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The Early Journals of Henry Williams

XI — October 1839 to January 1840

page 445

October 1839 to January 1840

Voyage to Port Nicholson — Hadfield established at Otaki — Wanganui visited — Overland journey to Taupo, Rotorua and Tauranga — Meets Captain Hobson, Lieutenant-Governor.

Tuesday, 1 October 1839. The members of the Committee returned to their homes.

Wednesday, 2. I received a note from Cap. Clayton1 to inform me of the death of his child. I went over to Kororareka to bury it, and afterwards I proceeded to Waimate, found my brother busy packing up preparing to leave for his new station at the Southd. The Curinsy Lass came in; rec'd letters from the Colony.

Thursday, 3. Rain all night. Went to Pakaraka, too wet to go round. Met natives for conversation and examination.

Friday, 4. Much thunder with rain. Left for Paihia. At noon it cleared up. My brother arrived at my house with his family by 10 p.m. to remain till he embarked for the East Cape making with Mr. Taylor's2 party 34 Europeans in our family, including the boarders in the English girls school.

Saturday, 5. Rain in the forenoon. Talking with the natives. Much hindered by the crowded house and number of children of 3 different families beside the english school children.

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Sunday, 6. Rain. Mr. Taylor and I went up the Kawakawa. Had two Services there. A large congregation. Conversation with some who had attended “Pikopo” (The Roman Catholic Bishop).3

Monday, 7. Five members of the family mounted their horses and rode inland, my brother leading the party. In conversation with natives.

Tuesday, 8. Mr. Taylor and his family left for the Kerikeri, after staying 3 weeks with us. Engaged talking with the natives.

Wednesday, 9. I went to Kororareka to introduce Mr. Layton, who had come down as a schoolmaster. The gentry were all engaged at the land board and we did not see any of them.

Thursday, 10. Went with Mr. Hadfield4 and Mrs. W Williams to Cap. Clendons.

Friday, 11. The natives down from Kowakowa. Many for conversation.

Saturday, 12. In conversation with natives all day. Dr. Merick came over to ask if Cap. Brind's child could be baptized on the morrow

Sunday, 13. Morng. service with the natives. Native Sacrament. Chapel full. I went up to Pumuka's pa and to Otuihu. Pleasant services. Great appearance of rain. Called at Cap. Clendons. Mrs. C. ill.

Monday, 14. Rain. Preparing for departure. Many natives to talk. Heard that Dr. Merrick was married yesterday by the Popish Bishop to a native woman.

Tuesday, 15. Over to Waitangi to see Mr. Busby, and up the river to Wilsons settling accounts.

Wednesday, 16. Mr. Layton accompanied me to Kororareka to bury a seaman belonging to Cap. Brind. We heard that the Kororareka association5 were under much excitement from some state- page 447 ment in a paper with which they charged the Missionaries and were so indignant that they threatened to shut up the church and expel the Missionaries. I asked to see this document and found it to be an old paper dated 1835 in which the Missn. had no concern.

Thursday, 17. Writing and preparing for departure. My eldest son went to Pakaraka having been an invalid at home for 6 months.

Friday, 18. Wind Northerly, with rain more or less through the day. Saw Cap. Lewington. Prevented from sailing. No crew. Mr. Clarke ret'd to Waimate.

Saturday, 19. Strong wind from Westd. Prospect of a crew at last and to sail either Monday eveng. or Tuesday morng.

Sunday, 20. Went over to Kororareka. Good attendance. Conversation with Natives between Services. Felt very weary at night.

Monday, 21. Fine, Wind fair. Occupied all day settling accounts. Our passengers arrived from Waimate. At sunset embarked and got under weigh with Messrs. Hadfield, Clarke Wilson and Stack on board.

Tuesday, 22. Fine. At day light between Wangaruru and Tutukaka. Wind favourable. At sunset close to Cape Colvil.

Wednesday, 23. Fine. At day light off Slipper Island. Wind increased to a gale. Shortened sail. About 4 o'clock stood into Tauranga. Much surf. Went on shore. Found all well. Blew strong.

Thursday, 24. Fine. Strong wind. Thought of going overland to Kapiti. Native boys opposed to it. Concluded to visit Maketu and the contending parties. Assembled there.

Friday, 25. Wind so violent could not move by boat. Met a party of Christian natives in the Chapel.

Saturday, 26. Fine. Wind continued violent. Met a party of Chrn. natives in the Chapel.

Sunday, 27. Fine. More moderate. Accompanied Mr. Brown to Otumoitai to Service. Very hot and close.

Monday, 28. Appearance of rain. Messrs. Brown, Clarke and self left for Maketu. Slept at the Tumu being too late to proceed over to the pa where the Rotorua people are quartered.

Tuesday, 29. Fine. Went to Maketu. Met in a friendly manner. Short conversation. Heard of one woman having been killed. Passed on to Waikato Tribes a strong body of men who had taken up their quarters about a mile and a half at the back of the pa. They required us to remain at some distance from their place. Were civil, but contended for the necessity of driving away the people from Maketu. After much opposition they began to soften down, and expressed their willingness to return in the morning and com- page 448 missioned us to go over to the other party to propose peace. We accordingly went back to Maketu under the feeling that our work was accomplished to our perfect satisfaction, but what was our surprise and vexation, when the natives of Maketu broke out into most insolent language with regard to Waikato and expressed their determination to fight. We learnt that this was the result of some accounts brought by our own boys of our conference with the Waikato tribes at which they were present. On returning to the Waikato chiefs we found them highly indignant and determined not to withdraw.

Wednesday, 30. Rain in the night. Saw the Waikato natives again but they were determined not to move owing to the insolence of last evening. Returned to Tauranga very weary owing to the heavy sand.

Thursday, 31. Went on board by noon with passengers to sail.

Friday, 1 November. Fine night. Stood close for the land. Landed Hamuera and his family as Native teachers. Obtained some fish. Made sail without loss of time.

Saturday, 2. Tumbling night. At daylight close to Hick's Bay (Wareatika). Nearly calm. Landed Messrs. Clarke and Stack and their natives. At noon stood on. Doubled the Cape. Eveg. light winds. My eldest Son this day Twenty one years of age.

Sunday, 3. Fine. Clear sky. After breakfast a gale from S.S.E., obliged to reduce sail. Everyone unwell. Greatly envied our friends on shore, held no service.

Monday, 4. Wind died away in the night. In morng. wind at North. Made good way. In the afternoon passed Turanga6 where my brother is about to reside. Off the Mahia7 before sunset. Passed a rock about four miles off shore. Dangerous. Escaped by preserving care of an Almighty Hand. A tumbling tossing night.

Tuesday, 5. Pleasant breeze from N.N.W., set studding sails, soon obliged to take them in and reduce sail. Strong wind off shore. Sailing close to land. At sunset appearance of wind.

Wednesday, 6. Wind shifted to N.E. with rain. Stood off shore. Forenoon made sail tho' very thick. Could not see the land. At 3 p.m. saw the land, but not to distinguish it. Very dirty. Near the entrance of the Straits8 fair wind, but could not avail ourselves of it.

Thursday, 7. Cloudy. About an hour after daylight saw Cape page 449 Palliser (Kawakawa) bore up before the wind, soon in smooth water. Land very high and bold shore. While passing on the natives observed we were going wrong, that our port was not round Cape Tarawiti but abrest of us. We drew in more to the land to gain better observation and found there was indeed an opening tho between some terrific rocks. Went under easy sail and were soon in a most splendid harbour called by the natives Poneke,9 quite a different place to what is laid down by Cook. We came to anchor in a perfectly sheltered place where is room for all the fleets of England. Some canoes came off, and informed us that the ship Tory10 had been here and purchased the whole place, that they the natives had desired to reserve a portion of the land for themselves but the Europeans would have the whole. A fortnight since a dispute arose amongst some of the natives respecting land. Not being able to come to any satisfactory arrangement, they took their guns. On the side of the aggression 70 fell, their opponents 20. The parties are now in open arms though closely related and sitting together. The land in question was intended for Europeans and would probably be sold for a few blankets. The Tory I learnt was in Queen Charlotte Sound purchasing land and they were endeavouring to obtain Taranaki (Mt. Egmont). We were told that the natives were to have reserved for them 1000 acres for every million sold to the Association.

Reihana11 came on board and gave pleasing information of the progress of the Mission in Port Nicholson (Poneke) and on the coast to the North. Went on shore and had long conversation with the natives. Numerous applications for books. Gave some testaments and some prayer books. Reihana (Richard) with his wife and family appear to be established here and to take a lead amongst these people. He had opposed the proceedings of the Chiefs with the Tory, but to no purpose. He reserved his own piece of ground to himself. This young man I hope will be found very useful here. He appears steady in all his transactions. He formerly lived for several years at Paihia and on the removal of Mr. Davis to the Waimate he accompanied him thither. He came here about three months since and takes the lead in the service amongst the natives.

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Friday, 8. Took in some fire wood and got under weigh but the wind baffling and tide against us we were obliged to anchor.

Saturday, 9. In the morning wind North. Stood out of the harbour. Off the headland got into a strong race (tide rip), observed the ebb tide set to the Southd. Wind came on strong, could do nothing in working up to Kapiti. Stood over to Cloudy Bay,12 in the hope of being able to have a quiet Sabbath. As we drew under the land the wind so violent could do nothing, obliged to bring up. In the evening wind moderated, worked into the Bay, by the assistance of a person from the shore as pilot. Natives went on shore.

Sunday, 10. Heavy squalls through the day. Went on shore and met the natives. Had service with them twice. Saw the Europeans and had service with them. This place one of the most extraordinary I had ever seen. The only anchorage being in small deep coves of which there are many, quite secure at deep water, the land very steep. Heard that the Tory had been to Kapiti (Entry Island) buying all right and title over the land from the natives for a considerable extent.

Monday, 11. Went on shore after breakfast, met Mr. Guard13 and Mr. Winnings14 with whom we had much conversation as to the state of the natives in this part of the middle Island, and their desire for instruction and books. Mr. W. expressed his desire to assist in distributing books if sent to him. The Schr. Hokianga arrived from Taranake. Mr. Merning came on board and reported their landing at Taranake, that at first they were apprehensive of the natives who presented themselves with their muskets but upon their calling out that they were Missionaries all ran towards them and gave them a hearty welcome. Mr. M. is an infidel and his companion a Jew, both enemies to our cause, but in this instance it was convenient for them to hail for Missionaries. In the afternoon light air from south; got under way.

Tuesday, 12. Wind against us. Stood across the Straits and page 451 determined to land at Port Nicholson and walk overland. In the afternoon anchored in the Harbour. Several natives came on board, with whom I made arrangement to accompany us on the morrow. My companion Mr. Hadfield very unwell. Much distressed to observe his weakness, fearing that he would not be able to undertake the journey.

Wednesday, 13. Cloudy. In full preparation for our departure overland for Kapiti where I hoped to meet the Columbine, which would sail as soon as the wind would admit of her proceeding. Landed at Ngauranga15 where we met the natives and held a long conversation with them. In the afternoon proceeded up the Harbour in a canoe to Petone, and pitched our tents for the night. All were delighted at our remaining with them, and handed out abundance of food. We had brought with us 100 prayer books and about 15 Testaments and 6 Catechisms. Held evening service with our friends and gave out a Testament and two prayer books. Felt myself refreshed at being out of the vessel and on the shore, where I could freely speak with the people of the land.

Thursday, 14. Rain during the night. Found my companion Mr. Hadfield had passed a bad night and very unwell this morning. Doubtful of his proceeding. He however determined to make a commencement. I took a good breakfast as a preparation for my journey. My companion took a draft of cold water and a morsel of bread, a sorry commencement. After breakfast we mounted the height on our way to Kapiti and continued our march till past six, the latter part of our road over level ground. Pitched our tents and no sooner completed than the rain fell in great abundance. Joined in the evening by Reihana and several who were going to accompany us.

Friday, 15. Cloudy. Rec'd an express to go to Maunga a Pa of Te Rangitakororo16 the road to which was exceedingly rough, over huge hills. We arrived at noon amidst heavy rain, and were happy to find ourselves opposite to the Island of Mana.17 Passed close to Te Koroiwa a place where are several Europeans whaling. The place looked filthy and a most disgusting stench from the putrid carcases of whales. Passed the day in conversation with Te page 452 Rangitakororo and the natives generally. Saw Neti,18 the Native who came out in the Tory who gave us an account of the proceedings of the New Zealand land company.

Saturday, 16. Could not sleep, owing to the surf dashing close to the Pa. After breakfast prepared to cross over to Mana which occupied some time owing to the numbers who wished to accompany us. We were nearly one hundred in the canoe and I was somewhat fearful of consequences. It was about two miles across. We landed at the Pa of Rangiaiata19 who received us with all due honour and prepared a great feast which was rather inconvenient as it necessarily detained us longer than was desirable as we wished to proceed to the main for the Sabbath. Several Europeans were here who were civil. One in particular who was very solicitous that we should take some rum, which gave me an opportunity to speak upon the evil of this practice. Several head of Cattle here and about 400 sheep and 2 horses. While here heard the account of the dreadful deed committed by Stewart20 at Banks Peninsula; the prisoners were brought to this place and killed and eaten with savage brutality. Passed on to Oeka where we found two Europeans, they were civil, also a small party of natives with whom we held service in the evening and continued in conversation till late.

Sunday, 17. Fine. Held conversation with Moturoa and some others who appeared in a pleasing state. After breakfast went to Porirua. On my way I met three Englishmen coming along the beach one of whom had a musket. The natives made their remarks to them and I was glad to find they were quite willing to turn back with us, but I found both natives and Europeans of this place in a very dark unrelenting state. Held service however with both parties. About 10 Europeans here. In the Evening held service at our encampment.

Monday, 18. Fine. Light wind. Moved off at daylight. A large company. Travelling rough and heavy over deep sand, sharp rocks and large stones. In the afternoon came to hard beach. Saw the page 453Tory underweigh near Kapiti. Detained at 4 or 5 places on the road where the people came out to welcome us and invite us to remain and eat. They would not however allow us to pass without giving them a few words as they were believers in Jesus Christ. I did so and was much surprized and delighted at so unexpected a change. All listened with great attention. As we drew near Waikanai numbers joined our party. We arrived about an hour before sunset and had a most gracious reception. Cap. Mayew21 came to meet us with our letters from the Bay, and from my family! just arrived. We were conducted to a spacious area within the Pa, where were assembled about 1200 people. At it was getting late there was but time to hold service before sunset. We sang two hymns the tunes of which were purely native, quite original. We were highly delighted with the great attention shewn. In the evening some of the Chiefs came to the tent and kept me in conversation till I could talk no more.

Tuesday, 19. Sleepless night. Tormented with flees. Fine morng. Met the Chiefs in the forenoon with whom we held a long debate upon the war. The conference agreeable. After dinner the boat arrived from Kapiti to convey us over to Rauparaha, who we found to be more agreeable than I anticipated. He had none of the savage appearance of so celebrated and bloody a warrior and was a very intelligent man. He received us very graciously and entered fully into conversation upon politics and upon the necessity of laying aside his sad evil ways. He said he had sent two letters up to me to come down at different times and lastly he had sent his two sons to fetch me and I had done well to come to him. I was much pleased with the apparent interest shewn by the old man. We had service at his place, and took up our abode on board the Atlas. The Old man presented me with a splendid Pig.

Wednesday, 20. The old man came off at daylight with whom we had much conversation. He was much pleased that Mr. Hadfield was come to reside amongst them. He was interested with what his son who had accompanied us had to tell him of all he had seen in the Bay of Islands and amongst the Missionaries. The old man told me that now he had seen my eyes and heard my words he would lay aside his evil and turn to the book and that on the morrow he would proceed to his people who live about 16 miles to the page 454 Northward and tread down the pakanga (anger) and there should be no more fighting. It was then proposed that we should proceed to the Southward Island to Otako22 (near Banks Peninsula) to his old enemy Tairoa23 and make peace with him that he might live and plant and eat his potatoes and catch his fish and believe on Jesus Christ. I determined if I could arrange with Capn. Mayew to take us down in the Atlas to go down and see these poor fellows and carry some native teachers to them. Employed in writing letters to my family and friends in the Bay of Islands, in the afternoon went on shore. My friend the old Chief Rauparaha urged our conversation on the subject of religion. He was much interested with the doctrine of the resurrection. Held Service at his place previous to our going on board. Their attention was great. Day closed with rain and wind.

Thursday, 21. Fine. Accompanied Capn. Mayhew to two places on the Island. At one, belonging to Mr. Jones,24 the europeans were very insolent and spoke of the cheat and folly of Missions. Some observed that if we could “induce the natives to leave off war and make peace they would turn Missionaries themselves”. Others that “they would keep up the war as long as they could and that it would be well if they were all killed”. These were a wretched sample of Christians. Need it be said that they were under the influence of rum, but so it is, their nourishment is liquor and their language is blasphemy. In the afternoon went on shore to see Rauparaha and held service with him and his people. Left some books with him, though a mere crumb in comparison with their wants.

Friday, 22. Embarked Mr. Hadfield's horses which came down in the Atlas in a large canoe and passed them across to Waikanai on the main. Took leave of Rauparaha. I came to a determination to proceed overland to Tauranga and gave up reluctantly going down to Banks Peninsula a field I had long desired to visit and had now an excellent opening. But I felt it needful to run my course northward, from the disturbed state of things from this new war to do what I could to effect a peace and visit the natives of Wanganui who had sent many pressing invitations. The Columbine had page 455 not yet made her appearance from Port Nicholson. Went over the ground where the late battle was fought, owing to the payment for Port Nicholson not being generally distributed. For a native affair it must have been a very desperate one owing to the unevenness of the ground. The parties were consequently brought together in close combat. Rauparaha's people led on the attack and were defeated by the people of Waikanai. The Old Chief himself was not present. I was shewn the sepulchre of their enemies where they had buried them with Military honours with their garments, their muskets, ammunition, &c., &c., &c., not reserving to themselves anything which had belonged to them. This is a new feeling, arrising from the great change which the introduction of the Gospel has effected amongst them. Saw their late Chapel a very large one which they were obliged to leave owing to the war; they have now a new one in the Pa. These Chapels and many others around were built through the influence of a young man instructed in the Paihia school named Matahau.25 He lived many years with my brother and afterwards with me and had returned some years ago to his relations at this place, amongst whom he has laboured with astonshing zeal and perseverance, has taught very many to read and has instructed numbers as far as he was able in the truths of the Gospel so that many tribes for some distance around call themselves believers, keep the Sabbath, assemble for worship, and use the liturgy of the Church of England; the schools are numerous. I felt that our boy Matahau had acted a noble part, he had set us a stirring example, one which ought to rouse the Missionaries to every exertion and a powerful appeal to the friends of the Society at home. He complained to me that four Wesleyan native teachers lately arrived had been endeavouring to put him down and asked if it were correct to drive him away from his people whom he had attended to by himself. I cautioned these Wesleyan youths from stating differences of church. The Chiefs pointed out the land which they had partly disposed of for a few muskets and casks of powder, also the land which they had not disposed of. Much conversation with the chiefs previous to our departure to their enemies of the other tribes for the purpose of endeavouring to make a peace. Near sunset the people met for service, a large assembly, and in the evening examined about 20 candidates for baptism in the Chapel. The first meeting here with those who may be considered as candidates for page 456 baptism. Much gratified. My Steward a boy named Ito ran off and left me to join his own relations residing here. He had lived with me a long time, had been with me to Port Jackson, is a fine quick lad and may yet be found useful as a teacher to his countrymen.

Saturday, 23. At daylight strong wind and rain; at 8 rain ceased. Proceeded on our march for Otaki with a long train of followers who intended to accompany us half way. Took the horses but as we had not the saddles we were obliged to walk. At noon rain commenced and the tide coming in drove us off the beach which made the remainder of our walk very uncomfortable. We had an opportunity of examining a large dead whale which had been driven up about a fortnight since. The stench was intolerable. About 4 we arrived at Pakakutu26 the Pa belonging to Kuru.27 It is a small one but Kuru had separated from the main body that he with his people might have service to themselves without fear of interruption. The pitching our tents afforded surprise and admiration that such frail tabernacles could protect us from the rain now falling in good earnest. We were well wet and after changing our garments had service with the people of the Pa. The first time that any Europeans had declared to them the truth of the Gospel. Kuru afterwards with others came to the tent door with whom I had much conversation. The Chief observed that he knew several hymns but he could not catch the tunes and had therefore composed some of his own of which he gave a specimen, quite original. He afterwards commenced repeating the Morning Service and I believe would have continued to the end had he not been interrupted. I was much delighted with him and gave him a primer and two Prayer Books, he was ignorant of reading.

Sunday, 24. Te Kuru and his people accompanied us to the Great Pa. Watanui28 the Chief gave us a gracious welcome but as it was the Sabbath they abstained from their usual practice of calling out on our approach. We proceeded to the Chapel a very good building about 50 ft. by 30. Several hundreds came tho I understand few only comparatively attend to instruction. We afterwards held school. Had much conversation with Watanui and other Chiefs. page 457 In the evening held service outside our tents. Continued in conversation till late. Multitudes of flees.

Monday, 25. Watanui came at daylight to conduct us to his Pa where all the Chiefs were assembled with whom I had a long conversation upon the present state of affairs. Some were for war others proposed to proceed to Waikanai the place of their enemies from whence we had come, when the potatoes shall be planted and should be all right then and they disposed they would then make peace. Watanui's two sons came up, fine lads and well disposed.

Tuesday, 26. Rough night, rain and wind. Much debating as to the propriety of making Peace. The people disapproved of our going back to Waikanai at present but to some place a short distance to the Northd. with Watanui. In the afternoon went to examine the land around. A fine rich flat tho flooded in winter. I expressed my wish to my lads to return by way of Taupo overland to Tauranga. They were not willing being alarmed at the length of the journey. I shall wait to see the leading of God in this matter.

Wednesday, 27. Passed a good night an unusual thing owing to the abundance of flees. Morning fine. Natives as usual gathering round the Tent. After breakfast the Old man Wata29 came for us to proceed with him to Waikawa in a sandy plain. The beach hard to walk upon, the breakers far out to sea a dangerous coast for boats. Our arrival had to go through the usual form of speechifying which occupied much time. Found a good Chapel here tho' a small one. Many came for conversation in religious subjects. Gave 4 prayer books and a Testament. After our repast we proceeded on. Crossed several streams of water and came in about two hours to Kowau a pleasant place where is abundance of grass. Natives came out of the Pa to meet us and give us welcome. Many speeches upon the present state of the Country. Several old ladies came forward to hold a crying in compliment to some of our lads distant relatives of theirs. Towards sunset assembled all to attend evening prayers. My words to many of them were very new. Yet all were attentive. Much conversation in the eveng. The Chiefs appeared generally opposed to making peace.

Thursday, 28. The night very cold but was enabled to sleep well. The birds at break of day commenced their tuneful notes. Old Wata wanted me to go to some other places but he was contented with my telling him I would return and proceed overland which I hope to do. We had a good walk back to Otaki and returned by noon. In the afternoon held a conversation with numbers who page 458 came about the tents, they were much interested and appeared to understand what was said to them. In the eveng. held service. Many sitting outside among whom was much loud talking. Sent to Wata to know our movements as he objected to our returning to the opposite party at present. The Old Chief held a council and sent a messenger to Kowau for them to come tomorrow. Sent Hemi to Waikanai to give notice for them to sit close within the Pa.

Friday, 29. Fine. Abundance of flees all night. Hemi returned from Waikanai. No news of the Columbine. At 3 observed a movement among the troops. Crossed the river in readiness for a march towards Waikanai. As the sun declined our numbers encreased. Held eveng service on the beach. Weather app'd threatening. Several speeches upon state affairs. The troops determined to remain for the night lest they should be overtaken with the rain but as the distance is rather great for one march without a rest I requested permission to proceed half way and wait for their coming up in the morning. This was objected to as none must precede the Aitua (sacred spear) and I did not choose to interfere with any of their military customs. However after some time it was proposed to send a small party to go before us, the person carrying the Aitua keeping about 100 yards in advance of us. Our attendants were all highly Tapued and were prohibited eating until we should have arrived at the enemies Pa. I stole a piece of biscuit unobserved from time to time under cover of the night as we had not tasted anything since the morning. About 11 bro' up and pitched our Tents.

Saturday, 30. Much rain in the night. Fears of detention, but little sleep from the cold and flees. At break of day our Troops came up, upwards of 300. I was thankful to observe that the clouds had dispersed, under the influence of a strong S.E. wind. The people gathered round in full military costume, their heads dressed with feathers, their best mats on and some of them with shawls tied round their waists. They were desirous of having prayers before moving onwards, at the close of which several speeches were made, all good of their kind. The Wakaro (judgement, how to conclude this affair) was to be left with me. We all pushed on at full stretch until we came within 3 miles of the Pa at Waikanai. The Chiefs here gave Mr. Hadfield and myself leave to drink at the brook and direction to go onward to Na Te Awa, to put up the white flag and declare their willingness for Peace. The Chiefs then came and shook hands and remained behind, and we continued our march not having eaten anything, except a small piece of biscuit since noon yesterday. About 50 men accompanied us till within a page 459 mile of their Enemy. We crossed a river and soon joined our friends, the Na Ti Awa. A body of natives were out to meet their enemy should they shew any disposition to fight. We were received with much kindness. All assembled in the general place for discussion. Some angry expressions yet was the general voice for Peace, and Matahau their teacher the young man who formerly lived at Paihia and who married the daughter of the principal Chief of Waikanai was selected to go out to Ratify the treaty of Peace. We then sat our first meal since noon yesterday. In the afternoon the troops turned out to the number of about 500 under arms, belonging to Waikanai. Hei turanga ngarahau, a display of their force in a war dance. Afterwards we had evening service and after that met the christian natives in the Chapel, a party consisting of some native teachers who accompanied me, and a few in the neighbourhood, previous to my administering the Lord's supper on the morrow.

Sunday, 1 December. Natives at Prayers close to my tent tho singing through the tunes were purely native yet was very agreeable, not so the multitude of flees. Some Europeans came and expressed great satisfaction that peace had been established. At 8 o'clock assembled about 1200 at service. Mr. Hadfield proposed to meet the Europeans. They declined. One of the Sailors came smoking his pipe in defiance of all decency with his hat on close to the assembly and returned. Others were employed setting the dogs on to fight, while others were pulling their eyelids and shewing the whites of their eyes as the natives sometimes do, endeavouring in various ways to disturb the attention of the assembly. At the conclusion of the service, several of the principal men enquired what would be done with the seamen for their conduct had they disturbed an English congregation as they had done theirs. I observed that they would be taken in charge. In the afternoon assembled all at school old and young. Mr. Hadfield had some conversation with the blasphemous sailors they were most determined to reject every invitation. Met the Christian natives to whom I administered the Lord's supper the first ordinance of the kind ever commemorated in this part of the world. We afterwards held Evening Service to a very attentive congregation. Continued in conversation with a large party, at the tent door, till late.

Monday, 2. Mr. Hadfield went to Kapiti, while I remained to attend to some points of duty. Made arrangements to purchase Wairarapa to the Southd. of Port Nicholson as a sitting place for the natives. In the evening held service, after which met the enquiring natives. No news of Columbine tho many vessels.

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Tuesday, 3. Took Patukekeno over to Kapiti. The Old Chief Rauparaha very friendly. Obtained some supplies of flour bread sugar &c., to enable me to proceed on my journey overland, as my Native boys had consented to accompany me and my supplies and many little comforts were on board the Columbine for which I could not wait longer. Saw our Waikato friends, who came over for the night. I had much conversation with them, occupied till a late hour.

Wednesday, 4. Prepared to take our leave arranging packages. Assembled the natives in the Chapel and admited our friend Matahau to the Christian right of baptism by the name of Joseph. It was an interesting service, peculiarly so, considering that this young man had been made an instrument in the hand of the Great head of the Church in conveying very much knowledge of Divine things to his benighted countrymen. After service I had some conversation with some natives connected with the Wesleyans upon the divisions which appeared to be arising through their means. They threw the blame on their European Teachers. This shews great weakness and introduces much confusion amongst these infant churches. While taking leave there was a sudden alarm of the appearance of a part of the Enemy tho' peace had just been established. Such is the unsettled state of this people. It was however a false alarm. We had a pleasant walk to Otaki, where we received a report of Mr. Chapman being on the way from Rotorua. At sun set held service at the Tent door. Concluded with Mr. Hadfield that it would be most desirable that he should occupy this place with Waikanai from whence we had come this morning, as his main stations as he could pass from one to the other with ease on horseback in an hour and a half and keep a general oversight to the settlements all around until he should have more assistance, which it is highly important should be speedily afforded to him.

Thursday, 5. Much rain during the night which appeared to drive the musquitoes into my tent and I could not keep free from them. At day light I was sorry to find Mr. Hadfield indisposed; he had much improved in his health since coming on shore. I recommended him not to think of undertaking the journey at present, but wait till he could avail himself of the horse and obtain the Testaments and prayer books for the different places on the coast. I determined therefore with much regret to proceed alone through the heart of the Island, a distance of more than 300 miles an entirely new rout over country not yet explored by Europeans. I regretted leaving Mr. Hadfield a young man with ardent zeal but in very delicate page 461 health alone in this extensive and most important field, which requires several Missionaries at different stations to meet in a slight degree the wants of this people. Surely this is an irresistible call for more labourers where such extensive fields are so fast ripening for the harvest, where it is so necessary to feed those awakened and thirsting for instruction with the pure milk of the Word before Papists and Sectarians pour in upon them. At 3 I took leave of my young friend and fellow traveller Mr. Hadfield and commenced my journey accompanied by four of my own lads two native teachers from the Kowa Kowa and many others and some interesting lads of the party who had come a distance of two days' journey for books upon hearing that we had arrived. Near sunset we brought up at Waikino. Had many solicitations for books, gave 1 Testament, 6 prayer books and 2 primers. Heard of Wiremu Neira a Wesleyan native teacher who was assembling a large party at Wanganui to come against these tribes, and of whom much fear was expressed.

Friday, 6. Much rain during the night, which made our moving very doubtful. At sunrise it was more promising. Got under weigh and walked about 6 miles to breakfast. Found a large fish apparently just killed by a shark, had it cooked for breakfast and made an excellent repast. Continued our march along the beach but as the tide was up our walk was very tedious as we were driven upon the soft sand. At noon turned inland over an extensive tract of sand, the wind high and the sand flying in all directions. Walked on the bank of the Manauatu a large river with vast quantities of drift wood and heavy timber on the banks. Heavy trees fifty feet under ground standing out in an horizontal position. The wood was perfectly sound. This river will doubtless be of importance at some future day as it appeared deep and the country round very fine and rich. Crossed the river in a canoe and brought up amongst the fern. No natives near us. Felt weary.

Saturday, 7. Much wind and rain during the night. Slept soundly. At sunrise on the move. Fine morning. After an hours walk stopt at a small settlement near the beach. 40 persons drew up in a row to shake hands. This is a new mode of salutation borrowed from the Europeans and called by the natives, Ru being part of “how do you do?” This is exceedingly inconvenient as the traveller is thereby brought in contact with the filthy creatures of every place. Heard of some Wesleyan teachers baptising at some of the neighbouring places, a strange description which I could not understand; some other particulars also were mentioned plainly shewing the page 462 necessity of some duly authorized teacher being immediately placed among these tribes. Had much conversation with these people who were exceedingly attentive. Continued our march over a sandy desert of considerable extent. Strong wind blowing the sand in our faces, proceeded with difficulty. After an hour came on to the beach. Breakers a mile out. The lads began to flag and coming to a place at 1 o'clock brought up for the Sabbath. A sandy spot with but little of any thing green. A party here catching eels, there being vast quantities in this neighbourhood. A good supply given to my party. Towards sunset assembled all to service. The evening closed in conversation with the people of the place, who denominated themselves believers.

Sunday, 8. Refreshing rest. Thanks be to God for his unspeakable mercies. Assembled our party tho' smaller than expected they were however very attentive and joined in the responses as persons accustomed to it. I found that several of these natives could read. Gave four prayer books, in the afternoon assembled all for school. A good party around my tent door kept me in close conversation till late.

Monday, 9. Good night and fine. At break of day on the move. Our road lay over sand hills for 2 hours and a half to the river Rangitike where we found the land much improved and a small party residing and plenty of food for my boys. After breakfast proceeded up the river in canoes. The current so extremely strong that the natives were obliged to push the canoe on by the aid of poles requiring the greatest care that our bark was not upset. So irregular was the surface of the current that at times it ran a foot higher than our canoe. I kept my eye upon our boat men who appeared quite composed and aware of what they were about. I therefore kept myself perfectly quiet. Before we arrived at the Pa the rain came on heavily. On landing the people drew up rank and file to shake hands. Pitched my tent at which much admiration and wonder was expressed. Some young people came to converse. Appearance of the country good but too wet to look around. Several came to read tho' but one book. Towards sun set held service in the small Chapel not yet finished. The Chiefs very importunate that I should remain a whole week. The news arrived from Wanganui this evening that the natives there are waiting my arrival. Hakeke30 the Chief of this place most anxious for my page 463 protection and comfort, took up his abode at my tent door as guard for the night.

Tuesday, 10. Quiet night, though it rained occasionally. The natives came of their own free will and put up a screen to keep off the wind. All assembled and kept me in close conversation. Expressed my desire to move in the morning on my journey but everyone opposed this proposition as a large body of natives were expected from Wanganui with hostile intentions against Otaki. Was obliged therefore to content myself and occupied the remainder of the day in asking and answering questions.

Wednesday, 11. Good night. At break of day called up my friend the Chief Hakeke who continued to sleep at my tent door as guard thro' heavy rain. Looked out a situation for a Chapel and parsonage house which I ordered to be erected. At 11 Na Te Ruanui arrived. Wiremu Neira came to my tent of whom I learnt with much surprise that they were an expedition against Otaki having been sent for by Paura a teacher in connection with the Wesleyans. I gave him a severe lecture which he took very well tho' much confounded. He at last exclaimed what could a native teacher do by himself? He excused his party having their guns from the circumstance that Tamati Waka took his people over to the Bay of Islands with their guns. I gave him notice that after dinner I should go to his Taua (troops) and give them my opinion upon their proceedings. I found them very obstinate and saucy; they observed that they were going to carry the Gospel and shewed their books. Our party drew off highly displeased. Some few however of Na Te Ruanui came up and entered into conversation. Towards sun set assembled all who would attend at prayers. Felt very unwell.

Thursday, 12. Natives talking all night discussing the subjects of the day, whether to proceed in defiance of what I had to say or to return. At daylight assembled the people at my tent door for prayers. After which one of the strangers addressed the Taua telling them to attend to what was said. If they acted by their own ideas they would be wrong. The dissension continued with unabated animation. Some intimation that the Taua would retire in the morning. After breakfast I heard much loud speaking amongst the Taua. Drew near to them in order to learn the point of interest. Much inflammatory language. Extremely insolent. Many spoke but all of Na Te Ruanui were violent for proceeding at all hazards. Sad effects of the Wesleyan system in this part of the Country. These impudent fellows profess to be under the guidance of this page 464 Wiremu Neira who cannot read and is extremely ignorant. The sooner this ceases the better for all. After dinner had some conversation with some lads from Taupo which was very cheering after the contest of the forenoon. These youths had books which were given them from the Rotorua Station and could read; they were residing in this neighbourhood. Thus had instruction been conveyed from Tribe to Tribe and many have been taught to read in the remotest parts of the Island and had the Word of God conveyed to them who never saw a European. These are the fruits of the instruction given in the schools of the Church Missionary Society. I gained much information from these youths respecting the journey I had before me. Wiremu Neira sat by but said little. Learnt that the Taua felt very uncomfortable at their insolent conduct. They had observed that if Neira proposed to retire they would do so. I gave Neira a close word upon the great impropriety of his conduct. Whether they go on or return will be determined by the great Disposer of all events and will be in some measure a test of their desire of spiritual knowledge of which they speak. Heard much of baptism which had been introduced by this man Neira which I condemned in toto. His ceremony appears to be the washing of the head which has always been considered sacred by New Zealanders in warm water out of an iron pot the person at the same time confessing his sins vainly imagining that thereby his sins will be pardoned, a washing away of sin and a release from Tapu very much according to native custom. A perfect cheat of Satan and what an abominable perversion of baptism! and how soon are these sacred ordinances liable to be distorted to the ruin of those who do not possess or who will not consult the sacred scripture as their rule and guide. This ceremony is termed by them—Kokiro.

Friday, 13. Quiet night and the morning fine. Assembled the people at prayers. The Taua for the most part had prayers by themselves at a short distance apparently out of opposition and much to the disturbance of our party while I was reading the chapter. Neira afterwards came to hear my further opinion. I observed it had been already given. The natives I was about to leave requested my advice. Their attention was very great and their kindness also. Took my departure about 8 a.m. Several accompanied us some considerable distance on our journey. Neira followed me about a mile and told me he should return on Monday and some if not all of the Taua. At noon came on to the beach. Our walk over an extensive tract of sand. Crossed two rivers in the afternoon. Wangaehu appeared of some consideration. Brought page 465 up on the north bank, nothing but sand. Our walk this day dreary and fatiguing. Heavy sand. Sea smooth. No surf on the beach to prevent the landing of a boat. Had a good sight of Taranake (Mt. Egmont) and Tongoriro both covered with snow in the height of summer. Two most magnificent objects one on the coast the other in the interior of the Island.

Saturday, 14. Quiet and refreshing night tho' cool. Rose at daylight and renewed our march. A most splendid morning. At sun rise had a fine view of the two mountains with their snow crowned heads. At 10 arrived at Putikiwaranui on the bank of the Wanganui the largest river on this Coast where are large settlements of natives and up which river I was to proceed into the interior. The women and children were numerous the men were mostly up the country. The natives all gathered round with great eagerness. I proposed some questions to them and was much pleased to find that they could answer very many. While assembled at evening prayer, much interrupted by the firing of the Taua returning from Rangitike. Numerous questions proposed and kept in close conversation till late.

Sunday, 15. Cloudy and appearance of rain. Wiremu Neira returned on his way home. Was glad to see him inclined to listen. Some of the natives of the place had arrived from the interior. Many applications for books and appeals for Missionaries that they may be kept in the right way. At 8 assembled on the beach to service being sheltered from the wind and rain by the height of the bank, a congregation of about 300. Afterwards kept till noon talking tho' in the rain with Wiremu Neira and others and strongly reprobated the new doctrine of Kokiro broached amongst the people. Closely beset all day. Service in the evening. Occupied until a late hour in conversation.

Monday, 16. Quiet night. At daylight much noise and firing of guns. Wiremu Neira and party leaving for Taranake. At breakfast held council with the Chiefs31 respecting their land as they were under considerable alarm lest the Europeans should take possession of the Country. All approved of their land being purchased and held in trust for their benefit alone. Fearing delay the Chiefs determined to conclude the affair immediately, they accordingly took the subject in hand and with their Secretary drew out a rough draft for my approval. I was closely beset with natives wishing to thrust page 466 themselves into my tent. A native came today whose skin was as white as a European. I doubted for some time whether he had not been left by some ship as a boy. I ordered a rush house to be built for a Missionary. The natives signed the deed for the land.

Tuesday, 17. Rain through the night. Thousands of musquitoes. Natives assembled round my tent at daylight. At 8 rain cleared off. Occupied all forenoon in conversation. In the afternoon pulled out to the entrance of the river. I was much satisfied with my examination of it and found two fathom and not a ripple on the bar. Several canoes were out fishing. In the evening went to the old Chief Turoa32 in consequence of his having expressed some displeasure at my not having been at his place. I found him perfectly naked roasting himself before the fire. Numbers of persons around him. He invited me into his shed which I declined. We had a long conversation but he pleaded ignorance and poverty. Ignorant he certainly was.

Wednesday, 18. Multitudes of musquitoes. Considerable rain in the night and appearance of much rain which is a great obstruction to our journey. The weather cleared up in the forenoon. Crossed the river to see two parties. Numbers of women and children all gave me a most pleasing reception. Kurukanga and other young Chiefs came very solicitous for books. Prepared for our departure.

Thursday, 19. Fine. Disturbed night. Musquitoes very troublesome. Turoa and other Chiefs came to see us off. The Old man wanted to give me a fine pig, but the pig had the sagacity to get out of the way. I promised them that a Missionary would soon come to reside among them, and do trust that this most interesting post where all are eager for instruction and some have made pleasing progress in Divine knowledge will speedily be filled. They requested that the Missionary might bring a wife as then he would be likely to stay with them. Moved off by sunrise after being detained for our party to finish crying. The river very fine and broad, level land for about 10 miles up, when the river became narrower with steep hills on either side. At 4, landed at Kuriarapana the Pa of Te Tauria, the Chief of Na Te Pa, the original inhabitants of the place. A picturesque spot. Had a long conversation with the people of the place. Many applications for books. Tauria tho'very unwell came across the river, all insisted that he had been makutued (bewitched).

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Friday, 20. Pestered with musquitoes. Little sleep. Land very high on each side. Many beautiful rich and romantic spots. Dined at Te Moana Wakahi a small Pa belonging to Te Kauri. Passed a Pa on the left Puketarata. Did not land as it was late. Continued on till near sunset when we landed for the night. No natives here.

Saturday, 21. Fine. Fewer musquitoes. Slept well with the Tent open to allow free course for these troublesome little enemies. At break of day on the move, landed at Uritini a Pa of some size. Pressed by the natives to remain breakfast which we did. All assembled and strong solicitations for Books. Gave two prayer books, nearly all gone. Landed at Oawiti a beautiful place. Natives all importunate for books; gave two. Remained to rest our pullers who were much tired. Passed on to Ikurangi for the Sabbath, a very romantic place in the midst of Karaka trees situated on an eminence. The people were delighted at the arrival of a Missionary amongst them. I found several who could read and had a great demand for books. Towards sunset assembled for evening service. All seemed highly gratified. Had much conversation on the new doctrine of the Kokiro this corrupt baptism.

Sunday, 22. The first quiet refreshing night I had had for a long time, cool and no musquitoes. The natives assembled at my tent at break of day. After breakfast at which I had many spectators who shewed curiosity and admiration the bell was rung (an old musket barrel) for service, a good congregation. The responses were singularly good and called forth the admiration of my fellow travellers. Afterwards engaged in answering a multitude of questions. The service of our church I do consider singularly adapted for use amongst these native congregations and for the preservation of order. Kept in close conversation all day on important points. In the evening held service. They were very importunate for Missionaries to come and reside amongst them.

Monday, 23. Disturbed night. Very cold. It was determined by our friends that we should move up to Pukeika this morning and return to this place again and take our departure from hence across the country to Taupo. Landed at a small settlement on our left to see the people. All very much delighted to see me the first European that has visited them. The place very interesting and romantic. Much refreshed under the shade of a fine Karaka tree. I was kept here in close conversation for about two hours the people having gathered round for that purpose. The demand for books was very great but I was nearly out. Very great enquiries for Missionaries to come and reside amongst them. About noon arrived at Pukeika. A page 468 formidable place the surrounding country very romantic, and the scenery was grand. The hills of various heights and forms covered with wood with here and there a cleared spot with several hamlets. The river winding amongst these mountains or hills gave a finish to the landscape. I was a little vexed at being detained over the night waiting for provision for our journey but obliged to submit. Took my abode on the beach. Some natives hearing that I was in the neighbourhood, came down the river to see me, two young men in particular took up their position close to me and kept me in close conversation till I could say no more. They appeared in a very pleasing state and could read well. I gave the last of my books here.

Tuesday, 24. At daylight 3 bells for morning prayers were heard in different hamlets in the neighbourhood, a pleasing sound. The two young men renewed their enquiries. At 8 o'clock we took leave and passed rapidly down the river. Landed at 10 at the place which we had left and from whence leaving the course of the river we were to commence our march to Taupo. Our party consisted of 25 natives and 3 pigs. We parted from the two natives our guides who had brought us up the river in their canoe from Wanganui heads and were now about to return. We commenced our ascent up a formidable hill a heavy pull and a considerable change from our mode of travelling for these last few days past. Detained two hours at the place of Aomara for potatoes as we had here to arrange our provisions for the road, there not being any place of call or refreshment between this and Taupo nearly a week's march and a very difficult one. At dark brought up at the side of a river Te Umukoura at the bottom of a very steep hill, which called forth my utmost efforts to keep my footing. The road (if indeed a road it may be called) was very dirty and wet and in some places dangerous as it was quite dark being in a dense wood before we obtained our resting place. Some of our party did not come up till 10 o'clock.

Wednesday, 25. At sunrise on the move after a quiet night. At 8.30 arrived at Mangaitoroa a fine stream of water. The descent to the river nearly perpendicular and I was obliged to take off my shoes and stockings to prevent slipping. A fearful road. One of our fellow travellers (the largest of our pigs) fell down the precipice and broke nearly every bone. Detained for two hours while the boys cut up the pig. Our road was so rough that our pig drivers had to lift their charges over the numerous trees that laid in our way. A curious gentleman of our party gave notice that we should meet a Tira (a party) as he had struck his foot against a root. Detained by the boys carrying the Pig and had to bring up at 3.30 page 469 when the party prepared to cook which occupied them till evening. I was sorry to make so short a day as it was highly necessary that we should hurry on owing to the length of the journey to Taupo and there being no provisions but what the boys had to carry with us. Felt thankful to have fine weather and a comfortable lodging on a good bed of fern.

Thursday, 26. The hills not so heavy today. A good deal of level country. Came to our precipitous descent to a river Mangawera. Several streams. Our road as irregular and confused as could be met with. About noon met a small party coming from Taupo, they gave us a little news of wars and rumours of wars and were much surprised at finding a European in the wood and more particular so when they discovered that he could speak to them in their own language. As this circumstance was in accordance with what had been given notice of yesterday our party had much conversation upon the truth of this prediction of our fellow traveller. Brought up at 6 o'clock, all weary and in need of rest.

Friday, 27. On the move at the first peep of day. Had to climb over very large trees and go thro' low swampy ground. At 8 thankful to find ourselves clear of the wood and level country before us. Tongoriro33 a noble object lay before us the summit of which was covered with snow a splendid sight. It was pleasant to look back on the road we had just concluded, the worst certainly I ever passed over. In many places we had to creep under trees and again to climb over and walk along the trunks of trees which had been thrown down. During the remainder of this day our road was generally level but many streams of water. At one place was a very singular rush of water from a rock which formed the source of a large river. The weather hot and no shade of a tree. At 6.30 brot. up for the night at the foot of Ruapauhu.34 The land very high and apparently but a few feet below the snow which lay on the mountain.

Saturday, 28. At break of day reluctantly moved on, the boys very weary. Travelled for 5 hours over most barren ground. No vegetation of any kind one continued bed of pumice stones. Passed through a rushing stream of stinking water from Tongoriro, the volcano. Crossed the source of Waikato and several other rivers, a very interesting walk except the falling in with some rare plants towards the latter part of the day. Had a sight of the Lake Taupo page 470 this afternoon, but could not arrive there owing to the detention at the commencement of our march. Obliged to bring up at sunset by a small wood and fine stream of water. All very tired having been walking hard over rough road since tuesday.

Sunday, 29. The Sabbath a day of Gods appointment to be observed as a day of rest. And each of our weary travellers was disposed most rigidly to observe it as such. Our party lay quiet till 8 a.m. everyone much overcome and but little food left having expected to arrive at Taupo yesterday. At noon assembled for service which we much enjoyed. No natives near us which I much regretted as one might have been amongst a numerous party if our conductors had exercised more thought. In the afternoon rain with an appearance of a gale.

Monday, 30. Much rain in the night. At day light on the move and prepared for a good wetting as it was impossible to remain not having any provision. A heavy wet walk for 4½ hours before we halted for breakfast, over hill and dale and thro' twenty streams. Passed Roto Aera a fine lake to our left. We at length arrived at an old plantation where we found some wild potatoes. The rain having ceased and the sun shining warm we enjoyed it much and after a good refreshment and rest continued our march till 4 when we arrived at a place on the Great Lake Taupo, a magnificent piece of water about thirty miles in length with various fine bays. We were received with much kindness and abundance of food handed out tho' almost all the men had left yesterday on a fighting expedition in consequence of a Kanga (native curse) having been uttered respecting a chief. These abominations have nearly ceased at the Northward. Observed that the land in this neighbourhood was very much better. Towards sunset assembled all for evening prayers and addressed them. While I was speaking upon the necessity of laying aside their lieing vanities a woman (she may be said to be under the influence of an evil spirit) came forth with the utmost fury and declared that if these things were spoken against she would go and cast herself into one of the boiling springs and instantly ran off professedly for that purpose. Several followed her to secure her while others replied cooly that “she had better do so”. I continued without further interruption noticing to them the enmity of Satan against their even hearing of the one true and only God and Jesus Christ whom He had sent. In the evening had much conversation with the people assembled around my Tent who were full of curiosity and wonder at all they saw and heard.

Tuesday, 31. In the morning a deputation arrived from a place page 471 at a short distance for us to remove thither as there were some of the leading men of the Lake waiting for us. We accordingly got under weigh without waiting for breakfast and went to Te Rapa, but nothing to eat before speaking. Many speaches were made by our friends who bade us welcome and we had also to speak in our turn. We had here an evidence of the duplicity of Old Watanui the Chief of Otaki near Kapiti from whom we bro't a letter to the Chief of Taupo in which he desired that the people of this place would not attend to any thing I had to say, as it was all deceit, but made a requisition that the Tribes should go and join him against Na Te Awa to renew hostilities though peace had been just established. All were much surprised at the conduct of Watanui but as the character of the Missionaries was well known his letter was treated with silence and Iwikau,35 a brother to the principal chief, said he would not comply with the desire of Watanui but would accompany me to the Bay of Islands. It was late in the day before we took any breakfast, after which we proceeded to Pukawa where was a good Chapel erected at the desire of Mr. Chapman. I began to feel myself drawing near home!! from the circumstance of having arrived at a place where one of our Missionaries had been. I had much conversation with the people here tho' no great symptom of anxiety for instruction.

Wednesday, 1 January, 1840. At break of day were on the move for Motutere, that we might arrive before the wind sprung up and avoid the dangerous sea created thereby, more particularly so from the smallness of these canoes. The place was small and dirty and very much crowded owing to their continued fears of attacks from the Tribes of Waikato. We had not been long here before there was a considerable disturbance amongst the natives and everyone running for guns and general preparations for battle. I at length heard that the party who had come to settle the affairs of the Kanga had now taken away a mans wife in defiance of all remonstrance. The disturbance of some time assumed a serious aspect. I was thankful to have an opportunity here to send a messenger to Rotorua to give notice of my having arrived thus far on my way. I examined all who could read, found 26 who could do so some of page 472 them very respectably. Had a good assembly round the Tent till late. Iwikau told me he would not go with me owing to his fears of Nga Puhi (the Bay of Islanders) then after some time he concluded to go and run all risks.

Thursday, 2. We were clear off by sunrise and in about 2 hours landed for breakfast at a dirty Pa. Some interesting Natives and the Chiefs were extremely civil. We were hindered till nearly 3 p.m. for provision for our journey when we proceeded to Rangatira a very confined place upon a point projecting into the Lake. The people here were in much fear of the Waikato Tribes. I was glad to find a Chapel here and that all hailed for believers. Engaged talking till a late hour. Messengers arrived from the Rotorua bringing a very short note from Mr. Morgan. They had heard by way of Tauranga that I might be expected and had sent me a loaf of bread some tea and sugar and a bottle of porter. Letters which they had received for me from my wife and family at Paihia they had kept at Rotorua till my arrival. The Chief sent his son to accompany me to fetch a Testament and a few books and slates.

Friday, 3. On the move very early. Passed down the river Waikato about 3 miles and landed at some boiling springs,36 a very terrific spot, obliged to move with every possible care lest we should fall through the ground into some dreadful cauldron below. One of these places appeared to be held in much superstitious regard. On landing one of our boys went to gaze when up spouted a column of scalding water with a horrible roar. The lad had to take to his heels and was reproved by the old people of the place. After breakfast I felt inclined to have a gaze at this hot fountain which we had not observed in motion since the retreat of the boy. The natives seeing me approach called out and saying that it was the abode of the God of the Lake however I advanced though with caution. I put my staff near the orifice of the fountain a terrible growl was heard from within and up spouted a column of boiling water warning me to retreat with all possible despatch. The natives immediately raised their voice and particularly desired that I should not repeat my visit. I thought it was most advisable not to do so lest by another eruption my friends might be more particularly confirmed in their superstitious ideas. Having finished our repast we proceeded onwards over a very barren country. Walking I found very difficult owing to the dryness of the grass which made my shoes so very slippery that I required every effort to keep my feet. Towards sunset we ascended a very steep and high hill which was page 473 very wearying being at the close of a very fatiguing march. I felt it the more not being able to discover the necessity of doing so as our road appeared to lay on level ground. I was however amply repaid by finding a pleasing little band of enquirers after truth, who had formed a Pa at the summit of the highest hill that could be found as a place of refuge from the tribes of Waikato. There were two very old men who could not read but were well acquainted with many leading points of Scripture doctrine and the services of our Church. Several young men could read. Tho' I was very tired I held service and afterwards continued in conversation with them till a late hour.

Saturday, 4. On the move at the first break of day and took breakfast on the new bridge over the Waikato River which is a very noble piece of work in itself and one which must have been attended with much trouble. The bridge is formed with 4 very large planks cut out of the solid the ends of which rest on the rock in the middle of the foaming stream. I was surprised to learn that the river does not rise in the winter. The rain being I presume absorbed by the vast tracts of pumice which extend for many miles. About noon felt the heat very excessive there was not a cloud to form the slightest mitigation not a bush under which we could sit down and rest a while. As we were taking refreshments and halting a little, the boys set fire to the grass and fern which quickly put us on the move. Towards the latter part of the day I felt very faint from the heat and must have brot. up had not Mr. Morgan's horse arrived to meet me to my very great relief which in about two hours conveyed me to Oinemutu the Pa of Rotorua. The Chiefs assembled though dark and detained us to hear all the news from Kapiti and Taupo. They afterwards furnished me with a canoe which soon carried me to Mr. Morgan's house at Mokoia, the Island in the middle of the Lake where I was very glad to sit down once more in the quiet abode of a Missionary. A cup of tea was very refreshing and much needed. Here I found letters from my family and with much thankfulness heard that all was well. I learnt that the Columbine was waiting for me at Tauranga.

Sunday, 5. I felt very weary and feverish and little inclined to move. I took the morning service and Mr. Morgan went to Oinemutu. In the evening baptised Mr. Morgans infant son.

Monday, 6. Gale from the Eastd. with rain. Old Heuheu37 the page 474 principal chief of Taupo and others came from Maketu with whom I had much interesting conversation respecting Kapiti and Taupo and the contemplated wars.

Tuesday, 7. Went to Oinemutu for the purpose of meeting the Chiefs to determine what should be done respecting Maketu the grand bone of contention between them and the Waikato Tribes but found they were too childish to arrange any thing with them. In the afternoon met the enquiring natives with whom I was much pleased. Sent messengers to Tauranga to give notice of my intention to proceed on the morrow.

Wednesday, 8. After breakfast took leave of all my friends and proceeded to the main by boat where I met a large party of inquiring natives who wished me to give them a few words by the way. They were an interesting assembly to meet in this wild part of the Country so long distracted with war and murders. At noon commenced our march. Weather very hot. We brought up at Mangarewa the river boundary between Tauranga and Rotorua. All much delighted at having arrived within one days march of the end of our journey. Took a good supper and betook ourselves to rest intending to push on at break of day.

Thursday, 9. Much dismayed in finding that the rain was falling in great abundance but as this was the last day all were in good spirits and determined to proceed. Our walk was exceedingly wet and comfortless as we soon became thoroughly wet through. The rain continued until noon. At 2 o'clock we emerged from the wood a sad walk, my clothes shoes and hat torn to pieces I could scarcely keep them on. While pushing my way through the wet bush I came suddenly upon my brother!! who had arrived at Tauranga 3 days ago and had set off this morning to meet me my note having been received last evening. This was a most unexpected pleasure!! as I had concluded that he with his family and my third son must have proceeded to his station never anticipating it possible that he would put into Tauranga. We were all glad to take some refreshment and proceeded onwards with my large party of natives from Cooks Straits and Taupo and Rotorua besides my own boys. I mounted Jessie which my brother had brought for me, we had our chat by the way and I heard of the welfare of my family at Paihia of whom my brother had had charge since my sailing in October till within the last ten days. At sunset I had the pleasure of meeting my brothers family and my third son Henry and George Clarke accompanying him to Poverty Bay. I met also the families residing at Tauranga. I had much news to receive and much to relate and page 475 many mercies for which to be thankful. It was truly a joyful meeting.

Friday, 10. Rain, wind N.E. Engaged in committee. Felt unwell.

Saturday, 11. Felt very unwell now my toiling was come to an end. At Committee business all day. My brother objecting to sail on the Sabbath the master of the Martha agreed to stay till Monday.

Sunday, 12. Fine. Felt better. Several adults baptized after which I address them. In the afternoon went to Maungatapu accompanied by my son Henry. In the evening the Europeans met in Mr. Browns house to receive the Lord's supper.

Monday, 13. Fine. At high water took leave of my brother and sister my son and all friends and went on board weighed and worked out of the harbour, wind favouring us from the Eastd.

Tuesday, 14. Fine. Off Tuhua. Light winds through the day.

Wednesday, 15. Fine. Light winds. Off the Alderman.

Thursday, 16. Fine Wind from the Northward. At daylight near the Mercury Islands.

Friday, 17. At day light near Cape Colwell. Wind sprang up from Sth., light.

Saturday, 18. At day light near Cape Brett. Good breeze. In the afternoon arrived at Paihia and had once more the unspeakable pleasure of finding myself at home and all my family well after an absence of thirteen weeks.

Sunday, 19. Fine. With many grateful feelings I this morning again entered the house of prayer at Paihia. The quietness of the morning was peculiarly gratifying. I took afternoon service. This was indeed a day of rest and sweet refreshing.

Monday, 20. Introduced the Taupo Chiefs to the family at breakfast and several of the principal Chiefs in our neighbourhood came to see the visitors who were greatly astonished at all they beheld having come from the interior of the Island.

Tuesday, 21. Messrs. Clarke and Davis came from the Waimate, to see me with whom I had much communication upon the state of the natives to the Southward and that universal spirit of enquiry and the great spread of Christian knowledge which I had ascertained in a journey from the Southern extremity and thro' the heart of the Island. We lamented that so little could be done to meet the pressing wants of this people and trusted that The Lord who had in so wonderful a manner awakened them, would provide.

Wednesday, 22. Some of the children went to the Waimate that the horses might return for the rest of the party previous to taking page 476 Mrs. W. into the country for a change of air before the holidays were over. Mr. Hobbs arrived from Hokianga and that and the many successive parties of natives who came to see me and occupied me in conversation prevented my writing letters for the vessel about to sail for England.

Thursday, 23. Mr. Hobbs returned home. Many native and many European callers. Patuone arrived with his wife and a few others from Muraetae with letters from Mr. Fairburn. Mr. Woon called on his way to Hokianga. In the evening I had Patuone and his wife with me upon the subject of their baptism. They have been several months as candidates and have always been well disposed people. Felt fully satisfied, and gratified to see one of the old and most principal Chiefs coming forward in so pleasing a manner. He is elder brother to Tamati Waka.

Friday, 24. Much interrupted by natives and Europeans calling. Mrs. W. and the children went to Pakaraka for change of air being much in need of a little relief. Having 4 of my brothers children with us in addition to our own it was no little movement. The party consisted of ten horses with their riders, two kauhoas (kind of palanquin) in which the two youngest were carried and twenty six natives. I was prevented from accompanying them by Patuone's arrival.

Saturday, 25. Engaged all day with natives and endeavouring to write.

Sunday, 26. A large assembly at the native service. I admitted Patuone and his wife by baptism as members of the Church of Christ by the names of Edward and Lydia Marsh. I afterwards went over to hold services at Kororarika. Returned home late to an empty house.

Monday, 27. Fine but the heat very great. Rode to Pakaraka and joined my family there. In the evening perplexed by the conduct of the Chiefs I had brought from Taupo at their own request and now appeared determined to return home by a canoe going to the Thames before they had seen anything of our Station or customs.

Tuesday, 28. The Taupo party returned to Paihia at break of day without saying a word. Sent my son after them who after much persuasion prevailed on them to return. Part of the family went to Waimate. Pleased to see so many natives employed at the farm.

Wednesday, 29. Rode into the Waimate to see my friends there after my return from my journey. At 11 p.m. after we had all arrived to rest an express arrived from Paihia announcing the arrival page 477 of the Lieut. Governor Cap. Hobson r.n.38 with a summons for me to return without loss of time.

Thursday, 30. Detained till noon by rain when the weather partially cleared and I took Mrs. W. and such of the family as were at Waimate to Paihia leaving word for the rest to follow. Thus most unexpectedly curtailing the visit and hurrying home I went on boardh.m.s.Herald to see Capn. Hobson who had many enquiries to make and much news to impart but was disappointed at receiving no communication from the society at this important crisis. From the Bishop of Australia had a long and kind and judicious letter. Heard the Queen and the Lieut. Governor had been proclaimed this day at Kororarika. In the evening I prepared to accompany Cap. Hobson and suite to Waimate and Hokianga on the morrow.

Friday, 31. It rained and appeared unlikely for a movement. Still kept in readiness. Six horses arrived from Waimate, for the Lieut. Governor and suite.

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1 Captain Clayton, a coastal trader, who owned and sailed a schooner, Ariel, and who lived at Kororareka.

2 The Rev. Richard Taylor arrived in New Zealand in March 1839, and took over the mission school at Waimate as successor to Hadfield. He assisted in the preparing and the work of the Treaty of Waitangi, and was appointed to Wanganui in 1843. With extraordinary energy and methodical organization he became a most successful missionary, travelling far and wide. His influence was enormous, and he was a very effective peacemaker among the tribes. He was a man of deep culture and fine scholarship who wrote several books, contributed many papers to the New Zealand Institute, and corresponded with various scientists. He brought the first moa bones to the notice of Professor Owen, and sent many specimens of New Zealand flora to Dr. Hooker. His published works are: A Leaf from the Natural History of New Zealand [1848], The Age of New Zealand [1867], Te Ika a Maui [1855], The Past and Present of New Zealand [1867]. He died in 1873.

3 Pikopo is the transliteration of “bishop”, or its Greek form “episcopos”. There are some other fanciful explanations. Bishop Pompallier arrived in New Zealand on 10 January 1838.

4 The Rev. Octavius Hadfield arrived in the Bay of Islands in 1839, and was ordained as priest and appointed to Waikanae. He suffered severely from asthma, and his delicate health was of great concern to Henry Williams. Nevertheless, Hadfield served his Church and his country with courage and distinction for many years, dying at the age of 90. Appointed Archdeacon of Kapiti in 1849, he married Catherine, the daughter of Henry Williams, three years later. In 1870 he was elected Bishop of Wellington, and in 1889 Primate of New Zealand.

5 The Kororareka Association was formed on 23 May 1838, “in consequence of the absence of any Magisterial Authority in the Bay of Islands to frame laws for the better regulation of matters connected with the welfare of the inhabitants both European and native”. [From the preamble.] The European population had grown, but European law had no jurisdiction in New Zealand, and the evilly-inclined element in a very mixed and primitive community had had things very much their own way. The Association, acting on the principle that some law is better than no law, proceeded to exercise a rough and ready justice.

6 Now Gisborne.

7 Mahia Peninsula.

8 Cook Strait.

9 Poneke was the Maori name for Port Nicholson.

10 The first vessel sent to New Zealand from London by the New Zealand Company. She cast anchor at the mouth of Ship Cove on 17 August 1839.

11 Reihana, who had been baptized by the name Richard Davis, had lived with the C.M.S. missionaries in the Bay of Islands, and had been taught by them. He went to Port Nicholson in June 1839 with the Wesleyan missionaries, Bumby and Hobbs.

12 Port Underwood, the main whaling station in New Zealand from 1830–7, was commenced in 1828 by Archibald Mossman of Sydney. So successful was the whaling industry that a serious proposal was made in Hobart Town to establish an independent colony at Cloudy Bay, but the scheme fell through. [McNab, Old Whaling Days, p55.]

13 Captain John Guard, a Sydney whaling captain, established in 1827 the first whaling station in the South Island at Te Awaiti in what is now known as Tory Channel. In 1834 his whaling bark, Harriett, was wrecked off Cape Egmont, and half the crew were massacred; the rest, including John Guard, his wife and two children, were taken prisoner. H.M.S. Alligator was sent to rescue them. [McNab, Old Whaling Days.]

14 Wynen, a land buyer from Sydney.

15 Ngauranga is the point where today the Northern Motorway branches off from the Wellington-Hutt highway.

16 Te Rangi-Takaroro, a chief of the Ngati-Tama of Kawhia, whose tribe accompanied Te Rauparaha on the great trek to Cook Strait. He was a brother of the famous Te Puoho ki Te Rangi, the favourite tohunga and fighting chief of Te Rauparaha.

17 Mana Island, on which Messrs. Fraser had a whaling station.

18 Neti was a Maori who in 1836 had been taken from Cloudy Bay to Europe in the French whaler, Mississippi, and returned as interpreter on the Tory. [McNab, Old Whaling Days, p347.]

19 Te Rangihaeata, nephew and partner of Te Rauparaha and a famous fighting chief of Ngati-Toa. He strongly opposed some of the land claims of the New Zealand Company, and, with Te Rauparaha, was involved in the dispute which resulted in the so-called Wairau Massacre.

20 The incident referred to here was the infamous conduct of Captain Stewart, who in 1830 in the Elizabeth took Te Rauparaha and Te Hiko to Akaroa and betrayed Tamaiharanui into their hands. For a full account see McNab, Old Whaling Days, pp22–37, 381–413.

21 Captain Mayhew, of the Atlas, who had a whaling station on the small island of Tahoramaurea, near Kapiti. He was well-known in the Bay of Islands; where he lived for a time at Wahapu. Like most of the American captains, he was opposed to the Treaty of Waitangi, and was accused of encouraging Hone Heke in his grievances against the British. He was acting United States consul at the Bay of Islands in 1844, and left New Zealand in 1846.

22 Otakou, now known as Otago.

23 Taiaroa, a chief of Ngati-Mamoe and of Ngai-Tahu, took a leading part in the defence of Kaiapoihia against Te Rauparaha in 1831, and with Tuhawaiki made two expeditions against Te Rauparaha. He was a well-known figure in the early days of the Otago settlement.

24 Johnny Jones, a vigorous Sydney business-man, who was very active in trading and whaling ventures in early New Zealand. In 1839 he declared that he had seven whaling stations in New Zealand, employing 280 men. He came to live in New Zealand in 1846 and settled in Dunedin in 1854. [See R. M. Burdon, New Zealand Notables, 1941.]

25 Matahau, also known as Ripahau, was baptized by Henry Williams by the name of Joseph. He was a Ngati-Raukawa captured by Ngapuhi and taken to the Bay of Islands, where he came under the influence of the missionaries. When later he secured his freedom, he returned first to Otaki and then to Waikanae.

26 Pakatutu pa was built on a large flat piece of land at the mouth of the Otaki River.

27 Te Kuru or Te Ruru, the chief of Pakatutu.

28 Te Whatanui, one of the leading Ngati-Raukawa chiefs, and a great warrior. His home was in the Maungatautari district, but about 1826 he accepted an invitation of Te Rauparaha to migrate to the south, and settled on the shore of Lake Horowhenua. He welcomed the missionaries, and later became a sincere Christian.

29 Wata is a diminutive for Te Whatanui.

30 Te Hakeke, a famous and able chief of the Ngati-Apa, best known for his leadership against Te Rauparaha. In co-operation with Te Anaua, he organized an attack on Kapiti with an army of from 2,000 to 3,000 men. Defeated, he was kept captive at Kapiti for some years, and, on being given his freedom, he lived quietly at Horowhenua and Otaki with Whatanui.

31 “This morning's work was fraught with serious results to Mr. Williams. His endeavour to save a remnant to the natives from the grasp of the [New Zealand] Company brought upon him a storm of invective, which ceased not during his life, and pursued him even after death.” [Carleton, p233.]

32 Turoa Te Peehi, a leading warrior chief of the upper Wanganui tribe of Ngati-Hau. Consistently hostile to the pakeha, he resented both the occupation by white settlers of the lower Wanganui River, and the attempt of the missionaries to convert his own tribes. He died in 1845.

33 Mount Tongariro.

34 Mount Ruapehu.

35 Iwikau, the younger brother of the famous Te Heuheu, and for many years his chief captain in war expeditions. He went with Henry Williams to the Bay of Islands, and while there signed the Treaty of Waitangi, but his action was strongly repudiated by Te Heuheu. Greatly influenced by the missionaries, he became a peacemaker. He died in 1862.

36 The site of the present Spa Hotel.

37 Te Heuheu, or Mananui, of Ngati-Wharetoa, was one of the most celebrated chiefs of the period. A successful warrior and a wise counsellor, he nevertheless opposed pakeha infiltration and strongly objected to the missionaries' purpose of converting his people to Christianity. He died in 1846.

38 Captain William Hobson first visited the Bay of Islands in 1836 when he was sent by the Governor of New South Wales as Captain of h.m.s. Rattlesnake to investigate the situation of British subjects. On his return he made an excellent report on the conditions in New Zealand, and outlined a scheme of government for the country. In 1839 the Secretary for the Colonies, Lord Normanby, appointed him Consul to treat with the Maori chiefs for the cession of sovereignty, and then to become Lieutenant-Governor, subject to the jurisdiction of the Governor of New South Wales. He arrived in New Zealand in h.m.s. Herald on 29 January 1840, and secured the agreement of the chiefs in the Treaty of Waitangi. He died in 1842.