutu one of my earliest boys presented me with a note relative to our native girls page 107 from whom I had requested him to select a partner. His note indicated his desire to take one but that he could not understand the young lady's mind upon the subject, especially as we kept so strict a look out. I desired him to inquire in person but he considered that it would be better that I should propose the question. My mind was greatly relieved from that oppression which the conduct of the other had caused.

Tuesday, 26. We learnt early this morning that the robbery at Motu o rangi had been discovered by the natives and that it was accomplished by two slaves who live at the 'Haumi and a native from Taiamai. Two of our men Tekaue5 and Pumuka6 went in quest of the thieves. They brought one a slave of Tekaue and some of the things stolen. The second thief had run into the woods he is a slave of Tohitapu. Our natives were very indignant. We assembled them and told them that in our country we always try prisoners by jury and that they must consider the case before them and say what punishment ought to be his portion. The majority said that he would have been shot had it not been in consequence of what we had said upon the subject of taking away life but they proposed that he should be well flogged. Upon this question we felt it necessary to have much consultation and at length determined that he should be flogged, the natives proposing that each should give him one lash. A thieves cat was accordingly made and the prisoner punished in due form. All the natives were present and expressed their satisfaction. About 11 o'clock Tohitapu came in a great bustle and called to me to have him tied up which he repeated several times. He said that he had been so exceedingly ashamed of the conduct of his slave that he had not eaten anything since but had immediately come tho' he was inland at one of his plantations. Poutu again requested me to speak for him to his intended, as her father had come from 'Hokianga and he wished her to return with him; consequently I embraced the earliest opportunity of executing my commission. The young lady expressed her willingness to remain and live with Poutu as his wife. All the boys are much pleased. Both the boy and girl have lived with us a considerable time. The occurrences of several past days have led me much to wonder. Here are we but few in number and yet we dictate to all around and our influence increases daily. About 10 p.m. Poutu signified his wish that his intended should be consigned to him. We consequently sent for Taueke and inquired of her if she were page 108 willing that the ceremony should then take place. She certainly excited much laughter as she is by far the most awkward of all the older girls in the settlement. She came rolled up in a blanket no part of her person could be seen but the blanket formed a peak about a foot and a half above her head. Knowing our purpose she commenced by whimpering but after some time said that she was willing and by her permission I called both the bridegroom and the bridegroom's man my earliest native George. I told them what had passed and that it was much more proper that these affairs should be written on paper than to follow their native customs. Having therefore prepared my pen ink and paper in due form I thought it most advisable to commence my question to Taueke. I accordingly asked her if she were willing to become the wife of Poutu, &c., &c. After a considerable interval she squeaked “ae”. I then proposed a similar question to Poutu. He (I presume considering that it was necessary that he should take as much time for reflection as the young lady) kept us in silence for more than 10 minutes. At length George said that he would say for him but as I told him that was not allowed by us Poutu himself spoke. The bridegroom then retired towards the door and I conducted the bride towards the gate and closed the door feeling exceedingly thankful that this girl for whom we have felt much anxiety was now likely to be respectably settled in life.

Wednesday, 27. About noon Mr. Fairburn and I left Paihia for the purpose of visiting Wangaruru which is on the coast to the Southd. of Cape Brett. At 3 p.m. we landed at the settlement of Waikari and commenced our march. Our party consisted of 10 natives several of the natives of the place accompanying us. After ascending the first hill we saw the boy and girl which had been living with us. The boy I had been obliged to dismiss, the girl went of her own accord. I was grieved. I looked at them and passed on. The girl and her father followed after we had proceeded about a mile and remained with us during the whole journey. At 4.30 arrived at the top of Kai manu the highest hill at the head of Waikari from which we had a most extensive and beautiful view of the bay and river and the country round about also of the Sea and of the poor Knights. After resting for a short time we descended towards Wangaruru. At 6 we halted on the bank of a fine stream when all were busy in making preparation for the night some in pitching the tent others in cooking the supper. In about an hour we partook of a comfortable repast, consisting of bacon, cucumber, pickle, bread and tea, with milk. Were much amused at the thoughtfulness of one of the boys who had provided brick in order to clean the knives and forks, and rubbed them up with as much page 109 care as though we had been in the house. About 8 we assembled the boys for prayer and retired to rest.

Thursday, 28. Rose at sunrise after a most comfortable night's rest. At 7 moved on. In crossing a brook I caught my foot and fell all my length in the water. At 8.20 arrived at Wangaruru nearly forty natives assembled. We spoke to them for a considerable time and were much gratified by their attention. We could not go down to the heads as the tide was out and as there were not any natives there we did not wait but proceeded to a second place belonging to Te koikoi. It is a settlement of importance for us to visit. After opening our subject and the nature of our visit we commenced our march homewards and arrived at Tu's7 place at the head of Waikari about 5 o'clock after a laborious walk. We there divided in order to speak to the Natives in the neighbourhood. Tetoree8 was surprised to see us at that hour. It was quite dark before we took our departure and reached home about 9 o'clock. All well.

Thursday, 13 March. From various hindrances have been prevented from writing a word during the past fortnight.

Thursday, 13 March. From various hindrances have been prevented from writing a word during the past fortnight.

Monday, 3. The brethren assembled here at the monthly prayer meeting and departed on Wednesday 5. During their stay occupied in consulting upon Committee business. My brother Messrs. Davis and Puckey accompanied the Kerikeri brethren on their return in order to hunt up the cattle. Messrs. Fairburn C. Davis and myself engaged on the chapel excepting when I was occupied attending to the English boys.

Thursday, 6. News of 'Hongi's death. Did not believe it as little notice was taken of it by the natives.

Friday, 7. News of yesterday repeated. Tohitapu and several natives called on their way to Wangaroa; did not credit the report.

Saturday, 8. All silent.

Sunday, 9. The services of the day as usual. The Mary Ann arrived.

Monday, 10. In the afternoon Tahiwanga who had been to Wangaroa to learn the real state of 'Hongi, returned with the news of his death bringing also a note from my brother requesting that the boat might be sent up for them. As I considered it an important page 110 season I concluded that it was better that I should go up to the Kerikeri and learn the real state of affairs. I accordingly departed and arrived about 9 o'clock. All were well and in good spirits. No intelligence since Tahiwanga had passed through. No apprehensions of any disturbance with the Natives. News that Pomare's son9 was killed at Hokianga in a stripping party. Five of the opposite party killed as a payment.

Tuesday, 11. Had a pleasant sail to Paihia 23 persons being in the boat: my brother and sister with their children and 5 native girls Mr. and Mrs. Hobbs with their natives Messrs. Davis and Puckey &c., &c.

Wednesday, 12. Went up the Waikari in quest of some clothes which had been taken away by one of the school boys. We have had several instances of this kind of theft lately which requires prompt attention. The boy ran away as soon as he learnt that we were arrived and it was not until I had expressed my displeasure that the clothes were brought to me. The mother of the boy came herself. To her I particularly spoke and told her from whence mischief originated. It is truly painful to see the confusion the wicked one is ever working amongst them. Many circumstances tend to weary our spirits but in the Lord we have hope.

Thursday, 13. In the afternoon Tohitapu and his party returned from Wangaroa. They did not bring any particular news. It appears that no mention has been made respecting us consequently that we need not fear. During this eventful period we have not heard a word as to any unpleasant feeling towards us. We may say indeed that this is the Lord's doing. Had 'Hongi died when first wounded we have little doubt as to the consequences but the expectation of the natives has been prepared for the event for several months. He is now gone and his name is scarcely mentioned.

Friday, 14. The Brig Hawes10 arrived from Port Jackson with Stores not a single letter on board either from England or the Colony. Sent express to the Kerikeri.

Saturday, 15. Commenced clearing the Brig at which we were page 111 occupied till 4 p.m. At 6 p.m. letters arrived from Hokianga by an Englishman with most distressing news that considerable fighting had taken place with the natives there and the Bay of Islanders that Warree Humu was killed with many others and the Ngapuis completely put to the rout. Mr. Hobbs who was with us was immediately dispatched to the Kerikeri on his way to the Hokianga. He had scarcely taken his seat in the boat when a native came in great haste shouting as he ran that Warree Humu was killed and his followers put to flight. Our natives, before this had not heard a word as one of Muriwai's11 daughters was with Mr. Hobbs fearing she might be killed. All was now consternation both amongst ourselves and natives, we viewing the dreadful consequences which must from the nature of the circumstances ensue.

God moves in a mysterious way
His wonders to perform.

Very much has been said to most of the natives concerned upon the evil of these things they acknowledge it but state that they are obliged to go.

Sunday, 16. At day light went out to learn if there were any further news. The boys were all assembled in conversation. The brother of one had been killed and eaten he was a man of note. Many flying reports. It was stated that numbers returned yesterday to the Waimate without a single garment. After our service I went on board the Ann. Between 30 and 40 were at the service. Capn. Duke and others were much troubled about the news. Concluded the day as usual.

Monday, 17. At day light the long boat was sent to the Brig. Four canoes passed belonging to the Waikari. Tetoru one of the head chiefs there has lost 5 sons in this late affair. It is a dreadful event. I know not where it may end. The Wesleyan settlement will probably again be upset. I have determined to go over as soon as I observe any movement amongst our natives. They talk of assembling far and near and returning again. If they be not stayed by the hand of the Lord serious evil will ensue. About noon Tekoke and party arrived from the Kowakowa and some time after Rewa came over from Kororareka. With them we had some very pleasing conversation. They proposed that we should all meet the Hokianga natives that is we with them in order to close up this breach which has been so recently made. They are aware that much evil will befall them if they fight, and yet by their law they are required to page 112 avenge the death of Warehumu. They cannot make peace of themselves but should we also go they may be able to accomplish it.

Tuesday, 18. Rangituke went early this morning to hold a council with Tarea RewaTohitapu Temoranga, &c., at Kororarika. Letters were received this morning from Hokianga. All are quiet there as yet. Warerahi was there endeavouring to obtain the body of Warreehumu and also to induce Patuone to join the Ngapuis against the Waimae the tribe amongst whom this mischief originated. N.B. Warerahi the above mentioned chief is sometimes called Warenui being one and the same name signifying large house.

Wednesday, 19. At daylight 23 canoes were observed pulling for Kororareka concluded to be old Kira from Matauri come for the purpose of demolishing everything at Waitangi in consequence of the improper conduct of that tribe at his place where they also killed a slave. About 11 o'clock Mr. Davis and I went to Rangehou to call for Mr. Shepherd who had expressed his wish to accompany us to 'Hokianga. Upon landing, we learnt that Kiras party had been behaving exceedingly ill to Mr. Shepherd which had consequently shaken the nerves of Mrs. Shepherd and as the same party were expected to return that way Mr. S. did not feel at liberty to move. We also learnt that Kira intended to visit Paihia on his way to Kawakawa. At this we were much perplexed as if we did not meet the general assembly all hopes of peace would be at an end. We determined therefore to proceed to the Kerikeri where we knew we should hear further of the state of affairs at Paihia. On landing we were met by Rewa who had just arrived on his way to Hokianga; when it was proposed that we should go together. He had met Kira in the morning and recommended him to return home to join the army which he promised should be tomorrow.

Thursday, 20. Owing to the indisposition of Mrs. Clarke and the apprehension of some troublesome parties passing thro' for 'Hokianga none of the brethren accompanied us. Between 9 and 10 we took our departure with six native boys in company with Rewa his wife and son. At 11.30 we arrived at his residence at Waimate a beautiful spot in the midst of plantations to a considerable extent. We here took some refreshment expecting to proceed on immediately, but we were detained for 6 hours by Rewas talking and fitting a lock on a gun. His family formed a very interesting group. About 3 o'clock our party began to move under the guidance of one of Rewa's daughters a girl about 14 carrying a double barrel fowling piece. Rewa had not yet dined. Near sunset we arrived at a settlement of one of Rewa's friends where he overtook us here six large baskets of kumera were immediately turned out for our part. Rewa who now became desirous to join the main army page break
Little Omaha (Now Leigh), Henry Williams's Favourite Harbour of Refuge From a sketch by Henry Williams made when he first entered the bay in November 1831.

Little Omaha (Now Leigh), Henry Williams's Favourite
Harbour of Refuge

From a sketch by Henry Williams made when he first
entered the bay in November 1831.

Paihia in the 1830s This sketch of the settlement, showing the chapel at right centre, was reproduced in W. Williams's book, Christianity Among the New Zealanders, in 1867.

Paihia in the 1830s
This sketch of the settlement, showing the chapel at
right centre, was reproduced in W. Williams's book,
Christianity Among the New Zealanders, in 1867.

page break
The Launching of the Herald At Paihia, 24 January 1826 Based on a sketch by Mrs Henry Williams.

The Launching of the Herald At Paihia, 24 January 1826
Based on a sketch by Mrs Henry Williams.

War Canoes and Mission Boat From a lithograph, based on a sketch by Henry Williams, reproduced in Carleton's Life.

War Canoes and Mission Boat
From a lithograph, based on a sketch by Henry
Williams, reproduced in Carleton's Life.

page 113 proposed that we should move on through a long wood by torch light. Accordingly four were constructed of the koreao a kind of cane which grows in great abundance in every wood, but as an old lady sent us a pig for which we were to give a blanket at some future day Rewa thought it most advisable to cook it and lay it by for the night they therefore immediately fell to work, and we retired to rest.

Friday, 21. Slept but little as Rewa and a number of women were talking and laughing all night. At the first dawn of day we were in motion and before sunrise on the road. We met persons occasionally who gave us intelligence respecting the movements of the army which quickened our movements as Rewa frequently set off on a run and we were obliged to keep company. We travelled generally thro' level country, and overtook two parties well armed with muskets: they had much curiosity to know our reason for going which Rewa explained. About noon we saw the smoke of the encampment and by 2 arrived at it. We recd. a hearty welcome from our friends and pitched our tents close to Tohitapu. We had a good deal of conversation upon the general disposition of our natives; and some who at Paihia had laughed at the idea of making peace, now desired that we should be very bold and determined with the enemy for peace. After a little refreshment the parties turned out for review before Rewa, Ururoa12, &c., &c. They certainly formed a strong force and nearly every man a musket. They had several 'hakas (dances), when the ground trembled beneath their feet. Several speeches were afterwards made when it evidently appeared that the general desire was for peace. The remainder of the day quiet.

Saturday, 22. Numbers of guns were fired during the night, lest the enemy should surprise the camp. At the first dawn of day all in motion eating their food and preparing for their march and in a few minutes a general rush to the path leading towards the Pa. We with many of the chiefs were about the centre and were hurried along thro' a wood of considerable length and partly through a swamp. There was much rain and thunder, the rain made our walk very uncomfortable and the thunder struck the natives with awe they considered it as a sure indication of a battle. We halted by the side of a hill until all were collected together when two or three chiefs gave an address after which we again moved on and at page 114 length came into a beautiful valley opposite the Pa. Kumeras had been planted over the whole plain some portion of which had been taken by Ware Umu's people. The people ran about in every direction some to destroy houses some to fetch food others to see the spot where Ware Umu fell. In the course of 3 hours ranges of booths were formed for the accommodation of the different tribes with the utmost order each tribe sitting by itself. In the afternoon Rewa and Tohitapu consulted with us: they considered that it would not be proper for any of them to go into the Pa today but that we had better go by ourselves and ascertain the real feelings of the natives of the opposite party. We accordingly went to the pa in company with two natives who had come from thence and relatives of Rewa. We were received very graciously, and conducted to Patuone and many others. They expressed their desire for peace and regret that any fighting had taken place they appeared glad to see us. Warerahi asked if Pi13 the chief of the pa should go out with us into the camp. As we had not had any message to that effect we felt it too great a responsibility to take upon ourselves and therefore advised his remaining for the present. Warerahi returned with us to the camp. The poor old man seemed much dejected in mind and fatigued in body. We conducted him to his brother Rewa. As we passed along to our tent the people drew around to inquire the news and were pleased when we told them that all desired peace. Before sunset I paid a visit round to all the Chiefs, and had some very pleasing conversation with them. It was highly gratifying to observe the order which was preserved amongst such a disordered and independent race. It appeared the general wish that peace should take place on the morrow. We were sorry for such an infringement of the Sabbath day, but could see no remedy as by delay much evil feeling might be excited and all our endeavours frustrated. However while in conversation with Warepoaka I intimated that tomorrow was the Ratapu. He said that it was a very proper day to make peace upon. I asked him what he thought upon the propriety of sitting still and making peace on Monday. He and some others sitting by immediately consented and advised my mentioning it to the other chiefs which I did and no one objected but behaved in the most pleasing manner. On my return to the tent I learnt that Messrs. Kemp and Clarke were at hand. It was now quite dark. In about half an hour page 115 they arrived. They brought no particular news respecting our families. As we were closing the evening Tohitapu arose and addressed the camp upon the necessity of sitting quiet on the morrow as it was the Ratapu. His speech was animated and he was replied to by Ururoa after which all was still not a gun fired during the night.

Sunday, 23. No bustle in the camp. After breakfast my sheet was hoisted for a flag and Mr. Clarke and I went to the Pa to say that no meeting would take place today as it was the Ratapu but before we had concluded breakfast Tohitapu came to ask if the body of Taramauroa a relative of his who had been killed in the late fight should be exposed to public view and to have the pihe sung over it. This we considered a bad prelude to the making of peace and therefore told him that he had better wait till the body should be removed to his own place. He consented immediately. Mr. Clarke and I were well received in the Pa, tho' some felt disappointment that there was any delay to the concluding of peace. We spoke to several parties on the importance of eternal things and they gave us an attentive hearing. About 11 o'clock we took our departure promising to be with them in the morning. All quiet in the camp. As soon as night had closed in the natives began to dance and after 'hakaring for some time there was a general firing round, many fired ball. Tohitapu who has as little desire for these things as anyone called aloud to twist off the ball before accident happened but notwithstanding all that was said many continued firing ball.

Monday, 24. The eventful day is at length arrived which is to determine the question between these two great powers, the Napui and the Mahurehure. Much rain fell in the night and this morning. Notice was given that Tareha was at hand. While at breakfast Tohitapu and Rewa came to the tent to consult as to proceedings. Tohitapu did not appear to like the idea of going into the Pa tho' he had been deputed by the leading men. He however, at length made up his mind to what might await him. Rewa spoke of his desire to go to Waikato to make peace. One of his daughters is married to a Chief belonging there, he thought we had better go up in the vessel. Breakfast being concluded Tohitapu hurried us off to accompany him to the Pa. He requested that the white flag might be planted between the parties which was done on the side of a broad ditch serving as a division between the two armies. The situation was very favourable for the occasion the ground being perfectly level, about ¾ of a mile from the camp and the same from the Pa. After fixing the flag we passed on to the Pa, Tohi's heart beating as he went. We were received in the usual form by Patuone, &c., &c., they sitting on the ground under a shed and the natives page 116 pressing upon us on all sides. After a short conversation, the whole of the Natives moved towards the entrance to the Pa, and we with the eldest son of Patuone advanced to the flag which was our station. Several persons of distinction joined in a short time from the Pa. Rewa then came forward from the camp and crossing the ditch rubbed noses with the party from the Pa and took his station with us. Much noise was heard in the camp, and in a short time the various tribes were obs'd marching in great order with their muskets towards us, winding through some bushes which grew in the road. The sight was very imposing for this part of the world. When about 150 yards off they made a rush accompanied with a horrible yell. There were about 700 men generally armed with muskets. After remaining some time Rewa went forward to the opposite party which was remaining at the bottom of the Pa and saluting the Chiefs brought them all forward to within 40 yards of his own people. Several 'hakas took place on each side and volleys of musketry fired. As it was apprehended that many might fire ball the Chiefs took every possible care to prevent mischief and ordered that the parties should fire to the right and left. When the firing had ceased, Rewa commenced his address in a manly stile, desiring that peace should be established. Then followed Patuone and many others. At length a cry was heard that the Pa was taken by Tekoikoi. This created some little confusion until the old man jumped in as one arisen from the dead, and spoke at considerable length. His voice was so feeble that we could not understand him; he spoke with great earnestness, as was demonstrated from every muscle of his body. — After the speaking commenced many from either side withdrew to their respective parties, and a constant firing of guns was kept up towards the Camp and Pa, which might be understood as indication of joy, but however it was observed that many shots were fired when the Chiefs abruptly ordered the people to disperse. Messrs. Davis and Kemp returned into the camp to order our boys to carry our luggage into the Pa, on our way to the Wesleyan settlement at Mangungu on another branch of the river, while Mr. Clarke and I retired with the Mahurehure into the Pa to look for Mr. Hobbs's boat. On our way many shots passed over our heads, some came very near, and it is a great providence that no one was wounded, for on this precarious foundation humanly speaking depended the fate of the day. When we had entered the Pa the firing ceased and the natives as if released from prison took their canoes and dispersed to their respective places of abode. By the time that Mr. Davis had arrived the boat came in sight, which soon conveyed us from this scene of bustle to the quietness of civil life. page 117 It was dusk when we landed at Mangungu, when after a comfortable repast we retired to rest intending to proceed on our journey at 2 o'clock in the morning.

Tuesday, 25. At 2 o'clock rose and by 4 we were in the boat and well under weigh, the morning very foggy, and it was 7 o'clock before we landed at Waihou. We commenced our walk immediately, and by 4 p.m. reached the Kerikeri being much fatigued. After some refreshment we took our boat, and by 9.30 were at Paihia. All were well and under considerable anxiety. I soon learnt that the Rotorua natives, who had come up some few months since as a teretere, were under great fear lest they should be killed by the Napuis, as it is generally current that Pango14, the Chief of the Party, had makutud (bewitched) 'Hongi and caused his death, that he had caused the ball to hit Wareumu, which proved his death, and that several were now lying ill through his means and that others would soon fall victims to his magical powers. It was therefore desired by them that we should give them a passage up in our vessel.

Wednesday, 26. While at breakfast I was called out to speak to Pango the Rotorua Chief, who appeared in considerable fear, and desired a passage in our Vessel but as she is still aground the coppering not being completed and the tides not answering to haul her off, we proposed that they should go on board the Brig Haweis which will sail in the course of the day very near that part of the coast. He appeared delighted at the hope of escape. We therefore sent to the Captain, requesting to see him on shore. In the course of the morning he came, and offered to take as many as might come. In the eveng. about 30 men and women came from the Kawakawa to embark. Mr. C. Davis accompanied them on board, but the Captain refused to receive more than 17 of them, amongst whom was Pango and family, the remainder are to go by the Herald.

Thursday, 27. Early this morning Tohitapu made his appearance, his speech appeared to be low, he inquired about Pango, whether he was on board the Brig by our request. I told him he was. He said it was not proper, as he was a bad man. He did not eat any food, but passed on to Mr. Davis'. I soon learnt that two of Tohitapu's wives had been on board of one of the Ships during his absence, and that he was much distressed, that he was determined to hang himself, and had sent for his friends to witness his death. In the page 118 afternoon hearing that he had been inflicting punishment on some of his neighbours, I went to his place and found him apparently in great sorrow. He said that he had not eaten food since his return neither could he unless he were to kill someone, then his heart would be at ease, but that he had been restrained by us, and he must die. I could not but feel considerably for him. I spoke to him for some time, and left him.

Friday, 28. Tohitapu came before breakfast. I offered him some tea and bread but he declined it. He had a hatchet in his hand, and, holding it up, he told me that sixteen persons had been sent to the Po by that instrument, and that unless he could kill and eat someone he should not have rest. I reasoned with him upon his madness and wickedness, and how greatly Satan desired to have him. After some little time he cast away the deadly instrument, saying he would use it no more. Warerahi arrived about this time, which tended to enlighten his spirits.

Sunday, 30. After our usual service I went on board the Ann. No preparation being made I went on shore to Captain Duke's house, the room was full. I spoke to them from the 23 Psalm. Their attention was good: their course of life depraved. The boys told me that as the boat drew near the Ship from Paihia the girls were hurried out of the Ship to go on shore. Thus do these men condemn themselves.

In the course of this journal I have endeavoured to give the leading features with brevity, it was written at hurried moments. You will be able to perceive some instances of the dreadful superstition of this people. During our late campaign the Chiefs and Natives behaved with the greatest kindness towards us and I hope that under the blessing of the Lord, much good may result. They generally consulted their dreams each morng. when their interpretations were most ridiculous.

Thursday, 3 April. Closed my letters for England and delivered them to Mr. C. Davis. Made preparations for sailing in the Herald. Blowing a gale from the Northd. directly into the Bay.

Friday, 4. Good Friday. Service at 9 o'clock. Tekoke appeared anxious about the Rotorua Natives who were with him waiting to depart with us. From all we heard this morng. determined to sail in the night with the ebb tide if possible. After service I went to see Tohitapu. He was very inquisitive. As to our sailing, he said, it was highly improper to take them in our vessel, they ought to return by canoes. He desired that a messenger might be sent to him when we thought of sailing, that he might see who was going. He returned with me. I gave him some stirabout to keep him in page 119 tune. A disturbance had taken place towards Waitangi. Tarea over there under pretence of searching for some canoes taken from him some time since by Hapatahi. In the eveng. held service as is usual on the Sunday. At 10 we called the Natives sleeping within the settlement and those at Motuorangi, the Vessel being quite ready to sail. Before 11 the Natives were all on board in great silence. We immediately weighed and made sail. In four tacks we were clear of the Tapaka and beyond the reach of those who most desired the heads of the poor fellows on board. Fired two guns to apprize all around of our departure.—A pleasant breeze.

Saturday, 5. Fine pleasant weather. About noon passed the poor Knights. The Natives appeared happy at their deliverance. Wind favourable.

Sunday, 6. Cloudy. Assembled before 11 for service. Appearance of rain—drawing near to Mayor Island. At 2 abreast of it. Several canoes came off. Shortened sail to speak with them. They told us that the Natemaru had been to Tauranga, and had taken the Pa of Korarau15, that he himself was killed with many others and the remainder of the tribe taken as slaves. This was distressing news. Made sail for flat island16 hoping to anchor before dark. Night closed in before we could reach it. As it came on to rain we were obliged to haul to the wind, and stood off till towards morning Mother Kary's chickens playing about all day.

page 120

Monday, 7. A very pleasant night: much rain. At daylight discovered a very dangerous sunken rock which we had passed near in the night. The sea was breaking fearfully upon it. The Lord is my Shepherd I will not fear. The wind shifted before day light and brought clear weather. Obs'd the Haweis at anchor near flat island, came to anchor near her to learn the news. Mr. Mair on board. After breakfast weighed and made sail in shore. Lowland near the coast, broken country in the interior. In the afternoon endeavoured to land, surf too high. All the passengers left before we returned. By what we could learn no appearance of a cargo. Evening fine, wind off shore.

Tuesday, 8. Canoes came off but not to us as the Brig was trading with powder and muskets. One canoe came alongside, but no one offered a single basket of potatoes. Weighed and made sail to the Eastd. Stood along shore about a mile distant. No appearance of Natives. The country most desolate and broken.—As we came towards Wakatani we obs'd some canoes and natives. One came off and approached with caution. We hove to and she came alongside. Muritakaka the old chief said they were on their way to Maketu hearing that a ship was there, but that they would return with us to his settlement, as he had potatoes and pigs. We made sail with him on board, and about 3 o'clock came to anchor near his settlement. Numbers of canoes pulled off, and we bought 5 pigs. The natives appeared pleased that we were with them and promised that in the morning they would bring off potatoes, &c., &c. We conversed with Muritakaka upon the evil of war and the need for turning to the living God, upon the fall and redemption of man. He listened with attention. The land near our anchorage looked very inviting. Some of us went on shore to stretch our legs.

Wednesday, 9. Strong wind during the night at South, the night fine. At daylight she came off. The prospect of trading poor, but few baskets of potatoes and the natives very imposing. However at noon we had all the canoes cleared, which was about a quarter of a cargo, and a number of pigs. Learnt that there was a river about 8 miles to the Eastd.17 Messrs. Davis and Mair landed. They returned about 4 o'clock having seen the river, but did not reach the entrance having been shocked at the sight of several dead bodies, some of which had been cut to pieces and others laying by the remains of fire. The evening fine. White Island belching forth columns of steam and smoke in an awful manner.

page 121

Thursday, 10. Fine morning. Canoes came off, but nothing in them except a few old sows which we did not buy. Two hours expended in buying fish hooks, lines and paddles. After breakfast Mr. Hamlin and I went to the Pa18, the Chief being very solicitous. After turning the point we passed up a narrow channel between rocks, the sea breaking on those to windward. Ducks were so numerous that we might have shot them with a pistol. The river was very fine when we were on the inside, and very deep in places. As we approached the Pa numbers of Children came running to meet us. We landed and were conducted to the house of one of the head men, and were soon surrounded by the inhabitants of the place. There were about 200 persons present tho' not more than 20 men amongst them. While looking upon them, I felt a desire to be with them; but this is my constant wish when visiting any of these distant settlements. I feel persuaded that nothing will tend to preserve peace amongst this unhappy people than Missionaries living with them and visiting from place to place. We spoke to them for a considerable time. They said that it was all very good what we had told them; but as other Natives would not let them alone, they stood greatly in need of muskets and powder in order to defend themselves. We afterwards took a survey of the place. The Pa was strongly fenced round and subdivided into small allotments for different families; they were as closely packed as they could well be. We ascended the hill which overhangs the Pa, and had a sight of the surrounding country which was perfectly flat for several miles. We could not see the extent of the river, but from the nature of the country it must extend for several miles. We were re-conducted to the settlement and requested to sit down, the Natives forming a circle round us. At length two extraordinary large hogs were conducted before us in great state, they walked with as much majesty as Elephants. Blankets would not purchase them, they required powder, and consequently were left to run a little longer. We returned on board by one o'clock, and as there was no appearance of any more potatoes we weighed and made sail to the Eastd. About 7 anchored off the mouth of the Hiwa, the river reported by the natives as further to the Eastd., as we wished to explore it. About 7 o'clock we brought in to 6 fm. water, a little more than a mile from the shore. Lay quiet all night.

Friday, 11. At sunrise Messrs. Davis, Mair and myself took the boat to examine the river. The sea appeared to break across the entrance, and I for some time despaired of accomplishing our object: that is to say to find an opening where the vessel might enter page 122 in the event of a settlement being formed here at some future period. We pulled in however through the breakers till at length we grounded, but were carried over the bar by the rolls. We then entered a fine river extending far and wide and deep water. We landed to take a better view; when we discovered we had taken the wrong channel. As this was the most important point to learn, we pulled out to the opposite side, and carried deep water except at one place, when we had two fathoms. As it was near low water, there would be sufficient depth when the tide was in. This river is an important discovery. On returning on board we weighed and made sail for Potiki19 a settlement further to the eastd. The wind was strong and against us, We worked up, the natives making great fires to invite us. About one o'clock two canoes came alongside, but appeared not disposed to trade. They wanted powder. Were very ill-behaved, being prompted by two natives from the bay of Islands, but after a good scolding they were better behaved and offered flax and some mats for sale which we purchased. They wished us to trade tomorrow. They left us towards sunset and we continued to the eastd. Little wind all the evening from the Northd. Appearance of bad weather—hauled off shore—Midnight fresh breezes.

Saturday, 12. Pigs and poultry so noisy all night could have but little sleep. At day light every probability of a gale—bore up for Tauranga, wishg. to make another effort for a cargo of potatoes and to give us an opportunity to visit the natives tomorrow. Much swell during the afternoon—weather thick, some rain. At 5 p.m. we had the great pleasure of entering Tauranga and after a few tacks we anchored under Maunga nui20. The change from a serious tumbling about to perfect stillness was very refreshing. The harbour appeared quite deserted only one canoe to be seen the natives occupied with the Haweis. Those in the canoe said they had potatoes and were glad to see us as we have never yet traded with those at the heads. In a short time two canoes came from Maungatapu21 with Nuka22 and Kaiewa. They expressed great regard. We told them that tomorrow would be the Sabbath and that we should not trade.

Sunday, 13. Fine. No canoes off—held service with the crew about 10 o'clock. After dinner Messrs. Hamlin and Mair and I went to the Pa nearest the heads, where was a great assembly of Natives especially Children. We talked with them for a length of time. They page 123 said that unless we sat with them they should soon forget. They expressed great fears of Natemaru who were expected daily. Returned on board by 4.30. A canoe had been alongside from the Haweis elated with the possession of a few pounds of powder.— They were very abusive. In the evening rain.

Monday, 14. Weather unsettled—several canoes came alongside with a number of pigs, some few baskets of potatoes, very small. No appearance of trading, all wanting powder—they would not give for the blankets, Axes, &c., more than half what is given in the Bay of Islands—inclined to be very insolent. Wherever we go the constant demand is muskets and powder; we could have filled with potatoes at either place, but for the Haweis Brig which is here intoxicating the natives with their destructive materials. About 3 o'clock they withdrew in a very ill humour. Mr. Mair and I went up to the Pa which within this last fortnight has been subdued by Natemaru—we witnessed every mark of desolation. When last here we anchored abreast of the place, then were there many hundreds of men, women and children living here—now all was silent —their houses and fences burnt—dead dogs and pigs on all sides, and human bones in many places—a dreadful evidence of the real temporal situation of this people. The Natemaru are daily expected to attack a second Pa, at which we were on Sunday, and afterwards they will visit the third. Such is the prejudice of this people that each party will sit at his own place rather than unite their forces to resist the common foe. Surely they are in the gall of bitterness and bond of iniquity, and are daily led the willing captives of Satan, seeking each others destruction.

Tuesday, 15. Fine. Wind, W.S.W. No appearance of a single canoe. After breakfast, it being high water, we weighed and worked out of this difficult place, with a determination not to attempt to trade here for a length of time. Naka, a Chief from the place, on board to visit the Bay of Islands—has a number of mats with him to purchase muskets. As I considered it highly important that the Natives should not feel themselves at liberty to come on board at pleasure and pass to and fro, I felt it needful to demand a payment for his passage and required 2 mats. After some little talking to he brought them: this will give them a greater respect for us and the vessel, than they have as yet possessed—they will receive as many favours as we please to bestow, but will give none. Noon sailg. with a fine breeze from the S.W. passg. rapidly along. At sunset abreast of Nth. head of Mercury Bay—a canoe hove in sight coming round the point, about ¾ of a mile distant. Our natives on board exclaimed there were the Natemaru, with whom they were at war. As they were ever fearful, they immediately enquired page 124 for arms to kill them, but as only one canoe was in sight, we hove to for it to come alongside, at the same time providing ourselves with a few implements lest they should board us. Our natives wished us to decoy them on board and make slaves of them. We purchased one mat, and a few fish from them for an axe and a few fish hooks. They were greatly delighted. They asked us to run into the Bay, but this was not proper: —we inquired of them their disposition to make peace with Napui. They replied that Napui were ever killing them. We told them that Rewa's desire was for peace and also many others, that we expected that some of the Chiefs would proceed to their place for that purpose. They appeared pleased. We then made sail.—As soon as the canoe left us Nuka and his companions who had been before concealed, jumped up and began to brandish their weapons about and gave them a challenge.—Eveng. fine, making good way towards Autea, or Barrier Island.

Wednesday, 16. Little wind during the night, and could not lay our course. Autea astern. Wind very unsteady during the day. At sunset Cape Brett in sight from the mast head.—Wt.

Thursday, 17. Little sleep during the night owing to the noise of the pigs. At daylight Cape Brett Wt. by N. 15 miles, wind light, making little way and the current against us. Readg. Josephus and Archdeacon Brown's Letters to Mr. Wilkinson. We have a good opportunity on these voyages for reading, though a season of considerable anxiety. Towards evening drawing in for the land. At 1.30 rounded Cape Brett, the breeze increasing and more favourable hopes of anchoring in 2 hours.

Friday, 18. At 1.30 near Moturoa, taken aback—wind baffling. Mr. Davis and I took the boat and pulled in for Paihia. Landed at 2.30 and had the happiness to find all well. It is with a degree of fear and trembling that I approach my dwelling after an absence— for tho' our Lord has been very gracious and ever watchful, yet nature must fail, and young and old alike be numbered with the dead. The natives have been quiet and well-behaved. Rec'd an affectionate letter from Mr. Marsden, and one from Mr. Hill.23. A severe drought in the Colony—little hope of supply from them at present for schools. At daylight the Herald anchored in her berth. Every appearance of a gale. At 4 p.m. heavy rain. George, a native who had been with me from my landing, had taken a wife during my absence—she was taken some months since by someone else, but afterwards forsaken by her husband. It appears therefore, in page 125 accordance with the Native law, that anyone else may take her, undergoing the accustomed ceremony of a visit from a party to dispute the claim.

Sunday, 20. Fine. Service as usual, after which I went to Kororareka. I met but two persons besides Cap. Duke. many are on the beach, but all would avail themselves of their ignorance of my intention to visit them—poor creatures! surely the heathen will rise up in the judgment against them. On my return I went to the 'Haumi. Tohitapu was there and made many inquiries, as to the treatment we had met with on the coast. He said he had been very apprehensive lest mischief should befall us. I told him those were our feelings in reference to his spiritual state, that his enemy was ever seeking his destruction and yet he knew it not. In the evening I addressed the natives in the Settlement at our evening service.

Monday, 21. Heavy rain all day. A gale from Eastd.

Tuesday, 22. Every one occupied in killing the pigs which arrived by the Herald. Tohitapu called and mentioned that a large party was coming the day after tomorrow, on account of George's marriage.

Wednesday, 23. Engaged all day in salting the pigs, &c. It is a singular circumstance that more native food has been purchased this season than we have ever known it the case, though the vessel brought but little—but blankets are the articles required.

Thursday, 24. Everyone very busy in preparing lime for the Chapel, &c., &c. The Haweis arrived from Southd. Not much of a cargo. Also a Bark from London five months out. No news. In the eveng. a number of carts, children's toys, were brought from the Kerikeri with which the little ones were greatly delighted.

Saturday, 26. Rec'd a polite note from Cap. Duke, expressing the desire of the Captains of the Vessels at Kororarika to have Service on board of one of the ships on the morrow.

Sunday, 27. Every appearance of rain—did not go on board— went to the Haumi—Tohitapu not there.

Monday, 28. The day appointed for the quarterly meeting at Kerikeri, as we had been prevented assembling at the proper time owing to the sailing of the Herald to the Southd. earlier than was proposed. Before we left the beach the Capns. of the two vessels in the Bay landed, and made application for a supply of hogs and potatoes as they had been unable to obtain any; one of them was forbid parting with any muskets and powder, as his owner was a Quaker—the other had not any on board. We assured them we had not any with which we could part, having nearly 130 persons at this settlement to feed: they took their departure evidently under page 126 an impression that we were unkind to them. Such are the unreasonable ideas of some. After an hour's hindrance, Mr. Davis, my Brother and I left for the Kerikeri, where we arrived about 2 o'clock—all well. We did not commence committee business this day being occupied in viewing the late improvements and considering future plans, conversation, &c., &c. In the evening we assembled at Mr. Hamlin's for our prayer meeting, when I addressed them from Josh. 5. 13, 14, 15.

Tuesday, 29. All day at the committee business.

Wednesday, 30. The question of purchasing plank from the Europeans again brought forward and carried—by this our hands will be considerably relieved, tho' very much will remain to be done. During these last two months we have scarcely attended two days together at the Native language. We have been hindered daily by unforseen circumstances, and have so much important work before us—we cannot see any opening. As we draw natives around us, so do we increase in labour, but it is of such a nature, that with it we also increase our pleasure. However it is requisite that attention be paid as soon as possible to the augmenting of our numbers that our work may be carried on more effectually. The business concluded by 2 o'clock, when we left for Paihia—Mr. and Mrs. Hobbs in the boat. All well at Paihia but some unpleasantness on board the Herald, two of the Englishmen and one native having left off work. I went on board to enquire into their grievance, but could not discover anything. They said they had not any complaint to make. It appeared very evident that the people from one of the ships were endeavouring to take them away, a boat from the Alfred was alongside. After remaining long time with them, the englishmen said they would return to their work, but the native expressed his determination to go on shore.

Thursday, 1 May. The englishmen returned to their work on board the Herald.

Friday, 2. The Herald sailed for Hokianga. Mr. Fairburn on board. Every prospect of obtaining a cargo. A fine wind.

Sunday, 4. After service attended to the native school instead of going to Kororareka, as there was no one to attend to them. In the evening spoke to the natives.

Monday, 5. Application was made by Rap24, a native youth, to take Fanny, one of our native girls, as his wife. I asked him if he page 127 had communicated his wishes to the damsel. He said no. I enquired how we were to act, he replied that I had better solicit in his behalf which I promised to do. Cap. Duke came on shore with the Capn. of the Lord Rodney. He told me that the native who had lately left the Herald was now on board the Alfred: there is no doubt but that our men were decoyed by the people of that ship. Commenced a new well nearer the hill.

Tuesday, 6. Communicated Rape's message to Fanny. She did not appear very well pleased. She said that she had not much love for him. In the eveng. Rape came to enquire as to my success—he said it would be better for him to live with me that he might be near her, as she always ran away from him.

Wednesday, 7. The boys at the well all day—every hope of its being well executed.

Thursday, 8. At 10.30 Mr. Hobbs landed from the Kerikeri boat and communicated the painful intelligence that the Herald was on shore to the Northd. of the Heads of Hokianga, but the crew safe, though severely treated by the Natives and much exposed to the weather. That the Enterprise which had been built at Hokianga since the Herald was also lost and none of the crew had been heard of. This was a severe shock to us all and greatly distressed us. We immediately prepared for a march, and by noon my brother and I departed with 13 of our best natives. Mr. Hobbs also returned with the Kerikeri boat. We landed at the Kerikeri at 2.30 and were joined by Mr. Kemp and 10 of his best men. After refreshment we departed at 4 o'clock and by 10.30 were within 2 miles of the woods, where we halted for the night, having the advantage of wood and water. We were a little fatigued as we had many swamps to pass through.

Friday, 9. After as pleasant a night as circumstances would admit of we rose at 4 o'clock, and at the first break of day moved on. My feet much chafed with walking without stockings, owing to the numerous swamps we had to pass—the road through the wood very wet. About the middle of the wood we met Takapau, Mr. Fairburn's boy, who had a note from him. We were happy to perceive that he was able to write. About eleven we arrived at Waihou, where the boat was waiting for us. We proceeded down the river, the boys by land to Mangunga. On our way Nene and Patu-one pulled to us in a canoe: they appeared much hurt that the vessels were wrecked, and had suffered much insult from other natives in consequence. We arrived at the Settlement25 by 4 o'clock page 128 and should have continued down the river, but the tide was against us. Capn. Clark came and offered every assistance: it was proposed to go down at daybreak as it would then be high water. We passed a pleasant evening and were greatly refreshed. Mr. Mair and the crew pulled up having been obliged to abandon the Herald owing to the conduct of the Natives.

Saturday, 10. At daybreak we proceeded down the river in three boats. It was 10 o'clock before we reached the Heads. We walked along the coast till we came to our little vessel. No natives were in sight but the beach was covered with feet-marks and evidences of their abominable work on every side. The masts and spars were cut to pieces and the inside quite demolished, and not a vestige of rope to be seen—her deck had been set on fire in three places— the sight was distressing. Her hull did not appear to have suffered much, and yet we could not see any prospect of getting her off— part of the main keel was lying by her and some of her planks. Capn. Clark's carpenters gave it as their opinion that she could not be taken into the river without great expense, and he would not accept of my proposal to attempt to take her to his place.— On our way called on Mr. S. Butler to thank him for his attention to Mr. Fairburn and the people. Many of the sails and blocks were among the natives here, and also much rope—they appeared to exult exceedingly in what had been done—I requested Mr. Butler to collect what he could from them. Returned after dark to Mangunga and felt much fatigued.

Sunday, 11. We assembled by 9 o'clock to service. Mr. Hobbs preached. My thoughts much astray and my mind cast down within me. At eleven Mr. Stack and I went to Haureke, the establishment of Capn. Clark: near 30 europeans were assembled. I addressed them from Matthew 25.13. They were attentive, but alas this late dispensation is but a bubble on the water to them, tho all their men are lost—probably killed and eaten. In the evening we held service at six o'clock. My brother read prayers and preached. My mind more at rest.

Monday, 12. Mr. Clarke ret'd before daylight to the Kerikeri. Settled the accounts with the four seamen belonging to the Herald, including the loss in clothes which they had sustained. Wrote letters to Mr. Marsden and also to Mr. Campbell.26 After breakfast Patuone and Nene with all their people came to consult as to what measures should be taken with the people who had stripped the Herald and so severely ill-treated the crew. We told them that as missionaries we could not tell them to go, that we came only to page 129 declare the name of the Lord, that we were grieved at the conduct which we had witnessed, but must leave the result with our God. They said that we were a strange tribe. But it was concluded better that Mr. Hobbs and Cap. Clark should accompany the party tomorrow and remonstrate with them upon their very bad conduct, lest war should be declared and much blood shed, besides further injury to other vessels coming into the river. At eleven o'clock we took leave of our friends at Mangungu and pulled up to Waihou on our way home. At 3, after some refreshment, we moved on from Waihou, in all near thirty persons, and by dusk had advanced to the last crossing of the river, where we pitched our tent in a very comfortable place. We assembled the natives to prayer and retired to rest. Mr. Fairburn stood the journey very well.

Tuesday, 13. Passed a good night—appearances of rain—did not move until near 8 o'clock—the wood very wet and slippery. In less than two hours we were through, and walked the remainder of the way very well, as it was open and level—by 2 o'clock we were at the Kerikeri, where we were soon refreshed. At 4 we were again under weigh and at 6.30 landed at Paihia. All well, but much depressed in spirit, tho grateful that no lives were lost. Much native food had been purchased during our absence.

Wednesday, 14. Weary by our late journey; as much by sleeping on the ground as by exercise—unable to settle to anything. In the afternoon heard that the Alfred—Whaler, was bound for Port Jackson and to sail in the morning—prepared letters while I could keep my eyes open.

Thursday, 15. At daylight sent our letters on board. The boys recommenced the digging of the well. Made good progress.

Saturday, 17. Finished the digging of the well, the lower part of which is through hard rock; this will relieve the domestic duty considerably. Upon further consideration upon the loss of our little vessel, I felt that it was needed that someone should proceed to the Colony on account of the Insurance. Mr. Mair went to consult with Cap. Duke on the subject. On his return it was determined that the Mate should go in the Alfred which is yet in the Harbour, accordingly I had immediately to write letters to the Colony, and settle some of their accounts, as the ship would certainly sail in the morning at high water.

Sunday, 18. I did not go over to Kororarika as usual, as the Alfred was under weigh with a very light wind, and the people would generally be engaged with her. At noon went to the Haumi. Tohitapu was sitting with a few others by the bones of his son, which were lying in state. He was in good spirits, but more disposed to speak upon the loss of the vessel than to listen to what was said. page 130 In the eveng. our kitchen was as full as it could possibly could hold. Hapatahi amongst the number—he behaved well. It is very pleasing and encouraging to witness the general improvement in the natives around, though those at the Kawakawa act with the utmost indifference, they come and beg for various things, but behave very ill. The natives round about and particularly those of Waimate manifest great interest in the loss of the Herald.

Monday, 19. Much food brought. It is a remarkable circumstance that our supply of native food is beyond what we can at present consume and will probably not keep good. I have myself never witnessed so great a quantity. We have been many months without a single basket—thus does our Lord shew us that our dependence must not rest on human endeavours.

Friday, 23. Mr. Puckey and I left in order to visit the Kawakawa and the neighbouring settlements, where we arrived about 10 o'clock: after some refreshment we proceeded on our different routes. Tekoke and most of the natives of the settlement had left to attend a Hahunga at Taeamai. I passed on for Waiomio about 5 miles distant—in about an hour it began to rain heavily with every appearance of a gale from the N.W. but we continued our walk, as it is but very seldom that we can at present go amongst the natives. As the road was very hilly it became very slippery from the rain and with difficulty we could pass along.—We at length arrived at the Waiomio but few Natives here and those few not disposed to remain out of their houses as the rain was falling heavily. After remaining our usual time with Tioka27, we left and passed first through a swamp of some extent. This was very bad, and it was with difficulty we could ascend the hills. After passing two miles I found that our guides were going a different road to the one we came, and that they were leading us to Tirohanga, where the friend of one of them lived. This was by no means agreeable, considering the wet state in which we were, but as the wind had changed more to the Westd. and every appearance of the rain clearing away, we advanced more cheerfully. After ascending and descending several difficult hills, we came suddenly on the settlement, which was a very beautiful spot on the bank of a small river and surrounded by hills and woods. The natives were glad to see me, as no European had ever been there before. They surrounded me to hear and see. When I told them of the nature of my visit, and that we desired to be frequently amongst them, they detained us here much longer than we desired in order that food might be page 131 cooked for the boys. Many children were here whom we may hope to see at the school. Some were proposed by them, but they were too young. Our road from thence to the Kawakawa was very unpleasant and exceedingly wet and dirty. It was quite dusk before we reached the boat, where was a good fire and some refreshment ready, of which we partook with thankfulness. After two hours sitting in the boat perfectly wet, I entered my own dwelling at Paihia and soon relieved from my cold and dirty state.

Saturday, 24. After dinner I left for Rangihoua where I arrived in less than two hours. More than usual civility on the part of Mr. Shepherd: Mr. King hung back—soon perceived that unpleasantness of a serious nature had taken place.

Sunday, 25. Before service took a walk on the beach: the natives mending their nets, buying and selling corn and potatoes. I spoke to them but they ridiculed all I said. Service as usual. Late. After dinner walked out with Mr. Shepherd, saw but few Natives. Passed the evening with Mr. King. No communication between the families.

Monday, 26. Had some conversation with Mr. Shepherd upon the unpleasant state in which he and Mr. King appeared to be living. When it was concluded that the subject should be entered into on Monday next when we are assembled there at the monthly meeting. Returned very early to Paihia, where the contrast of the two settlements present itself to me in a very lively manner.

Tuesday, 27. Mr. Hobbs, who is remaining with me on account of Mrs. H.'s expected confinement, proposed to pull down an old wooden chimney which is in the Beehive, and build it up with brick—accordingly preparations were made and down it came. Collected the rough materials and commenced the foundation, with Mr. H. He is a good thorough workman.

Wednesday, 28. All day at the chimney—learned an important lesson in this necessary work—in the general construction of the chimney, but particularly in the tempering of the mortar.

Thursday, 29. All day at the bricks and mortar—dirty work, and a heavy hindrance in the great work, but what steps are to be taken—chimneys we must have, and for want of assistance we must attend to them ourselves.

Friday, 30. In the midst of our work at the chimney two messengers arrived from the Waimate, from Rewa, to request our attendance at the Ha'hunga which invitation we considered necessary to accept. After dinner Mr. Puckey and I took the boat to the Kerikeri where we spent an agreeable eveng., intending to move on in the morng. tho the grand day was passed.

Saturday, 31. At four we rose, and had a comfortable breakfast, and at six we commenced our walk accompanied by Messrs. Kemp page 132 and Hamlin. The day had not yet began to appear, but the moon shone bright. It was my wish if possible to return to Paihia in the evening for which purpose we were obliged to make all haste. By nine o'clock we reached the assembled multitude and were instantly surrounded and conducted to Rewa, Warehari and other chiefs, who expressed their pleasure at our being amongst them. We sat with them a short time to rest ourselves, but as we had no time to lose, we soon walked round to see all our friends. Sheds had been erected for the reception, but nothing of that order we had observed at Waima. The hangis (ovens) were kept constantly supplied. The Chiefs from Hokianga with whom peace had been so recently established, were here, with their families: the unhappy circumsstance which led to the death of Warehumu was discussed by all and concluded in a friendly manner. The bones of their deceased relatives were laying in state under a shed beneath some trees, decorated with feathers and blankets. Several persons were sitting near—some crying, others laughing. Before we left, Rewa brought out some baskets of kumara for our boys to carry home. We were obliged to tell him to stop bringing more as we should be obliged to leave them, however twenty were brought, each one as much as a man could carry. Our five boys took one each, and we departed. By 4 o'clock we were at the Kerikeri—every appearance of a gale from the Eastd. I should have been glad to have remained over Sunday, but as we are to meet at Rangihoua on Monday, I should be necessarily absent four days from home, instead of two, consequently I concluded to proceed on to Paihia. The boys did not arrive till past 6 o'clock with their loads. At 7 we took leave, and by 11 we landed on our own beach. Mod. breeze from the Eastd.

Sunday, 1 June. The gale commenced early this morng. and before daylight the rain fell in torrents—but little prospect of communicating with the other houses. After breakfast the wind veared round to the N.W. and appearance of fine weather. At nine we assembled for service. Mr. Yate who came yesterday from the Kerikeri preached—he is a considerable comfort to the mission— nothing can exceed his kindness and attention on all occasions. No one out among the natives in the afternoon—evening service as usual.

Monday, 2. After many hindrances we at length departed for Rangihoua where we arrived by noon. After dinner we entered upon the important enquiry relative to this settlement, and the members thereof: some points appeared in a serious position and required careful consideration. In the eveng. held the prayer meeting.

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Tuesday, 3. After breakfast assembled upon the question of yesterday, when after much cool and deliberate conversation, it was the general opinion that the settlement should be set aside altogether, that Mr. Shepherd should remove to one of the other two stations, Mr. Baker28 on his arrival should go to the Kerikeri, and that Mr. King, in consideration of his age, his numerous family and severe trials which he has experienced from the foundation of the Mission, should remove to the Colony, under certain provisions to be considered hereafter.—The reasons which brought us to this conclusion, were 1st. The unpleasant and distressing feeling which has existed between Mr. King and Mr. Shepherd, and no expectation of an amendment unless two or three families of mild disposition could be established with them—but of this there is no prospect. 2d. The weak state of the other stations, in comparison of what may be accomplished, and what is deemed proper under existing circumstances, that far more would be effected by concentrating our forces, than by increasing the number of stations, and that before Rangihoua settlement could be put upon a footing with either of the others an entire renovation must be effected. After an early tea we all returned to our respective places.

Wednesday, 4. Concluded the chimney.

Thursday, 5. The ship Elizabeth from Hokianga put in in distress in a very leaky state; she narrowly escaped being lost on the South head of that river, and also in the gale on Sunday, having been nearly driven on shore. The Captain sent a note on shore, wishing for supplies of nails and pump leather.

Friday, 6. I went on board the Elizabeth to learn her state, she was much lumbered on deck. The Captain did not say much as to her state, he made out a list of his wants, which I promised he should be supplied with. Appearance of a gale at East.

Saturday, 7. Strong gale with rain, could not move during the day.

Sunday, 8. Wind from the Westd. with fair weather. After service accompanied Mr. Davis to the Puke—had a pleasant walk, tho' very wet under foot, the road very slippery. A tolerable muster of natives, some attended well. They said that could they understand our books their religious services would be better. We spoke to them on the need of their children attending the school, but none appeared disposed to send them.

Monday, 9. About 10 o'clock a brig was observed standing in, which proved to be from the Colony with Mr. and Mrs. Baker on page 134 board—very few English letters—very pleasant ones from Mr. Marsden and Mr. Hill.

Tuesday, 10. Dispatched letters to the Kerikeri, Called a Committee by the request of Mr. Shepherd. Mr. Yate and Mr. Clark arrived by 4 o'clock. After tea commenced upon the question of the Rangihoua settlement, but could not conclude this night—the opinion the same as on the 3rd.

Wednesday, 11. Continued the discussion until 3 p.m.—our opinion the same as yesterday. Messrs. Clark and Shepherd for the continuance of the settlement, Messrs. Yate and Davis, my brother and myself for the breaking of it up—to be referred to the Parent Committee.—Mr. Baker ordered to the Kerikeri.

Thursday, 12. The Elizabeth sailed about 10 o'clock—strong wind from Westd.—the boat could not get on board with the letters.

Friday, 13. Cap. Clark from Hokianga arrived—agreed with him for plank, &c. for the use of the mission to be brought round by him. The crew of his vessel wrecked at Hokianga had been found, some of which were thirty miles apart, there was no mark of violence to be discovered about them.

Saturday, 14. It was my intention to have gone this morng. up to Kerikeri to pass the Sabbath with the brethren there, but as Mrs. Hobbs is hourly expecting her troubles to commence, and the children generally complaining with coughs, &c., I determined to remain at home.

Sunday, 15. Light winds all day. After service Mr. Puckey and I went to Kororarika, about twenty persons assembled at Cap. Duke's. I addressed them from Ps. 111. 10. Their attention was good, but their mode of living wicked in the extreme. I afterwards went to the 'Haumi. Tohitapu and the other natives much as usual, he spoke of our going to Wangai tomorrow to the Ha'hunga, but said that as it was Sunday he should only express his hope that all the settlement would go up, and that he should be with us at break of day.

Monday, 16. At daylight the boat from Rangihoua brought a note to my brother stating that Mr. King had been suddenly taken ill in the middle of the night—my brother left immediately. Tohitapu came according to promise and was very urgent that we should not lose time. Messrs. Puckey, Mair and myself went in the boat with a full boat's crew. Tohi was with us and felt not a little at being in the boat—his canoe joined us as we pulled up the river. On landing we were welcomed by the natives. The bones of poor Taramaoroa were laid in state and the usual ceremony had commenced. I did not observe any strangers. By the bones two old women were seated making a terrible howling, as if addressing the page 135 departed spirit. The speeches were very poor—much laughing and dancing. We were conducted to the Ware'ha'hunga and shewn a long range of baskets of food, which were intended for us. We sat with the natives for some time, but had not much of an opportunity to say a word to them upon spiritual subjects.—When we were about to depart I told the chiefs that we would take part of the portion which they brought out for us, and leave the remainder, but this they would not listen to, and at length seeing that I continued unwilling to receive the whole, they ordered them to be carried down to the boat.—The tide was too low for us to proceed down the river. We landed, and were obliged to remain till near 7 p.m.—between eight and nine we arrived at Paihia.

Friday, 20. For many days past the children have suffered much from coughs. It is a rare circumstance here to have illness of any kind—the mercies of our Lord towards us are countless as the sand. Soon after daylight my brother and I went up the Kawakawa to visit the natives there and the neighbourhood. On our landing everyone kept aloof for a considerable time while we were preparing for our day's perambulations, at length old Tikoke descended the hill and came up to us telling us that he had been ashamed because he had not any food to bring to us, owing to the flood which had come suddenly upon them during the summer; but we assured him we did not require their food, but to declare the glad tidings of peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ.—After a little refreshment we separated on our different courses. After a considerable difficulty and much unpleasant walking, wading and jumping, I at length arrived at ——. This was my first visit, tho' I was well acquainted with all whom I saw: the river was very full, and many places had overflown its banks. My conversation with the natives here was very pleasing, they are dreadfully superstitious. I enquired about some of children going to school, but at present they appear disposed to keep them at their place. On my return to Tikoke I assembled all who would come near, but after some time they walked away one by one, until I was left alone. I had need to speak seriously upon their abominable practice of sending their daughters on board the shipping. They justified their conduct and evidently did not approve of what I had to say. This evening was fine and we returned by 9 o'clock.

Saturday, 21. Several natives on the beach from Waikari who had brought Tacopa29 for fencing. We heard by creditable evidence that Tuaroa, a chief from thence, had stolen five great coats from the store some time since, and that it was his stuff now brought page 136 for sale—after a little consultation it was determined to seize all his property now on the beach, which was about the value of the coats, and order him off the settlement. He had one of the coats on his back. Our natives approved of our plan and immediately put it in execution. None of his party offered him any assistance, but laughed at his being discovered.

Sunday, 22. In the afternoon went to see Tohitapu. He said that he had been in great trouble owing to the cows which had been across the river and trampled down his potatoes. Upon enquiring it appeared that they were on a Wahitapu and consequently could not be driven home, and in the night they took the advantage of crossing the river. I endeavoured to point out to him the great reason God had to be angry with us continually—by the anger he then experienced towards the cows and their driver. Tukarangatia, a Waikari chief, passed through the settlement, who spoke of the proceedings of yesterday and said that they were perfectly correct.

Thursday, 26. Owing to the great pressure of business, Mr. Fairburn could not accompany me inland; however as it was deemed highly important that our visit should not be interrupted, my brother and I left early this morning with five of our boys, and landed at Wauwau-roa at 9.45. The day was fine. At 12.30 we arrived at Otao, where were several natives. Afterwards passed on to Morere through a close and swampy wood. At 4.30 we arrived at the Auti. Here we spoke at four places until it was quite dark, when being somewhat fatigued we took supper, assembled our boys for prayer and lay down to rest. Every appearance of a frost. Had a fire in the tent for about an hour.

Friday, 27. Rose at daylight after a good night. Morning very cold. We could not remain longer at this place tho several small settlements we had been unable to visit. The boys took the direct road for Paihia, while we went in a circuitous rout to several places to which I had never been—till we arrived at the last hill at the foot of which the boat was waiting, by sunset. Upon the whole our journey was very pleasant, but more time is required. We could but remain half an hour at each place, and were obliged to pass by several. As we increase our intercourse so does its importance appear to us. We move out as often as circumstances will allow, and yet what does all amount to. We need support for ourselves and for that work in which we are engaged. The Natives encourage us much, and they tell us they cannot believe unless they hear, and they cannot hear unless we go amongst them. Oh that the sad state of this people were more considered, for they are in the gaul of bitterness and in the bond of iniquity.

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Saturday, 28. Many calls upon me, which required me this way and that.

Sunday, 29. Service as usual, after which I went on board the Brig at anchor, and assembled the crew at Divine Service. Cap. Duke and several men from the shore—their attention good.— Afternoon went to the 'Haumi—had a pleasant conversation. Report that the pa at Waima had been cut off by Patuone, owing to the bones of Warehumu having been robbed of their flesh. Mischief is in agitation.

Monday, 30. Mr. Hobbs and I commenced the ceiling of the kitchen with plaister, being the first experiment made in this land: at first the mortar was too thin, then too stiff, however after much time and patience we made it stick up, and as we proceeded we accomplished our work more to satisfaction. I had two natives with me under instruction whom I hope will soon be able to take ordinary work, though they are generally exceedingly clumsy.

Tuesday, 1 July. All day employed at the plastering—dirty and fatiguing work—concluded the first coat by sunset.

Wednesday, 2. About 1 a.m. Mrs. W. was called up to attend to Mrs. Hobbs, who was not delivered till about noon—her sufferings were very great. This morng. “Wai” a chief from Wangai came and wanted a hatchet. He told me that last night a messenger arrived from Rewa, to say that all the Napui were to assemble and go against the Popoto, a tribe at Hokianga, on account of the sacrilege committed upon the remains of Warehumu. I fear there is some truth in this report, and apprehend serious consequences. The Wesleyan Missionary station will be in the neighbourhood of the scene of action.

Saturday, 5. This morng. early news of the death of Rangituke30, the son of Tikoke, who had left the bay a few weeks since on a murdering expedition to the Southd. We had warned him of the consequences and had endeavoured to keep him at home. They met with a large party of the enemy, but depending upon their guns considered themselves invincible—however they were put to the rout, and the survivours obliged to return over land. Our natives appear to consider this circumstance as a judgement upon the party for acting in opposition to our remonstrance.

Sunday, 6. Went to the 'Haumi. Tohitapu in the country. Natives generally indifferent. In the eveng. spoke to our Natives at our service.

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Monday, 7. Made early preparation for our departure for the Kerikeri. The wind fair. By noon arrived—all the brethren well. After dinner commenced the business. In the eveng. held our prayer meeting. My brother spoke from Jno. 15.

Tuesday, 8. Sat close all day at the committee. Resolved that Mr. Fairburn should be proposed to the Parent committee to be received as a member of the Mission. Also that a new vessel be applied for. No apprehension of a disturbance with the Napui.

Wednesday, 9. Occupied all the former part of the day in preparing the stores. At 4 p.m. landed at Paihia—all well.—Our meeting tho full of bustle, was nevertheless very pleasant and profitable.

Thursday, 10. Heavy rain all day.

Saturday, 12. Fine. At noon left for Rangihoua. Mrs. King very unwell. Considerable indisposition during the last month in the two families. Took up my abode at Mr. King's.

Sunday, 13. Service about 10. Spent the evening at Mr. Shepherd's—was happy to observe a much better feeling between the two families.

Monday, 14. Wind from the Eastd. heavy rain and appearance of a gale—could not move. Had some conversation with Messrs. King and Shepherd during the day, relative to the breaking up of the settlement.—There are many pleasing circumstances in the natives living with them, which make it desirable to hold on if possible, but feeling as we do our weakness to effect anything under present arrangements, we do not see how three settlements are likely to be supplied with effective hands. As we increase the number of our natives living with us, so do we our own labour in attending to them, and it might be known upon a slight reflection that such independent character as the New Zealanders are, cannot be kept within due bounds, but with every possible care. Their law is opposite to ours, it is the law of nature, which is sensual and devilish. Most of the natives are persons of rank and yet they are obedient. Our attention therefore towards them needs to be constant, besides which there are the schools, travelling amongst the natives, and the translation of the scriptures. These are no light duties—independent of the secular duties of the settlement and the care of our families. We should gladly see five more families at this settlement, in the course of the next two years.

Tuesday, 15. Morning fine and calm—returned to Paihia by 11 a.m.—had scarcely landed when torrents of rain descended and a thunder storm continued for about a couple of hours.—In the afternoon had an interview with Poutu, who had been behaving very ill to his wife and had told me that he would not have anything page 139 further to do with her. After much conversation with him, he said he would return to her, as the state of his mind might be from the wicked one.

Wednesday, 16. Cap. Kent arrived in the evening, had no communication.

Thursday, 17. Mr. Fairburn and I went up the Kawakawa to visit the natives. The old man Tikoke appeared better than I had expected to see him. Many were crying. After remaining a short time at the Pa, I passed on to Tiro'hanga and Mr. Fairburn to the settlement in the neighbourhood. At Tiro'hanga the natives were numerous and attentive. Ret'd to Paihia by 8 p.m.

Friday, 18. Every appearance of a gale from the Eastd.

Saturday, 19. Much rain. My intended visit to the Kerikeri prevented in consequence.

Sunday, 20. Fine morng. Went to the Haumi—but few natives and little to say.

Wednesday, 23. Much rain. Mr Fairburn tried the Tanakaha to split for shingles, and also to stand the heat, which was approved of and hope to be of considerable use.

Thursday, 24. All the morng. engaged in holding our local committee.

Friday, 25. A messenger to announce the safe delivery of Mrs. Clarke of a daughter.

Sunday, 27. Did not go over to Kororarika in consequence of a note from Cap. Duke to state that all the Europeans over there were in a state of intoxication except himself and two others. Went to the Haumi, but obliged to return early in consequence of heavy rain.

Monday, 28. Heavy rain all day—wind from Eastd. All turned out for two hours to roll up logs &c. out of the surf.

Tuesday, 29. Heavy showers during the day. Collecting seaweed for potatoe ground.

Wednesday, 30. Every one of us employed in planting potatoes and preparing the Chapel for plaster. In the eveng. after prayer meeting my brother and I employed in building up a back to the chimney.

Thursday, 31. Employed all day in plastering the inside of the Chapel. Some of the native boys promised fair for good workmen. Heavy rain most of the day. Wind from the N.E.

Friday, 1 August. Showers during the day: concluded the interior of the chapel with the first coat, and by sun set finished one end outside—much satisfied with the general performance.

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Saturday, 2. Heavy rain. Under much apprehension for the plaster, but upon examination found that it had not been disturbed.

Sunday, 3. Many heavy showers during the day. Mrs. W. unwell from great fatigue. I did not move out.

Monday, 4. Messrs. Davis and Puckey and I left as early as possible for Rangihoua, where we arrived about noon. My brother prevented from accompanying us owing to the illness of my sister. After dinner commenced the examination of a catechism which had been prepared by the Kerikeri brethren. In the evening held our prayer meeting.

Tuesday, 5. All day engaged upon the catechism—did not finish it.

Wednesday, 6. By two o'clock concluded our work, much to satisfaction. Our meeting on the whole very pleasant. At 3.30 took leave of the brethren for Paihia, where we arrived by 6, and learned that a brig had arrived from Port Jackson.—We had the pleasure of reading letters from England and Mr. Marsden for which we had been looking anxiously for, for some time. Our prospects for the school much blighted owing to the dry season in the Colony— flour £2.10 pr. 100 lb. and quite uncertain when any supplies may be forwarded. We have thrice been driven to our last morsel, but aid has always been afforded.

Friday, 8. Messengers expressed to the Kerikeri to call a committee to determine our most prudent measures at this juncture. In the evening Messrs. Yate and Kemp arrived, tho every appearance of a gale of wind.

Saturday, 9. A violent gale from the N.W. with heavy rain during the night. At daylight a clear sky and no wind. After breakfast Mr. Shepherd arrived, when we commenced our business. It was unanimously resolved to put ourselves upon ¾ ration of flour for the present, and should circumstances require it, we would go upon ½ ration. Public letters from the committee and also from Sydney were read. It was determined that no new natives should be admitted to the schools, tho several had made application.— The question may here be asked how are we to proceed. Without a certain ration of flour for the natives, we cannot keep up the schools. To procure this article out of the proper season, when it is cheap, which is sometimes the case—even too cheap—is injudicious—would it not therefore be more advisable to purchase when cheap a double quantity, which may last two years, or allow us to possess one year's supply in hand of that which is intended for the natives. Flour three years old would be very good for their purpose, were it properly dried. By watching the market, which is very fluctuating, I have no doubt but that some hundreds of pounds page 141 might be saved in the year. Our supplies are upon a considerable increase.

Saturday, 16. Very much rain has fallen during the week. Thursday and Friday, all employed in plastering the front and ends of the Chapel. This morning being fine I went to the Kerikeri, to spend the Sabbath with the brethren there. All well.

Sunday, 17. The Service very pleasant as all the natives assembled and part of it is held in Maori31, which keeps up their attention. In the afternoon, heavy rain which continued the remainder of the day.

Monday, 18. The morning fine. All were soon in motion to take advantage of the weather, and I took my departure for Paihia where I arrived by 2 o'clock. The improvements at the K.K. within these few months have been very considerable—the schools have nearly doubled, the laying out of the ground around the settlement has been with great judgment and taste, and the projected buildings will add much to its appearance. The families appear very comfortable and Mr. Yate sits as their common father—he is the man we have wanted—a few more of like spirit and we should advance. He has made good progress in the language.

On my arrival at home I soon learnt that considerable agitation has manifested itself in the minds of our natives on account of one of our girls, Tea, as two boys had made proposals of marriage to her—the one a native of Tehaite, the other belonging to this place: the girl evidently preferred the Tehaitean lad, a youth about her age, and who had acted as steward on board the Herald and a steady, well behaved boy. I had not been long home before I received a letter from each of the youths stating his desires, and as I did not give an immediate answer the interest was excited amongst all, several notes were sent in favour of Puariri the New Zealander. In the eveng. we held a council with some of the boys, and told them that with us we left the determination upon these questions with the young ladies—that their mode of proceeding was highly improper. This they acknowledged. I spoke to Tea upon the subject, when she evidently had a dislike for one, while she appeared to possess more than ordinary regard for the other.

Tuesday, 19. Before breakfast four letters were brought to me respecting the question of last night. On further consideration we determined to defer the conclusion of the affair for a season.— Much rain during the day.

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Wednesday, 20. Fine morning. Every one engaged the whole day plastering the Chapel. In the afternoon—report that the Natemaru were coming to make an attack upon the natives here, and also upon us. From the recent deaths among the Chiefs of the Bay of Islands the enemy have acquired much confidence, and I think it may not be improbable but that they may pay us a visit of a few hours—without previous notice—this thought has occurred several times. It may perhaps not be deviating from the path of duty to put ourselves in a posture of security, which might soon be done by building a fort into which we and our natives might enter in such a time of need.

Saturday, 23. Could not quite conclude the outside of the Chapel owing to the rain. Prepared for service for tomorrow. Mr. Yate arrived by tea to spend the sabbath. Much fatigued by our work. Tohitapu called and had much to say upon the need of building a Pa. This question to be determined on Monday.

Sunday, 24. Assembled at our usual hour in the chapel for service, and with the assistance of the girls we occupied half of the building. Mr. Yate preached. After service we visited our respective stations. At four we assembled for evening service in the chapel, when all the natives attended: we commenced with a native hymn, and after the church service we sang an english hymn, native prayer, after which I then addressed the natives from John 1.29. We closed with a second native hymn and prayer. This is the first service of the kind we have had here: as there was comfortable room, our service was exceedingly gratifying.—The eveng. we employed in reading: the first free from bustle from the circumstance of all having hitherto assembled at our house.

Monday, 25. Tikoke arrived from the Kawakawa with several others, to converse about the Pa. After consultation amongst ourselves, we deemed it prudent to build a Fort and accordingly examined the hill directly at the back of the settlement, which we considered highly advantageous. Before noon we commenced, and by sunset had advanced considerably in the work: our boys in high glee.

Friday, 29. Everyone each day employed at the Pa, the work going on well. Today much rain, which would be of considerable improvement to our bank.

Sunday, 31. Fine. At noon the Java packet anchored under Motuorangi having plank for the Mission from Hokianga.

Monday, 1 September. Every appearance of rain. By 1 p.m. the brethren had assembled from the other stations. At 5 commenced the Service in our new Chapel. Mr. Yate preaching from Ps. 22.1. page 143 In the course of the eveng. the subject of the Pa was conversed upon, and as it may probably meet with the disapprobation of some, it may be well to give our reasons for constructing the same. Since the death of Hongi, Warehumu, Te Koikoi and others, the natives of the bay have lost their leaders and have expressed their fear lest those to the Southd. should come up to take them by surprise—they are very numerous and have now many muskets and powder in abundance; the distance they have to come is nothing, and the country is open before them—the great body of Natives being from 10 to 20 miles inland from us. They have particularly mentioned us when speakg. of coming this way tho we have no idea that they will attempt to meet the natives here, but should they come, they would hurry back as fast as possible. Under these circumstances we have felt it our duty to form some place of refuge and should they persist in making an attack, we might be in a position to stand our ground—but we have no idea for a moment that they will ever approach us if they consider that we are in a state of defence. Moreover it must be considered that we live in the midst of war—we tell all to sit still, but they reply that they are obliged to keep in constant motion according to the order of the day, therefore if one settlement should be stripped of all its provision and garments, they, in return pay the same compliment to some neighbour, and thus all are ever in confusion.

Tuesday, 2. All day sitting close at the language, examining the Litany which had been translated.

Wednesday, 3. Continued at the language and concluded as far as the prayer of St Chrysistom, much to satisfaction. The question of the Rangihoua settlement again brought forward—our opinion the same as before—that it would be more politic to remove the Settlement, but from the reluctance of the brethren there to remove, and also of the Natives there that the station should be given up we cancelled former proceedings and agreed to remove it to Tepuna. However, we doubt not by the blessing of the Lord all hitherto said and done upon the subject, will have a happy tendency to establish them on a firmer basis than the settlement has ever yet been.

Thursday, 4. My brother and family went up to the Kerikeri for the benefit of change of air for my sister whose health has been for some months past so very indifferent as to prevent her attending even to domestic concerns.

Friday, 5. Commenced planting potatoes which required the attention of every one. One of the men detected in stealing a considerable portion of the seed, which were recovered and a large basket of his own potatoes taken as a payment.

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Saturday, 6. The last of the boards came on shore, and the Brig shifted her birth to Kororarika.

Sunday, 7. Assembled our native boys for the first time this morng. to service, when the Litany was read for the first time in the native language. The boys took considerable interest in it, and some of them had written it out for themselves.—After service I went over to Kororarika by appointment where were about 20 sad, wicked fellows assembled. I spoke to them from 2 Peter 3.9— their attention was good. In the afternoon I spoke to our own natives in the course of the service.

Monday, 8. After breakfast I went over to Rangihoua by appointment to meet Mr. Yate, in order to regulate the school and also to view the ground at Te puna, and determine the situation of the houses, &c. All of which was concluded in a short space, and to mutual satisfaction. Returned to Paihia by 4.30. After the native prayers, which were more than usually late—indeed quite dusk—a party of natives armed with muskets and hatchets made a rush and carried off a girl who had but a few days previous been taken as a wife to one of Mr. Fairburn's men. Chase was immediately given, but as the opposite party had the advantage of time she was soon conveyed far away, but the party was overtaken before long, and there was every appearance of much evil. Our boys were very angry and the others exceedingly insolent.

Saturday, 13. Natives generally occupied in planting potatoes through the week.

Sunday, 14. Service as usual in the morng. Many of the boys had furnished themselves with copies of the Litany, well written. At the 'Haumi in the afternoon. A general disturbance among the natives, had some pleasing conversation with Tohitapu, but had no opportunity to speak to anyone else.

Wednesday, 17. Mr. Davis, Mr. Puckey, and a party of natives went up the river in quest of timber for the purpose of making shingle. Returned in the eveng. havg. felled 6 large trees.

Friday, 19. Much rain these last two days—sat close at the language: examined the former part of the Church Service to the Psalms—much to satisfaction. An American Ship, bound home anchored.

Saturday, 20. Learnt that the Ship had bread, &c., &c., to sell.

Sunday, 21. Wind and rain—did not go over to Kororarika. Read the former part of the morning service in mauri.

Saturday, 27. Variously employed during the week. Mr. Yate arrived to remain till Monday morning.

Sunday, 28. Fine. Mr. Yate preached. The duty of the day as usual.

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Tuesday, 30. While preparing to go up the Kawakawa, a Ship anchored at Korararika and fired three guns, but as it was apprehended that it might be Cap. Dixon, we proceeded up the river to Tirohanga, &c. On our return learnt that it was Cap. Brind, who had arrived and had brought letters and stores.

Wednesday, 1 October. Went on board of Cap. Brind. The boats employed the remainder of the day in landing stores—the Kerikeri boat down after sun set.

Thursday, 2. Every appearance of a Gale from the Eastd., continued landing goods.

Friday, 3. Blowing strong from Eastd. with rain—all the goods landed today. Settled the account with Cap. Starbuck32 947 $.

Sunday, 5. After service Mr. Puckey and I went on board the Toward Castle to hold Divine Service, but Cap. Brind and the crew were out of the way. This I presume was previously determined on account of our not having given as yet an invitation to him to come on shore, which is indeed an exceeding delicate point, and requires to be done with great care and a clear understanding, owing to his familiar intercourse with the natives. Closed the day as usual.

Monday, 6. As early as possible I proceeded to the Kerikeri committee meeting. Mr. Davis could not accompany owing to a severe cold and cough. Arrived in good time. All well, excepting the children, who like our own had severe coughs and colds. Entered well into the business before tea, after which we held our prayer meeting.

Tuesday, 7. Sat close to business all day. Much wind and rain.

Wednesday, 8. Weather improved. Did not conclude business till noon. Many important points determined, and an exceeding agreeable meeting. At 1 took our departure for Paihia, where we arrived about 5. A strong breeze and considerable sea against us across the bay.

Thursday, 9. The American sailed with our letters.

Friday, 10. At noon Cap. Brind came on shore to spend the afternoon. As we made it a point of duty to invite him, so did we that every attention should be paid him. We had a more agreeable afternoon than expected.

Saturday, 11. The boys out fishing.

Sunday, 12. Strong breezes and rain—could not move to the shipping. Visited Tohitapu—he and many others complaining with page 146 the cough, which has been pronounced whooping cough. Our four youngest children severely tried with it. This is the first season that it has been known in the land—last year it was in Port Jackson and many died with it.

Monday, 13. The boats from Rangihoua and the Kerikeri arrived in order to convey the stores to their respective places.

Tuesday, 14. Mr. Shepherd enquired as to our opinion respecting their settlement, mentioned several painful things by which it was very evident that he and Mr. King would not be able to sit together. In the afternoon the subject renewed when it was determined that on Monday next we should all assemble to reconsider this important but sorry question.

Wednesday, 15. Gave a general holiday to shoot ducks.

Thursday, 16. At one this morng. Mrs. W. was called up to attend Mrs. Mair—at 5 returned—labour very dilatory—nothing particular all day. At sunset Mrs. W. was again called.

Friday, 17. Mrs. W. with Mrs. Mair all night. Myself in charge of the children, who were coughing incessantly—but little rest. At 3 p.m. Mrs. W. returned home greatly fatigued, being relieved at her post by her sister—at 8 the birth of a little girl was publicly announced. This has been one of the most tedious affairs since I have been in the land—one which has occupied the attention of every individual, more or less.

Sunday, 19. The coughing very severe during the night—Mrs. W. obliged to remain at home with the two younger children. After service walked to the Haumi, several natives there from the interior. Obliged myself to remain to home from the evening service to watch the children, to allow Mrs. W. to attend.

Monday, 20. Before noon the brethren arrived from the other stations to enquire into the affairs of Rangihoua. At 1 commenced business when Mr. Shepherd presented a letter wherein he expressed a hope that the difference between himself and Mr. King might be concluded without the removal of the settlement. However it appeared necessary to every member to enter fully into the matter, which was accordingly done. At the conclusion it was determined to continue the settlement after an admonition to both members and drawing up a few points of observation for their guidance. Bitter evils have ever existed at this settlement from its foundation, and I fear that unless it be taken under the care of some steady and judicious persons, it must fall. The general opinion is that it should be removed, but there are difficulties.

Before breakfast Cap. Brind sent his Mate on shore to signify his displeasure at a note which I had sent him on Thursday last that the clothes of his surgeon might be returned to him, being in page 147 a destitute state, as according to all accounts he had been turned on shore. My note was sent back to me, when I laid it before the brethren to obtain their opinion of the same, the terms of which they considered proper.

Tuesday, 21. From the appearance of the weather I could not go to Waikari at noon Mr. Puckey and I went to Wangai. The natives complained of sickness, very many being ill with the whooping cough. They paid attention but were interrupted at every shaking leaf. On my return home found Mrs. W. under considerable apprehension on account of our youngest boy. We therefore determined to remove into the bee-hive, or cottage, for change of air.

Wednesday, 22. Occupied nearly all day in removing.

Friday, 24. The Children appear much better tho requiring constant attention. The Toward Castle and Sisters sailed out of harbour in silence, leaving us once more free from Shipping. As Cap. Brind has stood for a length of time in some measure connected with us, it will be needful to mention a word relative to him; in justification of that silence which we have felt it absolutely necessary to observe towards him and others who visit this bay. His conduct among the natives is notorious, and indeed the scenes at Kororarika are not fit to be named. Since the arrival of the Toward Castle expresses have been sent in succession to a Native Female now at Hokianga and married to a Native there, but once the companion of Cap. Brind. As the husband was not disposed to give up the wife, two young girls, one the daughter of Rewa, the other the daughter of 'Hongi, were taken on board, and have continued with him ever since. All the natives conversed upon the subject and we could not move without hearing of his deeds. As he knew our opinion upon these matters, he felt that it would be putting him more at ease to discontinue any intercourse with us, which we had been desirous of preserving to allow us opportunities of speaking to them from time to time. He is sinning with a high hand, yea, working iniquity with greediness, and little reflects that his breath is not his own.

Sunday, 26. Service as usual. A large force was obs'd to land at Kororarika, supposed to be Ururoa and Kira from Wangaroa and Matauri. In the afternoon visited Tohitapu who was laying at home apparently much distressed with the whooping cough—poor fellow he does not appear to be nearer the kingdom of heaven than at his birth—his superstitions have great hold upon him. He wished for some hot tea which was sent. At the eveng. service I spoke to the natives. Learnt that Ururoa intended an attack upon Waitangi, Waikari and the Kawakawa—somewhat fearful of mischief.

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Monday, 27. At daylight the party at Kororarika in motion. At first we could not tell their intention, but soon observed them pull for Waitangi. Orders were given to close all the passages to our house excepting two, which were capable of being closed at a moment's notice. Tohitapu made his appearance and desired us to be very zealous for that their intentions were bad. After breakfast it was determined to pay the party a visit. We accordingly manned a war canoe belonging to Tohitapu, which was on the beach, and pulled up the Waitangi to the mob. Their opponents had fled. They found one slave which they killed. We conversed with Kira, and were glad to find our friends Warepoaka and Waikato33 amongst them, but acting with us. They evidently wished to restrain the old man. After remaining some time we returned to the settlement. While we were amongst the party a circumstance occurred which never ought to be forgotten—so little are we capable of seeing an hour before us. Waikato, who had the gun with him which was presented to him by the King, was shewing it to us. I, observing that both locks were cocked, took hold of it to half cock them, but touching the wrong trigger it discharged. At that instant Tohitapu was delivering an oration close to me, and his head was, at the time the gun went off, about a foot from the muzzle. He turned round and told me I had nearly shot him. I knew that, and felt inexpressibly thankful that it was not so—the piece was nearly perpendicular, but it was seated on the ground and he was standing. Had any accident happened, our lives would probably been forfeited, tho the fault was Waikato's. Thus does the Lord shew us ever to commit our way unto Him, and He will sustain us, for we are unable to help ourselves, or tell what an hour may bring forth. We returned soon after to Paihia, and by 2 p.m. had the great satisfaction to see all the canoes sail out of the bay towards Wangaroa. They discharged their pieces as they passed the settlement, and we fired two great guns in return. This their timely departing is far beyond general expectation but there is one who ruleth to whom we would ever look, and give Him all the praise.

Tuesday, 28. My brother and I went up the Waikari. The natives were all on the watch expecting Ururoa and Kira. They were very happy to see us instead. In a short time Warerahi arrived, who is ever at hand on these occasions. We passed on the settlement up the valley and spoke to a number of natives.

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Saturday, 1 November. Wednesday, a fruitless search for timber —the boats out at night. The timber reported to be had, being Kaikatea. Thursday and Friday—getting shells and wood to burn lime. Today half the natives fishing. Tekoke and several of his people came down.

Sunday, 2. Service as usual, several strangers at service, both morng. and eveng.

1 The Rev. William Yate went to New South Wales in 1827, where he became a popular preacher. In January 1828 he came to the Bay of Islands, and began to study the Maori language. In 1830 he went to Sydney to publish the second portion of the Bible in Maori, and on his return brought a small printing press. In 1831 he was sent in the Active to search for the lost Haweis. In 1833 he again went to Sydney to publish three books for the mission. After a visit to England he was dismissed from the mission and returned to England. His An Account of New Zealand was published in 1835.

2 Whareumu was a chief of the Urikaraka, Pomare's tribe, and lived at Kawakawa. He was killed at Waima, Hokianga, in March 1828, where he had gone to investigate the death of Pomare's son.

3 The head of a chief was very tapu, and any threat involving it was regarded as the gravest insult, which could find satisfaction only in the death of the offender. That the punishment on this occasion was so mild reflects the influence of the missionaries.

4 Tommy Tuai, the nephew of Te Rangi and a son of Tuhi, whose name was variously spelled as Tui, Tuai, Tooai.

5 Te Kaue, a Maori attached to the mission at Paihia.

6 Pumuka, a chief of the Roroa tribe, who lived at Whangai. He was killed by Captain Robertson of H.M.S. Hazard at the sack of Kororareka in 1845.

7 This would be Tukarangatia, whose kainga was at the head of the Waikari River.

8 Titore, a Ngapuhi chief, whose already great prestige was increased by his marriage to Hongi's sister. In 1815 he went to Parramatta, where he spent two years with Marsden, and then went to England with Tuhi in 1817. Two years later he returned to New Zealand with Marsden. He was an intelligent and industrious man, who, although he did not become a committed Christian, supported a chapel and a school in which his son, Marsden, taught.

9 Pomare's son killed at Hokianga, while on a “stripping” party. This was the beginning of a succession of serious incidents in which several Ngapuhi chiefs, including Whareumu, were killed. The intervention of Henry Williams and other missionaries brought peace in a very dangerous situation.

10 Named after the Rev. Thomas Haweis [1734–1820], who was the originator of the South Sea Mission and a co-founder of the London Missionary Society. The Haweis, of 73 tons, was built on Moorea Island, near Tahiti, by the Rev. John Williams, but was found to be too expensive for the missionaries to maintain, and was ultimately bought for use as a trader by Campbell and Co. of Sydney. From the beginning she was an unlucky ship. She was attacked by the Maoris of Whakatane in 1828, and in 1830 disappeared without trace with Mr. and Mrs. Charles Davis on board. [McNab, Historical Records, vol. I, p687ff.]

11 Muriwai, a chief who lived at Utakura on a branch of the river draining Lake Omapere into the Hokianga. He was the protector of Jacky Marmon, and was one of the chiefs who sold land to Baron de Thierry.

12 Ururoa, also known as Rewharewha, was a brother-in-law of Hongi and a warrior of note. He was principal chief of the Tahaawai hapu of Whangaroa. Kiwikiwi surrendered to him the beach and adjoining land at Kororareka as utu for the “Girls' War”.

13 Pi, a Ngapuhi warrior chief of the Mahurehure hapu, lived at Waima, Hokianga, where Whareumu was killed. He was converted to Christianity in the early 'thirties, taking the name of Arama Karaka [Adam Clark], and was killed in 1837 during the fighting between Pomare and Titore. His son, Arama Karaka Pi, married the widow of Hone Heke and was a strong Christian.

14 Pango, of Ngati-Whakaue, Rotorua, a fighting chief and a tohunga of great reputation. His ability in makutu caused him to be suspected of directing the bullets which killed Hongi and Whareumu. He was one of the leaders of Ngati-Whakaue against the Ngai-te-Rangi at Te Tumu in 1836.

15 Korarau was the chief of the pa which was situated on the cliff between the Mission Centry and Monmouth Redoubt at Tauranga. S. Percy Smith, on p481 of Maori Wars of the Nineteenth Century quotes a statement by Captain Gilbert Mair, which is full of errors. It has been accepted as accurate by so many historians that it is necessary to make some corrections. Mair states that the Herald in this 1828 journey called in at Tauranga on her way to Whakatane and Opotiki and “found Koraurau of Ngai-te-Rangi living with his people in the densely populated pa at Te Papa”, and that “three days after they sailed towards Opotiki, Te Papa was taken by Te Rohu… and Koraurau and his people slain”. The facts are: (1) that on 6 April 1828, when the Herald was near Mayor Island, “Several canoes came off… They told us that the Natemaru… had taken the pa of Koraurau, that he himself was killed with many others…” (2) that the Herald did not call into Tauranga, but sailed on to Whakatane and Opotiki, returning and entering Tauranga on 12 April 1828. On 14 April 1828, writes Henry Williams, “Mr. Mair and I went up to the pa which within this last fortnight has been subdued by Ngati-Maru.” Nor was Captain Mair any more accurate in his later reference to the entry of Ohiwa harbour. “On the Herald reaching Ohiwa, the tide being unfavourable for entering the harbour, my father took the dingy and landed on the beach at One-kawa bluff.” The facts were that, while the Herald was anchored off the Whakatane Heads, and Henry Williams was trading with the local Maoris in their canoes, Mair and Davis went in the dingy and landed on the Ohope beach and then walked to the Ohiwa Harbour, where they found the remains of a cannibal feast. They returned to the Herald and after Henry Williams had visited the pa at Whakatane, the Herald sailed and Davis, Mair and Henry Williams took the boat and entered Ohiwa. [See journal entries 6–14 April 1828]

16 Flat Island, now known by its Maori name of Motiti Island.

17 Ohiwa Harbour. A wharf was built here in 1957 to relieve coastal boats from entering the difficult harbour of Whakatane. The freshly slain bodies found at One-kawa Bluff were the victims of a Ngati-Awa attack upon the Whakatohea tribe. [Percy Smith, Wars, p482]

18 Where the business area of Whakatane is now situated.

19 Opotiki.

20 Now known as Mount Maunganui. The word, Maunganui, means “big hill”.

21 Maungatapu, a famous and strongly built pa on a peninsula in Tauranga Harbour.

22 Nuka, principal chief of Maungatapu, “of engaging manners and admirable bearing”.

23 The Rev. Richard Hill of Sydney, a colleague of Marsden, and secretary of the New South Wales “Corresponding Committee” of the C.M.S.

24 A Maori youth baptized by the name of John. The story of Rape's conversion to Christianity is told in William Williams's Christianity among the New Zealanders, p116ff.

25 Horeke, on the Hokianga River, where Captain Clark was superintendent of a ship-building establishment owned by Raine and Ramsay of Sydney and in which Gordon D. Browne had an interest.

26 Of Campbell & Co., Sydney, the bankers of the C.M.S.

27 Tioka, a brother of Christian Rangi, and one of the people of Whangarei who came for refuge to the Bay of Islands.

28 Charles Baker arrived in New Zealand in June 1828 in the Minerva. He served as a catechist at Kerikeri, and afterwards at Waimate, Paihia, Waikare, Tolaga Bay and Tauranga.

29 [?] tacopa, possibly taiepa, see Glossary; or, perhaps, the cutter, Taeopa.

30 L. G. Kelly in Tainui, pp375–6, gives a full account of the defeat of Rangituke by the Waikato tribes, but gives the date as “April or May 1827”.

31 This is one of the rare occasions in which the word “Maori”, as meaning a “person of the native race”, is used by the missionaries. But its use here as meaning “the language of the native race” would seem to indicate that it was not an unusual name, although the missionaries and others normally used “native” or “New Zealander”. [See Williams, Maori Dictionary.]

32 Captain Obed Starbuck, a well known master of American whalers, who completed three voyages of the Pacific in less than four years.

33 Waikato, a Ngapuhi chief of Rangihoua, was a brother-in-law to Hongi, and sailed with him and Kendall to England, where he collaborated with Professor Lee in the compilation of the Maori dictionary and grammar. While he never became a Christian, and joined the indigenous Nakahi cult, he was a friend to the missionaries. He was a brother of Wharepoaka.