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The Early Journals of Henry Williams

I — December 1826 to December 1827

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December 1826 to December 1827

Brig captured by convicts — Wesleyans abandon Whangaroa — Hongi wounded — Problems with girls and ships — Threats of muru — Marsden arrives — N.Z. Colony in N.S.W. — Herald leaves for Sydney — Translation work — peacemaking parleys.

Thursday, 21 December 1826. We were interrupted for two hours this morning by the callg. of Cap. Clarke of the Harriet and his Doctor who are about to proceed to England: Has bread to spare but asks 25/- per cwt. It is grievous to be in the least dependant on these people. Took the opportunity to speak to them, upon our desire to hold service on board on Sunday morng. The Capn. said it would not be convenient next Sunday as the casks would be on deck &c. I told him that were we to consult our private feelings, we should not put ourselves to the inconvenience of going across; but that we considered it our duty, and as such offered our services. In the afternoon Te Koki1 with his wife and others, came down from the Kawakawa looking very ill; they wanted some smelling salts and blisters for the backs of their heads;—some good tea and bread appeared to revive them. In the eveng. I spoke to the natives in the settlement upon the necessity of a prepared state for death, particularly as they saw in every settlement such numbers ill.

Friday, 22. Some of our boys returned from Taiamai2 where page 32 they had been to visit their sick friends. The father of one of them died the day before yesterday. The mother of another died ten days since; and numbers are ill. The natives ask so many questions about it and to some I say it is in consequence of the anger of our God. I told some on Sunday last that they could not expect anything else than the anger of the Lord while they continued in such wickedness, and would not bend to his invitations. I agreeably hope this universal illness may tend to their spiritual good.

Sunday, 24. After our morning service Mr. Fairburn3, Wim. Puckey and myself went on board the Emily, Cap. Brind4 for the purpose of holding divine service; but we were told that most of the crew was on shore not expecting me on board; also Cap. B. was on board the Harriet, which ship I had been told would not be disposed for our visit. We turned our course up the Kawa Kawa, to visit the natives; by whom we were much refreshed.

Monday, 25. The service as on the Sabbath: the day unfavourable for visiting the natives.

Tuesday, 26. Held a committee in the eveng. previous to the departure of the Herald5 for the Colony: much engrossed through the day in writing and settling accounts. Wind fresh from the N.W.

Wednesday, 27. Wind continued the same. Concluded our committee6 proceedings. In the eveng. the brethren returned to the Kedi Kedi7 overland. Our meetings upon all occasions are now very agreeable and refreshing. I trust by past experience, we are enable to appreciate our present blessings in this respect. The Herald ready for sea, but waiting a wind.

Thursday, 28. At daylight the wind from the N.E., and every appearance of a gale. The Herald got under weigh at 8 o'clock; in two hours she was out of sight and would doubtless get around the page 33 North Cape before midnight. Purchased 1160 1bs. of bread from Cap. Duke8 for the support of the schools.

Friday, 29. Wind from the N.E. In the afternoon heard unfavourable accounts, by natives, of the brethren at Rangihou9, that had been ill treated by the Napuis10 ('Hongi's11 tribe) who had been quartered there for several days not being able to advance on their expedition against Wangaroa12, on account of the unfavourable weather. Not hearing anything further, we took no notice.

Sunday, 31. Weather unfavourable; every appearance of rain. After our service, I determined not to go to the shipping as I considered they would gladly take advantage of the state of the weather. Near twelve o'clock I was pleased at seeing a boat pulling towards the beach, which I concluded was for us; which was the case. Cap. Duke, on board of whose ship I had been requested to go, had mistaken the time. We assembled from thirty to forty persons amongst whom were three captains, one surgeon, &c. I preached from Job. 21.15. Their attention was great, and I felt thankful for the opportunity. At the commencement of our holding service on board the vessel we were apprehensive lest it might draw on a degree of intimacy which must not exist13 but I am happy to say, that the utmost respect is universally shewn to us, and doubt not of its happy consequence. When we go on board on these occasions the women, with which the shipping swarm, are studiosly put out of sight; this the natives do not fail to observe. We could not visit the natives, owing to the rain.

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Monday, 1 January 1827. Early in the morning, while preparing to go to the Kedi Kedi to attend the Quarterly Meeting, Cap. Brind sent his boat to say that 'Hongi's party had left Rangihou the day before, for Wangaroa; but that they had beaten the missionaries and carried off most of the property. We were somewhat dismayed, but as Cap. Brind's information was through a native, we did not give full credit. Accordingly some of us went over, in our way to the Kedi Kedi. On our arrival we heard that the natives had been very insolent and trying; they had broken into the school, and had entered the houses in a very rude manner. Met the brethren at the Kedi Kedi, by 3 p.m., all well. The general appearance of the settlement has considerably improved of late, by their regular fences; it is a very pleasant place. In the eveng. we met for prayer; which is always a refreshing season. I gave an address from Mat. 10.8, latter part. We had much pleasing and profitable conversation. In a land like this, it is highly important that we meet together as we do, for relaxation from our daily occupation.

Tuesday, 2. Sat the whole day upon the Committee proceedings. Some discussion took place, upon some expressions in the missionary register14 relative to N.Z. I sincerely hope that no intentions of mine may ever find their way into that publication; as it is a point admitted, that they cannot always be put into execution.

Wednesday, 3. Returned to Paihia15: everything as we left them. Read a note from Cap. Duke, to state that he could spare another Butt of bread; and as the members of the Committee had expressed a desire that some should be bought, an order was accordingly given for it.

Friday, 5. At 8 o'clock, obs'd a brig standing in for the Bay: at 10 she came to an anchor. We obs'd a number of persons standg. aft and were in hope of news from Port Jackson, with an accession to the mission. Sent Mr. Fairburn with the boat, to fetch the bread from Cap. Duke, and, also to enquire the particulars of page 35 the vessel. In the course of two hours Mr. F. returned stating that there was every suspicion that the brig had been taken by prisoners from Port Jackson; and that the Captains of the two ships at anchor expressed a wish, that I should go over to see them; which I accordingly did. The brig certainly presented a very different scene from any I had ever before witnessed. The decks were crowded to excess, with very ill-looking fellows, about twenty under arms. The cabin was filled, and wine and spirits passed freely about. I did not say many words, but was soon fully aware what was the matter. In a little time Mr. Fairburn had some papers put privately into his hands, which gave a short statement of the vessel. She was the Wellington16 out of Port Jackson, and bound to Norfolk Island with prisoners and stores for that settlement; and that the prisoners had set upon the guard and crew and possessed themselves of the vessel. Cap. Duke took the Convict Captain on board of his ship; when, after a few close questions to him, he confessed that she was in the possession of the prisoners: He bid us all defiance, stating that every man would sell his life very dear: he also produced a letter written by himself to the Governor, dictated in exceedingly impudent terms. It was then considered by the two captains, Duke and Clarke, and myself, what steps could be taken to recover the Brig and disperse the bandits. I proposed to fire some great guns and disable the vessel, but everyone appeared extremely fearful lest their vessels should in return be attacked. After much consultation, I left the ship, distressed at the idea that the vessel should escape. In the eveng. I made it a special point in prayer, that she might not be suffered to escape.

Saturday, 6. It blew fresh. Had no communication with the shipping. Numbers of canoes going over to Kororarica17 desirous to attack the Brig. The prisoners very impudent;—everyone much disturbed concerning the Brig; our thoughts all afloat.

Sunday, 7. At five o'clock were awoke by the firing of guns from the shipping, and the shot was flying about the Brig. Tho' it was distressing that the peace of the day should in this way be disturbed, still I felt a satisfaction that the Brig would be recovered, and the guard crew and passengers restored. The shipping fired at intervals, until 9 o'clock. All were greatly disturbed during service. At 10 o'clock a boat landed with a note to me, requesting page 36 that I would go over to control the natives at Kororarika, that no harm might befall the prisoners on their landing. As this was considered a case of great necessity, I did not hesitate to comply. On my arrival on board of Cap. Duke's vessel, I was happy to learn that the Sergeant of the Guard was released. I wished to have gone myself to have spoken to the prisoners, but was not allowed, as they had declared vengeance against me. The Chief Mate of the ship Sisters18 negotiated for us with prisoners. We soon learnt with pleasure their intention of leaving the vessel; and by 5 o'clock all who intended to go on shore were out of the vessel, and she was in possession of the crew and guards. On their landing, many of them were stripped and furnished with native mats. I returned on shore with great satisfaction before sunset, where it caused considerable joy to hear of the repossession of the Brig.

Monday, 8. After breakfast felt it necessary to go on board to conclude the affair of yesterday. A survey was held upon the extent of damage done—masts, hull and rigging were very much wounded. Returned to dinner. We were exceedingly surprised that no effort was made or likely to be made, for the recovery of the prisoners; as the Cap. expressed himself afraid to put to sea with them.

Tuesday, 9. No communication with Cap. Duke.

Wednesday, 10. At 10 o'clock a.m. recd. a note from Mr. Turner19, stating their expectation of an attack upon them, by some of the tribes by whom they were then surrounded, in consequence of the present war with Natipo (a powerful tribe near Wangaroa) by 'Hongi and requesting us to go to their assistance to remove, at least the females to the Kedi Kedi. Mr. Davis'20 eldest daughter was there, and I went, without loss of time, to the Kedi Kedi by water, page 37 and took as many of our boys as we could; intending to pass overland immediately, tho' it would be night travelling. On our arrival at the Kedi Kedi we were told that the Wangaroa settlement21 was upset at 5 a.m. and that the brethren were on their way through the woods. We hastened forward with refreshment for them expecting they had not partaken of any; and met them about six miles from the Kedi Kedi. They were in much better spirits than I expected to find them. We slung some chairs for the females, and conducted them safely. This affair was so sudden that I could not believe that anything had taken place for a length of time. It is very serious, and will materially affect us. At the Kedi Kedi, all things were in readiness for our friends. The chiefs here told us, that Messrs. Turner22, &c. must not remain here, but pass on to Paihia: this was determined upon.

Thursday, 11. At daylight all in motion, preparing for our departure, but for different reasons, did not move till 10 o'clock. It was thought advisable, that everything of most value should be sent to Port Jackson by the Sisters as we might at each settlement expect before long like treatment with the brethren at Wangaroa. Arrived at Paihia to dinner; after which I was obliged to go on board of Cap. Duke, to hear what determination he had come to; and also to take a passage to Port Jackson for those of the Wesleyans who might go. It was then concluded that Cap. Duke should conduct the Brig, with the Prisoners, to Port Jackson, and use his utmost to recover them.

Friday, 12. At daylight began to pack up our books and all the spare clothing, reserving for one year. The boys about the settlement began to ask questions: we gave but few answers wishing that our movements should be as quiet as possible. At 6 received a note from the Kedi Kedi, stating that 'Hongi was severely wounded; and that should he die, the chiefs of the place had told them plainly they would be served as the brethren at Wangaroa were. Myself and Mr. Davis took the boat (the long boat had been sent in the morning), and arrived at midnight. All were up, and preparing to remove their valuable property by the boats at daylight.

Saturday, 13. At break of day everything ready for removing. page 38 Many singular remarks by the Natives, while conveying the cases and casks to the boats: some few Slaves about the settlement very insolent. In the eveng. a refreshing meetg. with the brethren, after a week the most eventful of any in New Zealand. On our way down from the Kedi Kedi, we called at Rangihua to learn how they were. Mr. Shepherd23 was very unwell with a sore throat; Mr. King24 well. Ware Poaka25, the chief of that place, had expressed his fears that the missionaries would be driven away from the Island; and said that should that be the case, he would leave with them; all our natives have said the same. Capn. Duke today requested that service might not be held on the morrow.

Sunday, 14. It was pleasing to observe how appropriate the services for the day were, with our present feelings. Our congregation was large; some driven out of their homes, and the remainder looking for it; but each willing to submit to the direction of the Lord. Our situation in many respects must be considered as trying, yet each possessed a composure of mind more than usual. We may be required to withdraw, but for a season. We certainly shall stand here as long as any; and should we be enabled to hold on, we shall learn a lesson which has never so clearly been brought to our minds. My mind was much occupied, with the idea of forming a New Zealand colony26 in Port Jackson, in the event of leaving this island. Numbers of Chiefs and others have frequently asked if they could not be taken to some other place where there are no page 39 Natives, and removed from the scene of war and sit quietly by themselves. Could 50,000 acres of land be granted for this purpose in the Colony, I feel persuaded that very many would gladly avail themselves of a prospect of fleeing from those wars which so continually distract the Island. There they have no encouragement to improve in husbandry, &c., as no man's property is his own. Every chief is liable to be plundered, as soon as his crop is ripe; this is universal: but perhaps more of this hereafter. About 9 o'clock, a messenger from the Kedi Kedi brought a letter to state that 'Hongi was dead, and they hourly expected to be turned out of doors and plundered of everything. Our boat was sent up immediately to fetch Mrs. Clark, as she was not well: the remainder to stand to the last. We felt thankful to the Lord that our minds were preserved free from that anxiety which might be expected; believing that, be it as it might, He would ever rule all to the Glory of His Majesty.

Monday, 15. At daylight the boat returned from the Kedi Kedi, and confirmed the news of 'Hongi's death: the brethren hourly expected to be plundered; but strong in the Lord. Sent our cases on board the Sisters for Port Jackson. The Natives considered we were in earnest indeed. In the course of the day sent between 20 and 30 cases on board. Towards evening, some Chiefs came to ask what we intended to do. We told them, to send our property on board, but we should sit still till driven out. They said, that was well; but that no one should touch us, unless they were first killed. They said if Tikoki, the Chief of this district, were dead, then we might be afraid; but that 'Hongi's death would not affect us. However, this is a doctrine we have never before been apprehensive of, and must greatly disturb our peace among them. In the evening the boat went up to the Kedi Kedi, to learn the state of the brethren.

Tuesday, 16. Sent the remainder of our cases on board. Tikoki came early this morning to hear what were our movements. We told him we should sit still until driven away. He was satisfied, and said that we need not fear; for that as soon as it was known that any people were coming, all the Natives round about would collect and stand in our defence. After giving instructions, to some Chiefs to remain by us, he returned to his plantation up the Kawa Kawa. About 4 p.m., the boat returned from the Kedi Kedi. The brethren still under fear. Several Natives had been remaining by them, considered to be in readiness for plunder, waiting only the confirmation of the death of 'Hongi. They sent down several articles of clothing.

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Wednesday, 17. After breakfast one of the boats with Messrs. Turner &c. went to Rangihua to see the brethren and enquire their state of mind. On their return, they reported that the brethren were quiet; but that the Natives were in considerable fear, and were desirous to remove both themselves and missionaries to a more advantageous situation for defence. Three back loads of clothing belonging to Mr. Turner brought from 'Hokianga, to be redeemed. After much consideration, six articles of trade were given; but it was concluded that nothing more should be bought.— In the evening, 9 o'clock, a messenger from the Kedi Kedi, with letters for England and the Colony, and a note stating that all was yet suspense: no intelligence from any party, the Natives in the house: jealous on that account: and Ware Nui27, (the elder brother of Rewa)28 who had come from 'Hokianga29, told us that numbers were wishing to upset the Kedi Kedi settlement, and were all on the expectation: I believe it to be true.

Thursday, 18.—2 o'clock. Intelligence has just arrived from the Kawa Kawa, that Ware Nui has sent an express to them, to be on their guard, as the Napuis were coming to this settlement. Took the opportunity to bury £50 in dollars in the garden: took up part of one plank in the floor, in order to deposit some bundles of children's clothes.

Friday, 19. Last night late, a letter from Kedi Kedi stated that 'Hongi was not dead yet, but had been shot through the breast; and should he die, they are told, they had better remove from the Island. It is however concluded by us, that they keep their post until they hear of the death of 'Hongi, and then send off the women and children; the men remaining to see the result. The Lord will doubtless direct that which shall be right. We have seen him in all time a present help and he will still stand by us. The arrival of the Prisoners in the Bay is a remarkable providence which the ship Sisters has been directed to Port Jackson at this period, to convey Mr. Turner and family and our property, as also to convey to our friends there a state of our condition. The ship is now under weigh.

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Saturday, 27. The Wesleyan brethren had afternoon orders to embark, as Cap. Duke wished to sail in the morng. at daybreak with the land breeze: the Prisoners were all now double ironed. In the evening held, in all probability, our last meeting with our friends who had all accompanied us to this island. After commending each other in prayer to the Lord, I accompanied them to the ship. Their quarters were very comfortable: every appearance of a land breeze during the night. The Napuis were on the beach, very troublesome to the Shipping.

Sunday, 28. The Sisters and Wellington weighed and made sail, with a light air off shore. During our morning service a continued firing of musketry at Kororarika; by which we were considerably disturbed not knowing their intention, but expecting them over to our side. At noon held divine service on board the Emily, Cap. Brind: was much pleased with their attention. Learnt that numbers of canoes from the Kawa Kawa and Waikari had come down to meet the Napuis; and that peace had been established. On my return to Paihia was told that two stripping parties had been at Waitangi, at one of which a man had received a severe cut on the head with a hatchet. Remained at home this afternoon, as all was uproar without. Assembled in the evening as usual. About 8 o'clock, heard that a party was coming in the night to burn the Houses, owing to some disturbance on the other side of the bay; and that Tikoki had given orders to keep a good lookout; our men and boys got under arms to keep watch, with orders to ring the great bell if anything was the matter. We retired to rest without much fear, believing that the Great Shepherd of Israel would be our protector.

Monday, 29. At daylight heard considerable firing from the Waikari. Several canoes filled with men passed the settlement: about 10 o'clock they returned. In the afternoon we were told that a large party was on their way to this place, for the purpose of stripping30 us, when they were met by Tikoki and turned up the river: had they had a little start, there is no doubt but that we should have been obliged to follow the example of the Wesleyan brethren; as Tikoki had stripped an Englishman on the opposite side yesterday, and destroyed his house out of revenge for some property of his, which had been stolen out of a tapued house of page 42 his some months since. Our situation, to all human appearances, is as uncertain as possible: a single accident either of our own or our natives, may prove the destruction of our mission: numbers would gladly avail themselves of any pretence, to seize both us and what we may possess: yet I cannot say that anyone of our number is cast down. We are seated amongst combustable matter.

Tuesday, 13 February. Mr. Hamlin31 arrd. early this morning from the Kedi Kedi, stating that the last accounts of 'Hongi were very unfavourable, that his wound was offensive and he was unable to move; that he had expressed a desire that someone shall go and see him: but from the present unsettled state of affairs, it was considered imprudent for anyone to move in that direction, as many natives are concealed in the woods, who would not hesitate to kill all who should fall in their way for the sake of plunder and food. For many days all has been perfectly silent. The account has just arrived, of the slaughter of a considerable number of men women and children towards the North Cape, the remnant of the people against whom 'Hongi had been fighting: They were killed treacherously by the people amongst whom they had sought refuge; and their bodies distributed for a repast; ten slaves have passed this settlement laden with human flesh; and considerable quantities have been sent to other districts. Yesterday morning when we arose, it was discovered that four of the girls had run away in the night; but nothing was missed. Upon enquiry, it appeared that they had been decoyed by girls who frequent the ships: these were, however, very little girls whom we had considered safe, for some years. We are much cast down in consequence, for it is, perhaps, the severest blow our school has yet received; for though it is no uncommon thing for the girls, as soon as they have learnt to sew, wash &c., to go off to the Shipping; yet that girls so young should wish to pursue so abandoned a course, is distressing indeed. I cannot think that females anywhere are faster within satan's grasp than these. Independent of any wish they may have to go on board the shipping, they are urged by their parents and relatives. The Captains and crews offer them that which to a New Zealander is irresistible,—muskets, powder and oil. The conduct of our countrymen in this respect is shocking: they are the destroyers to this people, both soul and body. Were it not for the promise of the page 43 Lord, that his people shall not labour in vain, that his word shall not return unto him void, surely our strength would fail.

Friday, 23. Yesterday morng. Mr. Clark32 came and stated, that 'Hongi's wound had healed up; but his arm had swolen to a considerable size; and that he had again sent over wishing that someone would go and see him. It was consequently considered proper that my brother, with one of the Kedi Kedi brethren, should go round by water, as being less dangerous than going over land. They set off by 4 o'clock; but as the weather came up boisterous, they put back. This morng. being fine, they have gone over land. At noon recd. a note from Mr. King. The news from that quarter was, that it had been declared the preceeding eveng. by a large party which had landed from the neighbourhood of Wangaroa on their way to the scene of the action to the Southd.33 that 'Hongi had stated, that as soon as he should be recovered he should come round and take us all away to reside near him. Warepoaka had recommended that, should we not be willing to go with 'Hongi, we had better withdraw to Port Jackson. The Natives at Rangihoo were in considerable fear. Upon this subject our minds are at perfect ease, knowing that our path of duty will be evident should such steps be entered upon. The natives on all sides are going to the war against those amongst whom Pomare34 met his death. Thus are they driven hither and thither at the will of their great master. We shall learn the state of 'Hongi's body, and perhaps of his mind, on the return of my brother.

Saturday, 24. Tikoki came down the river, on his way to the river Thames35; the scene of action. We had some conversation upon the war, and reminded him of his brother who had been killed some months since, and of others also. Both he and his page 44 people appeared shy of speakg. upon the subject, and when I proposed having some flour boiled for them, they said they must go across the river and not remain. We saw this afternoon, an instance of the eagerness of some of our boys to obtain powder. A boat landed from the Ship at anchor; it was reported immediately that powder was to be purchased for mats. Some of our boys, who had handsome ones which they had refused to us left their work and procured a small quantity of this dust, which they delivered up to their friends going to fight. I cannot perceive any change in the natural disposition; but as soon as an opportunity is afforded they shew their warlike propensity or rather, their thirst for blood; for I do not think them brave, but the reverse.

Sunday, 25. After service, went across the river for the purpose of conversing with Tikoki and his party: found only a few women and children, as the old man had gone early in the morng. out of the bay. I do not remember a party going away so quietly, and consider that they chose the opposite side of the river to depart from, that they might be less subject to our observation; thereby showing their sensibility of the impropriety of their conduct. I endeavoured to draw the attention of the women, but as they had all been educated on board a ship from their childhood, they were inanimate subjects to speak to on the things of Jesus Christ.—The natives up the river confirmed the report from Rangihou, respectg. 'Hongi's intention of obliging us to go and reside with him.

Monday, 26. In the afternoon my brother returned from Wangaroa, with the account that 'Hongi was much better than he had expected: the ball had passed through the lungs, but there was every prospect of his recovering to be removed to the Kedi Kedi in a few days: the majority of the natives around appear sorry that he is not dead, as he is a common disturber.

Thursday, 15 March. At daylight, the Herald was observed working into the bay. Went on board immediately, and was happy to hear all were well; tho somewhat cast down at the news of Mr. Strong36 being directed to India: The greatest supply of letters ever yet received, which took more than the remainder of the day to read. Tho excluded from those we hold dear; yet what blessings are conferred upon us: all our friends and relatives are well, and are much interested in the work in which we are engaged. I cannot but feel that I feel no more; that that fervent spirit is not possessed by me who am here, which is so apparent in those letters page 45 now before us; yet such have been the dealings of the Lord that I cannot but hope he has a work for us to do. We need great grace, and the daily remembrance of the servants of the Lord. The enemy has been busy of late; but thanks be to God who giveth us the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ. Mr. King arrived about noon.

Friday, 16. At 10 a.m., Messrs. Kemp37 and Shepherd arrived; all well at the other settlements. A considerable number of natives at the Kedikedi on the eve of departure to the war. In the afternoon assembled the committee; when it was determined the Herald should return to the Colony for stores, as none had come down exceptg. flour, but that she should previously go to Tauranga for potatoes;—Read the public letters. our opinions will be given at the general committee. By a letter from Mr. Marsden, he may be expected down in a Man of War:—what stay he is likely to make we cannot tell.

Saturday, 17. Could not land any casks here owing to the surf on the beach: sent some up the Kedikedi.

Sunday, 18. After service, I went on board the Whaler laying at Kororareka, to perform divine service: the Captain officers and crew very attentive. I afterwards went up the river, and spoke to some natives from the Kawakawa. With great difficulty I induced them to attend, as a fighting party had the day before returned to the bay of islands, and every two or three minutes they would break off to talk over the news. Spiritual intercourse with the natives is very low and inanimate at this time: they are all bent on mischief. Satan is exercising all his power to draw them aside from attending to the Gospel of peace. I do not know of one enquirer after truth, tho many are glad to see us when we go amongst them.

Monday, 19. Endeavoured to land some casks, but could not owing to the surf: much time was lost. In the afternoon, as the tide was ebbing, determined to fix some posts into the sand on the beach, and run out a wharf as far as the low water mark: upon which we immediately went to work, and by sunset had twelve piles firmly fixed.

Tuesday, 20. At daylight as the tide was out, assembled to conclude the wharf; and to lay the platform, upon which to roll the casks; which was concluded before high water: the whole length of it with the assistance of four casks and a pair of wheels, page 46 was upwards of fifty yards; all were much pleased with the performance and to see how little the sea affected it: we consider with a little more work upon it that it may remain for several years, and will prove a valuable acquisition. In the afternoon landed a number of heavy casks with great ease.

Wednesday, 21. The Herald was cleared.

Thursday, 22. This morning reports are in circulation that 'Hongi, who is nearly well, is on the way to the bay, to clear all before him. The natives at Rangihoo and those in our neighbourhood are in considerable alarm. Our friend Toi tapu38 tells us they will not come to this settlement. Another little girl left my brother's house; owing to a slight reproof.

Friday, 23. One of the girls left Mrs. Fairburn, because she did not think proper to comply with her wish to go up the Kawakawa to assist in the takg. up of the Kumaras.

Saturday, 24. At sunrise a considerable number of canoes were observed coming across the bay, towards Kororarika: supposed them to be the Napuis and could not conjecture the extent of their intention: a number of canoes had previously gone there, with a large party from Hokianga. We expected some shocking proceedings, as the canoes approached with apparent caution. In the course of the morning, much firing. We could not understand their movements, tho we could see them very plainly by the aid of our glasses. In the afternoon, heard that the natives intended clearing the bay of all the food they could collect, and that only one man had yet been killed. No canoes attempted to come near us during the day.

Sunday, 25. While in the midst of our service, a considerable firing commenced at Kororarika; which required much exertion necessary to keep our minds quiet. After service it was concluded that we should go across, and unfold the word of the Lord to them. When prepared to proceed, we obsd. all the canoes under sail, and could not at first understand whither they were bound; some appeared coming to us, others to the Herald, and the remainder for the Kawakawa. Six or seven canoes landed on our beach, and soon put us in motion; but as the Chiefs appeared quiet, I assembled them and spoke to them for a length of time. The rest of the brethren went to other parties, at some short distance off. A quantity of corn and potatoes was landed. The strangers behaved well during the eveng.

Monday, 26. At daylight the Herald weighed and made sail out page 47 of the bay with a light breeze, for Tauranga: Messrs. R. Davis and Shepherd on board, for the purpose of purchasing the cargo. During the morng. I attempted to purchase some potatoes and corn; our settlement being filled with natives and several following me for that purpose. As we had not any blankets to part with, nor any oil, our bartering was very limited. Several times the natives appeared disposed for mischief: they cleared the native settlement of everything, and broke into some of our out buildings and some of our gardens: but did not any material damage, owing to a good look out on our part. It appeared that they had assembled at the 'Haumi, the settlement of Toi Tapu, for the purpose of removing the bones of his son; and the natives all around were expected there. By noon the natives withdrew. In the eveng., we learnt by our natives, that they had nearly determined in the morng. upon the stripping of us; and certainly by their general appearance we may judge that they were fully prepared. Several of the girls who had lived with Mrs. Turner, were amongst them, and seemed glad to see us, and to wish to come and live with us. After some conversation with them, three of them came in, for that purpose, and began to clean themselves. In about two hours, as the female school had just commenced, a party of men came to demand them; stating that they should not remain, as they would be killed by Tikoki. With very great reluctance they went out to their relations, and remained crying by the gate. We were all much hurt, the hand of the wicked one was so evident. In the eveng. another little girl ran away from my sister's house.

Tuesday, 27. After the morng. school we all went to the 'Haumi to witness the ceremony to be performed over the bones of Toi Tapu's son. They commenced by singing the Pihe (death song); after which several came forward and addressed the assembly, in reference to their general movements. Some proposed the destruction of one place, others of another; most of them made allusion to the excellence of the blankets from us, whether in jest or in earnest we do not know, but evidently pointing out the benefit of helping themselves as they had done at Wangaroa; returned by 10 o'clock. I saw 'Hongi for the first time since he was wounded, but did not say much to him. Towards sunset, my brother and myself again paid them a visit. We had much conversation with 'Hongi and Toi Tapu, and with others, upon the necessity of turng. to the Lord. They enquired much upon the resurrection of the body and were much struck with what we said to them. The relations of the Wangaroa girls, who left us yesterday, said that they might return to us in the morng.; and expressed their wish that they might remain with us. This was accordingly agreed to. Our boys were page 48 much pleased, as they had to attend to the whole work of the house.

Wednesday, 28. Early this morng., the girls who had lived with Mrs. Turner at Wangaroa came to our gate, with several of their relations; and according to what was said yesterday, four of them who had the approbation of their friends were taken into the house and clothed. It was truly gratifying to see with what cheerfulness they took their work in hand. In the course of the morng. more of their relations came and expressed a desire that some wages should be given in advance, otherwise the girls should not remain. To this we paid no attention. The boys about the settlement told me to be jealous of the girls and their friends, as they probably intended to decamp in the night with what they might be able to lay their hands upon: of this we were aware, and of this we are in danger by every girl who comes into the house. I therefore considered it our duty to give them every countenance, behaving as the girls did: they were not strangers to us, tho their relatives were. In the afternoon the application for blankets for payment was made again by the relations; which I rejected, as being contrary to the usual custom: but as they appeared dissatisfied, I desired them to call the girls out. Two of them came out, and scolded their friends for wishg. to take them away; upon which little more was said on the subject. In the eveng. the girls appeared very happy: were all sitting at their work around the table, and spoke of their satisfaction at being again in a Missionary family: their writing and work did great credit to Mrs. Turner. On their retiring for the night they were furnished each with a blanket, and their door locked. About half past ten o'clock, we heard their door closed and upon examination I soon discovered that the four girls had indeed flown, together with the cloths which had been given to them; but the blankets and all the cookg. utensils were remaining. This we cannot understand for had they been desirous to steal: why should they go empty handed; their cloths are of little value to them at their own places: had they not wanted to steal, why take their clothes: but daylight will reveal it more clearly to us. I fear satan is the author of this: he is raging on every side. In our prayer meeting this eveng. the females were particularly mentioned: they need our ernest supplication. It is a season for great humiliation, faith, and patience. We are much cast down.

Thursday, 29. At daylight I sent one of the boys to see whether the girls had returned to their friends, or whether they had run to hide in the Fern as some had stated was the case, until the canoes should have departed. The news soon arrived that they were with their friends. One of the girls had wished to stop, but was ashamed page 49 when left alone. Our spirits were much affected through the day.— About noon a considerable party arrived at the settlement, which appeared disposed to mischief. I was obliged to take a spear from one very impudent youth; after which they were better behaved, and dispersed without further molestation. Some of the clothing taken by the girls was returned. In the latter part of the day, about a hundred natives passed through, on a plundering expedition to the Waitangi, about a mile distant, and returned about sunset, laden with everything they could scrape together.

Friday, 30. After dinner we had another disturbance with some of 'Hongi's party; which did not last long. My brother and myself paid a visit to 'Hongi: he appeared poorly. I think he cannot recover from his wound; but my brother is of a different opinion. Some more of the clothing returned.

Saturday, 31. About 10 o'clock, all of 'Hongi's party in their canoes came round to our beach. Of this we had not had any notice. The place was covered in a few minutes with people running in different directions; some to our fence to gaze, others for firewood, for which purpose they would take everything they could seize. It required every prudence on our part to keep them in any kind of order. A few were very insolent, and would ask what consequence of takg. the fencing or anything else? did we not know that we should have the houses pulled down, the same as those at Wangaroa? However, by the males walkg. and talkg. amongst them, good humour was preserved. In about two hours, a large party came from Waitangi, to meet the Napui's; with whom they had a grand Haka. About two o'clock, we were greatly rejoiced to perceive that the canoes were on the departure; and in the course of an hour they were all under weigh exceptg. 'Hongi and a few of his friends, who remained for medical advice. Of these we had no apprehensions; therefore, our gates, which before had been chained up, were now thrown open. Upon the whole, the party behaved well; far better than we expected. The native settlements again were all plundered, but we did not lose anything. We much enjoyed our prayer meeting owing to the absence of our late visitors.

Sunday, 1 April. The morning fine, and perfectly quiet; service as usual: administered the sacrament. After some refreshment, I went to the 'Haumi, the place of Toi Tapu. He called his people, who were very attentive. I endeavoured to shew them, by the late transaction, the need of a change of heart, and the means to be used; that by the command of the God of Heaven and Earth, we had come to shew them the glad tidings of the gospel of peace: page 50 their attention was pleasing. I told them that Jesus Christ was, by us, daily calling to them to turn to him; who would give them his holy spirit if they asked him for it. On my return, had some conversation with 'Hongi's people: their security was evidently in their guns. I asked them, why they could not sit still? why they could delight thus in war? We must soon die, but that there would be a resurrection of just and unjust, &c. I pointed out the nature of Heaven and Hell, which last, they in a measure comprehended, comparing it to White Island off Tauranga, which is a volcano. We universally conclude with the invitation of our Lord, for all to flee to him for refuge. 'Hongi's heart is as hard as flint; he has no pleasure even in conversing upon these subjects, which most other people do, if it be no more than to hear some new thing. Many of his party have been carried off lately.

Thursday, 5. In the afternoon, a large ship hove in sight which I was soon convinced was a Man of War39: the wind off the shore. About four o'clock my brother and myself went off to her, concluding that Mr. Marsden was on board, which proved to be the case. The old gentleman appeared to be happy once more to be with us, and to find that all were well. The Captain, the Hon. — Rous40, and officers behaved with great politeness. We landed about 8 o'clock. The settlement was in instant motion, as numbers of Natives had assembled at the landing place to secure the boat, and Mr. Marsden's name sounded forth from many voices. The stay of the ship was likely to be very short, and Mr. M. was to return by her: we therefore had not any time to lose; but could not proceed regularly to business, owing to the absence of the brethren.

Friday, 6. Dispatched a messenger to the Kedikedi and Rangihou. Before noon Mrs. W. was delivered of her fifth son41. Several of the Officers of the Man of War on Shore. At 4 o'clock Messrs. Kemp and Clarke arrived from the Kedi Kedi. We accordingly proceeded to business. Upon the question of the children's education I was somewhat surprised to observe the general opinion in favour of a colonial education; my brother and myself were opposed to all the rest: nothing concluded.

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Saturday, 1. At daylight observed the Herald working into the bay, and a Whaler, supposed to be the Sisters. Were greatly hindered this morng. by the Officers of the Rainbow. About noon we again assembled upon the question; Messrs. Davis and Shepherd havg. landed from the Herald, which had brought a full cargo of potatoes and some flax. The question was again entered upon, relative to the education of the children, when I stood alone for the education of the children in N.Z. It was therefore given against me. Mr. M. accompanied the Kedikedi brethren to the settlement, to remain the Sunday with them. In the eveng. I requested my brother, who is the secretary, to state my disapprobation to the decision of the committee: this led to further discussion and it was therefore concluded that the question should be renewed on Monday.

Sunday, 8. Much wearied for want of rest— a quiet day.

Monday, 9. On the return of Mr. Marsden, the question of the education of the children was again brought forward, and in a short time concluded; when it was determined, that the children should be educated in N.Z. Mr. Marsden entered with much apparent interest, upon the idea of a New Zealand settlement in Port Jackson; that is to say, within the Colony. Our ideas corresponded generally, yet differed widely as to distance. He thinks that it should be situated between Sydney and Parramatta; we that it should not be within one hundred miles of Sydney; that the natives should not be subject to visits from the curious intruders, nor have it in their power to retreat upon very slight pretence: but it was left open for further discussion, both here and in Port Jackson.

Tuesday, 10. At daylight, Mr. Marsden and my brother departed for Rangihoo; but did not proceed far, as the Man of War was preparing for sea. Between eight and nine, she weighed and made sail with a fair wind; and before the boat could reach the shore, she was around the north head and separated from us our venerable friend, after a stay of four days. Several points remained undetermined.

Wednesday, 11. Resumed our meeting at the language; which considerably refreshed us, after so great an interruption as we have had for many days past. Mr. Charles Davis42 has been unwell for page 52 the last fortnight, and continues in a somewhat alarming state. While in conversation with some of the Natives relative to the formation of a N.Z. settlement in the colony, Toi Tapu asked me why we were going away, for that 'Hongi was getting better, and will not die for a great time; and that while he lives he will protect us. I then asked him what would be the case when he does die. He replied, we must then look out. This point is not in the least disguised by any of the Chiefs around; and to all human prospects we shall have to look out when that event takes place. During the period of 'Hongi's stay, when his attendants were surrounding us, they frequently asked us what we wd. do in opposition to them? and even asked, what cared they for Hongi now? for he was lame, he was an old woman and could do nothing.

Sunday, 15. Service as usual; after which I went on board the Sisters, and met a very respectable congregation. But few natives were to be found near the settlement, excepting 'Hongi's party, who are at all times but little disposed to spiritual conversation. The eveng. closed as usual.

Monday, 16. As Mrs. W. was sufficiently recovered to admit of my attending the committee, we proceeded to the Kedi Kedi, according to appointment; where we met all the brethren in good health, and glad of an opportunity to assemble in quietness after so many anxious seasons. Our prayer meeting was refreshing to all, and I trust we obtain much support and encouragement by thus uniting our supplications at the throne of grace.

Tuesday, 17. The business occupied our close attention during the whole day, and closed at 10 p.m. The question of a settlement to be formed in New South Wales, by Mr. Marsden's request, was entered upon with considerable interest when it was concluded to consider it more fully at the Rangihoo meeting.

Wednesday, 18. After some delay in the Store, we returned to Paihia, leaving Mr. Davis, for the purpose of killg. some of the bullocks. The only little girl who had been remaining in the house was taken out of the house by her relatives, a short time previous to my landing; but an elder girl who had been out for the last two months was very desirous to be taken in again, which was complied with. This tended to revive our drooping spirits, in reference to the girls school; for it appeared that the evil one was working every kind of mischief in the minds of the people. 'Hongi and his party removed to Wangaroa, which was a considerable relief to us; they endeavoured to steal everything that came in their way, though their opportunities were but few.

Thursday, 19. Examined the keel of our vessel, the Herald; page 53 which had been hauled on shore on Motu o rangi43, for that purpose. Obsd. that it was eaten nearly to the plank from the bottom, by the worm. In the course of the day, held a survey on it, with the assistance of the Carpenter of the ship Sisters and ourselves: upon maturely examining it was considered necessary to condemn the present one, and put a new one in: this will be attended with much expense and loss of time. I cast all blame from my own shoulders, having been left entirely in the dark as to the wishes of the Parent Committee respecting her: perhaps the expense of putting in a new keel, may equal the price of copper for her bottom.

Sunday, 22. Services as usual. The Capn. of the Indian attended, as his ship was very much lumbered up with casks. I afterwards visited three settlements towards Waitangi. The first a few Natives from inland; the second a company of Ship girls; lastly the brother of Christian Rangi44 and some of his friends: this man is a very hopeful character. In the eveng. we heard that the fighting parties, when on their return, had narrowly escaped being killed; but we could not rely on the report.

Tuesday, 24. The account of the return of the parties from the Thames was confirmed: those natives we saw were much ashamed. We could not but feel thankful to the Lord, for turning the people back; and hope it may give a check to their thirst for war. We have often prayed that they might be confounded in their wicked imaginations, and trust that this is an answer to our prayers. Engaged two Ship wrights, lately belonging to Cap. Hird, to work on the keel of the vessel, at 7/6 per day.

Wednesday, 25. Several natives lately returned were about most of the day. It appears they were in a very critical situation when they met the enemy, and were very glad to retreat; and have returned in great silence, coming in small parties, and in the night: but we hear they intend going again in a few weeks.

Friday, 27. We hear today, that the natives are to assemble at Kororareka, proceed from there to Wangaroa, to revenge upon 'Hongi's party, the death of a woman, the wife of a man related page 54 to Tareha45; who was shot a few weeks since, and the man himself wounded by some near relation to 'Hongi. The natives here talk very largely of what they should do, but I do not think it will amount to much.

Saturday, 28. Our boys who have been inland to see their relations, returned, and brought our old favourite girl, who is sister to most of them. The poor child had been very ill for several months, and is now too weak to walk about much; she appeared very glad to continue with us.

Sunday, 29. Service as usual. Afterwards went on board the Indian to Divine Service; some of the crew would not attend: the preparation but very indifferent. In the afternoon went to the Haumi, to Toi Tapu; he and his people but little disposed for religious conversation. In the eveng., Fanny, a native girl, who had been decoyed out some weeks since, returned to us, and brought a female companion for the school. We were much encouraged by these circumstances, and hope the school may yet prosper; it has many evils to contend with.

Saturday, 5 May. Much rain this week; being the first for a very considerable time: it was greatly wanted. The natives have had much conversation, relative to the projected settlement in New Holland; their reasoning is good. They wish to be distinct from the whites or blacks, to retain their own teachers; for all disturbers to be sent back to this country; and for some to go before to examine the place, and look for a favourable situation. —We this morng. held a court of enquiry with our natives, men and boys; who had been, in violation of orders, in the habit of leaving the houses appointed for them within the settlement, and taking up their abode at Oratutu46, the rendezvous for the ship girls. We came to the conclusion, that, from this day, should anyone so transgress, he must immediately be dismissed; but we held out to them every encouragement to provide themselves with one suitable companion each, as wife; and promised that all so disposed should have a house and garden provided by the public. Some of them, in private, said, they could not get a wife; for that all were in the habit page 55 of going to the ships. This led to much serious conversation upon this shocking subject.

Sunday, 6. Held service on board the Indian: observed greater attention. Afterwards visited Toi Tapu, at the 'Haumi, and his people: they were in a better frame of mind, and I was therefor more at liberty to speak to them.

Monday, 7. As early as possible, we proceeded to Rangihou— when we met the brethren—all well. In the afternoon entered upon the question of the colonial settlement, according to Mr. Marsden's desire. Our ideas were generally in unison, but we could not conclude this day. In the eveng. held our monthly prayer meeting, which I trust was refreshg. to all.

Tuesday, 8. The question in consideration occupied till 4 o'clock, when it was concluded; that Mr. Davis, as havg. been nominated by Mr. Marsden and my brother to negotiate this important matter, should proceed to the Colony to lay the business before the corresponding committee. As 'Hongi and party were passg. the settlement on their way to the Kedikedi, Messrs. Kemp and Clarke felt it necessary to return home: the remainder proceeded upon the language.

Wednesday, 9. Continued at the language until 2 o'clock, when we returned home: all well.

Sunday, 13. Met a few natives at the 'Haumi, part of the dispersed people47 which formerly inhabited Paroa Bay. Held more pleasing conversation with them than for some time past; but still they did not possess any desire for the rest which remaineth for the children of God, though harassed from place to place, unable to find refuge anywhere.

Monday, 14. Tekoki and several of his friends came to talk upon the Colonial project; the old man, however, did not approve of anyone being present but his wife, at our conversation. He appeared greatly interested; but expressed a strong desire that none of the Napuis, that is the Kedikedi tribe, should go over to settle: but we particularly told him, that if established, it would be open to all, as a place of refuge.

Wednesday, 16. The work at the vessel going on well, with every prospect of getting her afloat the next spring tides: three ship wrights upon her at 7/- each per day. I feel greatly satisfied at their work.

Thursday, 17. In the evening received a letter from the brethren page 56 at the Kedikedi, stating that considerable unpleasant feeling existed between 'Hongi and the chiefs of that district, and that 'Hongi had declared his intention of taking Messrs. Kemp and Clarke with him to Wangaroa. They wished for our advice—how they were to act towards him.

Friday, 18. Several reports respecting 'Hongi's movements and intentions. Returned an answer to the brethren at the Kedi Kedi, to stand their ground until driven away; expressing also our desire to be with them when 'Hongi may return to them, should they give us notice. We also heard this day, that the Natives of the Kawa Kawa and the Wai Kadi had met in council; when it was determined that Tikoki should not go to the Colony, as it was considered that the remainder would undoubtedly fall. The Arch Fiend is certainly at work in this land, and is attempting utter destruction; civil wars appear inevitable. 'Hongi hangs by a hair, and all is ripe for confusion and bloodshed: but we commend our cause unto the Lord, and know He cannot err: we may yet have to depart. These late transactions have certainly slackened our temporal exertions, but redoubled those of a spiritual nature. All our efforts have been for some months past to the acquiring the language: in this considerable progress is made.

Saturday, 27. At noon I went over to Rangihou, for the purpose of remaining the Sabbath: found all well there. Nothing particularly new. The natives had not made many inquiries respecting the new settlement. Had much conversation upon the language.

Sunday, 28. In the afternoon walked by myself into the pa, and conversed with two divisions of natives; the first indifferent, the second tolerably attentive.

Friday, 15 June. During the week we have been sitting close, with Messrs. Kemp, Shepherd and King, consulting upon the subject of the new Settlement; and also at the language. We have reason to praise the Lord that we are enabled to meet in that Christian way we do, so very different from what was once the case. 'Hongi met the brethren at the Kedi Kedi in a friendly manner, and passed on to Rangihou, where the party behaved in a very quiet way. One has seen this is his policy, to gain favour with us all, that thereby ships may put into Wangaroa. I had an opportunity of seeing them all while there, and of having some conversations with 'Hongi and others. 'Hongi made several inquiries after the settlement in prospect; but it did not meet his approbation, as might be expected.

We as yet are unable to come to a conclusion, as to what steps we shall take: we cannot learn the true state of the native's mind. page 57 We purpose next week to visit the Kawa Kawa, when it will be seen what preparation they have made. There is no particular report in circulation at this date—all quiet.

We yesterday rec'd letters from the Colony, by way of Hokianga, which were pleasing generally. Mr. Norman's48 removal to Van Dieman's land, does by no means meet our approbation, though we may not have a voice in the question, notwithstanding our interest has been called to him.

The Herald is expected to sail in less than three weeks for the Colony. Her new keel will be an expensive one; but perhaps not more than one third what it would have been in Port Jackson.

A settlement is about to be formed at the Hokianga, upon the wreck of Capt. Herd49: some carpenters, with their wives, have arrived: they are to build a fort and to trade in muskets and powder: the Sabbath is required to be observed by them, at least outwardly. No accounts yet of Mr. White50.

Saturday, 16. Went up to the Kedi Kedi, for the purpose of spending the Sabbath—everything perfectly quiet. Rewa had been makg. application for a passage to the Colony, but with no object beyond that of lookg. about him; we considered it more advisable that he should not go.

Sunday, 17. Service as usual. Rain generally throughout the day, thereby prevented from going out of the settlement. In the afternoon I addressed the Natives in the Settlement.

Monday, 18. Returned to Paihia, tho it blew strong ahead. Nothing new in my absence.

Tuesday, 19. Mr. Clarke arrived for the purpose of going up the Kawa Kawa, that we might learn the real wish of the Natives relative to the Colonial settlement.

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Wednesday, 20. After breakfast Mr. Clarke, my brother and myself went up the river; and arrived about 2 o'clock. The Natives very kind. We had much conversation with Tikoki and others; when it appeared that their fears had subsided as to any attack, at least for the present: they, however, expressed their desires to possess a place in the Colony, and that two persons should view the land, and bring samples of the soil. In the evening we had further consultation amongst ourselves, and could not come to any conclusion.

Thursday, 21. After our school, the Colonial question was again brought forward; when it was determined that my Brother and Mr. Davis should proceed to Port Jackson, to lay the subject before the committee.

Friday, 22. I this morng. rec'd a letter from Mr. Shepherd to state that Mr. Wise51, a Wesleyan Missionary, had been remaining with them for a few days on his way from the Colony to Tonga; who had mentioned that the present Governor would not grant any part of the Coast for Missionary purposes; that their Society had been refused a small portion on that account: this, with the present feelings of the natives, gave a considerable check to our views.

Sunday, 24. Service as usual, at 8 o'clock. We afterwards dispersed to our several stations; myself to the 'Haumi: Toi tapu was not there. There were a number of slaves present, with whom I conversed for some time: their indifference is distressingly great. In the eveng., service as usual; when I addressed the natives dwelling in the settlement. There is not one native on the Island, in whom it can be said the work of grace is begun; tho we believe many are influenced by our conversation, in their general deportment. Toi tapu a few days since told me, that he believed all we told him, and that he desired to go to Heaven; and as an evidence, he said that he had not killed anyone on account of his son's death, and also the death of several relations; that had he not feared us and the anger of God, he should have killed many.

Monday, 25. My brother returned from Rangihou, where he had been for the purpose of remaining over the Sabbath. The Colonial question I believe so far settled, that no one of our body shall proceed to the Colony: the natives quite quiet on the subject. In consequence of Mr. Norman's removal to Van Dieman's land, we have determined, at this settlement, to take charge of the education of the boys: Mr. Davis, my brother and myself to attend page 59 alternately. I this day made a beginning; two hours in the forenoon, and two more in the afternoon. This will much delay our writing dictionaries &c., but there appears no alternative.

Tuesday, 26. This morng. Rewa, one of the Kedikedi chiefs, came to speak concerning his going to the Colony. It appeared he was anxious to obtain a ship to come down and purchase a quantity of flax which he has prepared. We told him that as none of us were going up, he would be exposed to insult, owing to his not having a friend with him; with this he appeared satisfied.

Wednesday, 27. We this morng. heard that John Bunstead, a man who had been working for us some weeks since and is now living at Kororarika, had been robbed of all his property. This news excited some alarm amongst us, as about 20 persons of the worst character are living there, Prisoners and others who have run from their ships. On Friday night last, our people belonging to the Herald, who are residing on an island about half a mile from us52, were robb'd of cloths, &c., &c., to a considerable amount. We consequently held a council with the crew of the Herald and the carpenters at work there, as to what steps should be taken; when it was considered proper to go to Kororarika and commence a search, which was accordingly done, under a strong guard, more with the idea of shewing them what they might expect should they visit us, than to recover the property. We did not, however, find anything: —a considerable body of Englishmen were there: they were well behaved. Two of the chiefs from the Kawakawa came to us today, to enquire respecting the sailing of the vessel: they appeared to speak with considerable interest. We promised to send them word when she should be ready. They have provided themselves with a considerable quantity of potatoes of kinds, for seed; and flax, &c., &c.

Thursday, 28. This afternoon, Tikoki came down to talk with us. Had he said as much when we were up the Kawakawa, we should not have changed the thought of the Deputation remaining behind; but I believe it will now remain as it is.

Saturday, 30. This afternoon it appeared that our sick native little girl Lucy, who had been with us for at least three years, was now at the point of death. We went and sat with her, and conversed with her on the love of Jesus and the delights of Heaven. She listened with great attention, and expressed an earnest desire to go there. She extended her feeble hand to us, and leaned her head against us: her brother and a faithful slave of theirs sat up with her. I left her at about eleven o'clock: — at 2 o'clock I was page 60 told she was dead. We were much affected, for she was much endeared to us: we think however we may have a hope; she has heard much and has been frequently spoken to.

Sunday, 1 July. My mind greatly solemnised by that poor child's death, and with the feelings of the state of the heathen generally. I pray it may be a call to some around us. The Natives are addressed publicly three times during the week, besides private admonition. Upon a review, there are two who lend a listening ear within the settlement. During our service, some natives from inland, who had some complaint against some of my natives, came and prepared to fight with them; but, we were pleased to learn that it had been declined on behalf of our boys, as it was the Sabbath, but on the morrow they would be ready for them: the strangers were ashamed.

Monday, 2. We assembled the natives of the settlement, to witness the burial of little Lucy; as her brother had determined that she should not be taken inland according to the Native custom. About ten o'clock we buried her, sang a native hymn, and addressed those who were present: the natives behaved with great decorum. My brother and myself went, afterwards, to the Kedi-keri, to attend the committee. Mr. Davis remained to attend to the european children; as we considered it an important point that their lessons should not be interrupted, and he could now absent himself as the times are so greatly altered. On our arrival found all well but Mrs. Clarke; she is very weak, and frequently very unwell.

Wednesday, 4. At noon left the Kedikeri, with a strong wind at S.W.: very squally during the whole passage: landed at Paihia at half past 2 o'clock—all well. In the evening Mr. Davis went to the Kerikeri, to kill some bullocks; as we were entirely out of meat.

Wednesday, 11. A special committee assembled here this day, previous to the sailing of the Herald; to consider further upon the public letter sent by the Parent Committee, respecting the education of the children, and also upon the subject of a settlement in New South Wales, for the benefit of those New Zealanders who may be disposed to sit quiet.

Thursday, 12. Concluded our committee business by noon; the result of which will appear by the minutes. It was also considered necessary that Mr. Davis53 should proceed to Port Jackson, to page 61 consult with the corresponding committee upon the question of a Settlement for these Natives; our opinion is rather strengthened than otherwise upon the importance of such a measure.

Saturday, 14. My brother and I went on board of Cap. Dillon's54 ship, early this morning, to see some prints which he had for sale, and much wanted them for the use of the girls. We purchased 34 pieces, for the families and the schools, at 1/- pr. yard.

Sunday, 15. Heavy rain all day: could not move out of the settlement. Service as usual, at 8 o'clock in the morng., and again in the eveng.; when I addressed our natives.

Monday, 16. Much rain; which threw us back in the preparation of the Herald for sea.

Tuesday, 17. Fine: Settled Cap. Dillon's bill, which came to £69, including some private accounts, as will appear at the next committee.

Wednesday, 18. Tomorrow is appointed for the sailing of the Herald. Went on board to settle some accounts with the Carpenters and blacksmith, who had been at work upon her. Am doubtful she may not sail, as several things require to be put to rights. Rec'd a note from Cap. Dillon to state that he had several tons of ballast (iron), much in his way, that he might leave behind; that if I would sign a receipt as havg. it on behalf of the mission, to be paid for at prime cost if required, he should be glad to let me have it. I accordingly ordered eight ton.

Thursday, 19. At daylight observed the wind was from the S.E. Closed my papers for the Colony, and went on board to get the vessel under weigh; but she was not ready, and the ebb tide had been running out some time. By 10 o'clock, the wind had shifted to East, and increasing to a gale; gave up all expectation of her sailing.

Friday, 20. A very severe gale during the whole night, with heavy rain: felt exceedingly thankful the vessel had not sailed yesterday. Rain all day; could not hold any communication with anyone on board. She is riding by one cable, and a heavy sea: persons who know what trusting to a single anchor is, are able to page 62 value the possession of a second anchor: we stand greatly in need of a second cable—(iron).

Saturday, 21. Little wind. Went on board; all well: she looked very comfortable. At 10 o'clock it came on to rain, which continued all day.

Sunday, 22. Service as usual; after which, I went to the 'Haumi. Several persons were trifling at first, but towards the conclusion were more serious. Toi tapu asked many pleasing questions relative to the coming of our Lord into the world:—he was unwell and required to have some tea, which was sent.

Monday, 23. A fine morng.: wind from the Southd. After breakfast, the Herald was reported ready for sea. We accordingly accompanied Mr. Davis on board; when she weighed and made sail. We were soon obliged to take leave, as she moved so quickly along: in a little more than an hour she was out of sight. The mission on which Mr. D. is gone is an important one to this people: we trust the Lord will direct him and all who may be concerned with it.—In the afternoon, it was commonly reported that Capn. Dillon, formerly of the Active and now commanding pro tempore one of the Company's cruisers55, now in the bay, had purchased several girls with muskets; and that some of the girls afterwards understanding that he intended to take them away, wished to return on shore, but were not allowed: many of their relatives were in considerable distress.

Tuesday, 24. Capn. Dillon sailed. We heard early in the morning, that most of the girls had swam on shore during the night, but the remainder were strongly guarded, and their friends were afraid to say much to Cap. Dillon, fearing that they might have been shot. The conduct of these men is grievous. I am frequently astonished that the indignation of the Lord is not more openly manifest. We have had several natives about us today, exulting in the reward they obtained from the Shipping, for their iniquitous practices. One girl, who a short time since, was living in one of the families here, returned on shore, this morning, bringing a musket as her wages, from Cap. Dillon's Ship: this afternoon she set off to Cap. Brind's vessel. —Late this eveng. I received a note from Cap. Brind, to state that an English man, named Mahamai56, page 63 of notorious bad character, had been firing at his men; and that he had, moreover, threatened to fetch the tribe, amongst whom he lives, from Hokianga, and take possession of his ship. I forwarded the proclamation of Sir Thos. Brisbane to him respecting such characters. —We hear that there are at least three and twenty runaway men and prisoners on the opposite beach; who would be glad of an opportunity to destroy the mission. —We have considered it necessary to keep loaded arms in our houses for self-defence. Our fears are far greater with respect to these characters, than of the Natives; though we much acknowledge we have never rec'd personally anything but civility from them, as also whenever we go to the Shipping; tho we know that, amongst themselves, their language is very bad respecting us.

Sunday, 29. Some smart showers through the day. Did not visit the Emily, as I had not had any communication from Capt. Brind to that effect. Went to Tohi tapu as usual. One of his wives lay sick, upon which he expressed himself much distressed. This afforded us a good topic for conversation. Their behaviour was pleasing, tho I fear their state is the same. I talked to them as seriously as I could. They told me that altho' they did not yet believe, still that if I visit them frequently, they should be enabled to understand.

Monday, 30. Tohi tapu came this morng. for some flour for his sick wife. He also said that, as there was not any place suitable for our service, especially in wet weather, he had given orders to his people to build a shed for that purpose; and he wished for a gimlet and a few nails to work with. I urged upon him the importance of reflecting upon the state of his soul. He assented to the necessity. His sick wife had a mess of stirabout57 and a piece of salt beef, according to her particular request.

Tuesday, 31. By accounts from Hokianga, we hear that Cap. Kent58, who has been endeavouring to establish a party there for page 64 trading, and who had recently been joined by Mr. S. Butler59 and family, from the Colony, was intending to break up the establishment and depart for Port Jackson in about a fortnight.

Wednesday, 1 August. Much rain this day; which prevented my going up the river to visit the Natives.

Thursday, 2. Some appearance of a fine day. Immediately after school, Mr. Fairburn and myself took the boat and went to Wangai, about 7 or 8 miles distant by water, where are a number of natives. We visited four settlements, and returned by four o'clock. The people appeared happy to see us, and strongly desired that we should see them often. Our words were new to many.— Several heavy showers.

Saturday, 4. Fine morng. Before eleven I took my departure for Rangihou, where I arrived, by the aid of a strong breeze, in little more than an hour: all well. In the afternoon the boat returned to Paihia, for the use of my brother and those who might go with him to the Meeting on Monday.—Much conversation with Mr. Shepherd in the eveng. upon the language.

Sunday, 5. No watch or timepiece in the Settlement, but one old, rickety thing, upon which no dependence could be placed. After breakfast, sojourned amongst the rocks. Met two Natives, who had been at work: had some conversation with them upon the value of spiritual things. They promised to assemble with the school Natives when the bell should ring.—It was near noon before we assembled for service. After dinner, accompanied Mr. Shepherd to two parties of Natives: with the first, we had much interesting conversation: they appeared much surprised when told that we should all rise again at the day of judgement: we spoke to them upon the redemption; this they were not so sensible of.

Monday, 6. The boats arrived before twelve o'clock from Paihia and the Kerikeri. Much conversation before it was determined how we should proceed in the examination of the translation. After dinner commenced upon the 15 Chap of St. Luke, by Messrs. Shepherd and King: observed much improvement since the last by them: finished four verses before tea. The eveng. engaged in the prayer meeting, and in conversation upon the general state of affairs.

Tuesday, 7. Commenced early upon the translation. We were interrupted for two hours upon some public question. Between page 65 eight and nine closed our work, having well digested 13 verses, including those of yesterday. This must at present be slow progress: we only meet twice a quarter, the third being wholly occupied in public business. This may, perhaps, shew some reason why we should have more strength, as no translation can pass without two or three readings.

Wednesday, 8. At sunrise, left Rangihou for Marsden's Vale60, where we arrived about twelve o'clock; the wind being against us: all well.

Thursday, 9. Obs'd a small Schn., working in to Rangihou: we were in hopes of news from Port Jackson. Wind strong from the Southd.

Friday, 10. In the evening, learnt that the Schn. laying at Rangihou, was the same which was here about six weeks since, with a Wesleyan Missionary for Tonga;—and that he was on his way back to the Colony, with his family, as the Tonga Mission was given up, but for what reason, I could not learn: whereupon I determined to proceed on the morrow to Rangihou, and hear the whole account.

Saturday, 11. After breakfast, my brother and myself went to Rangihou, where we had the pleasure of seeing Mr. and Mrs. Weiss. I had a peculiar interest in seeing Mr. W., as he had passed five years as midshipman on board a Man of War.—His account was simple. On the arrival of the Vessel at Tonga, he was told by the missionaries that he could not land, as they must leave the island and flee for their lives: this was a considerable grief to him, and all he could say was of no avail, as he is only an assistant missionary, and of no authority; but he states that he could not perceive the slightest reason for their acting thus. Mr. Hutchinson61 has been seriously ill for some time past, which may have affected his mind to such a degree as to lead him to suppose that he was in danger. But however they ordered him back to Sydney with direction to procure a large vessel for their accommodation, as they were in fear daily. It is singular, that persons in the fear they expressed, should reject the means of escaping which they then possessed. Mr. and Mrs. Weiss returned with us to Marsden's Vale.

Sunday, 12. Service as usual; after which I went on board the Emily, by appointment and met the crew in the cabin; addressed them from 2 Cor. 5. 14, 15: they were exceedingly attentive. I afterwards went to the 'Haumi. The natives attended immediately page 66 on my arrival; but their hearts are very dark: they are void of feeling. Tohi tapu had erected a shed, to protect us from the sun or rain; but he was led away by his dreams, and could not understand what I said to him. One man called out to finish quickly, as he was tired. I told him that was an evident sign that he was under the influence of the wicked one; for, had we come for any other purpose, all would have attended with much pleasure. Our eveng. service very pleasing: the room filled with Natives.

Monday, 13. Had much conversation with Mr. Weiss upon the Tonga Mission, and upon our mode of proceeding. It appeared that the females had the government of matters there, one of whom is about 17 years of age: it will be a source of great grief to all friends of missions; but I trust will not lose its benefit to us. I gave Mr. W. a few words as to the course he should persue. He appears a pious young man, and of much experience of men and women. In the afternoon, I took Mr. and Mrs. W. and two children over to Rangihou. Messrs. Shepherd and King mentioned to me a young man62, an old servant of Mr. Hall's, who was near his end, and that he had been under serious impressions for several months, but clearer evidence within these last few weeks. I, accordingly, accompanied them to the house in which he was, and after some conversation with him was rejoiced at witnessing what I did. He was very feeble, but he related when his first impression took place, after the return of the last fighting party: that he was then afraid to die; that he saw no hope but in that Saviour of whom he frequently heard; that he had prayed to Him, and felt his heart rejoice. He enquired of us, to know if he was right; if he should go to Heaven. We assured him of the love of Jesus; that He came down from heaven, to gather to himself, and to purify from all sin, all persons from every people who should flee to him. He said he was happy; that he knew he should soon die, but that he cared not for his body, but for his soul. I spoke to the brethren as to his baptism; but as that subject was new to the youth I proposed returning, the day after tomorrow, and see him again; and if it should be considered proper, he should be baptised. In my own mind, I have no doubt but that he is a brand plucked from the burning. This is unexpected, for I did not know that there had been one making inquiries. Messrs. Shepherd and King will doubtless give you a full and particular account.—I trust the day of the Lord is at hand, when He shall say to the North, give up, and to the South, keep not back; when Satan's yoke shall be page 67 broken from off this people's neck. I hope this will stir us up to greater diligence in revealing the glad tidings of the gospel of peace.

Tuesday, 14. After breakfast, Mr. Fairburn and myself took the boat and went up the Kawakawa, to visit the Natives. We could not go so early as usual owing to the tide. We however passed about five hours amongst them. I assembled fair congregation; three of whom behaved well, and appeared to listen with attention; the others I was obliged to leave abruptly, (after a few serious words which I told them were not mine but those of Jesus Christ), owing to their abominable conduct. This we are obliged sometimes to do, and find it has a good effect. While we were up here, an ambassador of the Prince of Darkness arrived from the ship, with powder and muskets to purchase pigs. Many of the people flocked to him. Some of the Natives asked us, whether they should not go to war; for that, if they did not, the Napuis would come and strip them.—Mr. Fairburn visited about the same number as I did, and we returned home at sunset, after a very agreeable day, tho we could not see all the Natives we wished, as they lived about two or three miles further up the river, and some, also inland. Heard that the youth at Rangihou, whom I had visited when there, was dead; but no particulars.

Friday, 17. Obs'd the Schr. on board of which was Mr. Weiss &c. sail from Rangihou: they must have lost much time, as the winds have been very fair for her.

Sunday, 19. After our Service, went on board the Emily: met the crew in the cabin; addressed them on Is. 1. 18. As it was the last sabbath I expected to see them, I spoke to them with as much solemnity as possible: they were very attentive. I delivered to Cap. Brind for them, in their presence, six testaments, one bible, and about seventy tracts. While I was on board, Tohi tapu came with six canoes, on his way to the Ra-witi, in Paroa Bay, to plant potatoes. I expressed my displeasure to him, and warned him of the consequences. Returned on shore and went to the 'Haumi: none but women and children; the men with Tohitapu. On my arriving near our Settlement, I perceived that something new was in agitation, and also obs'd a boat pullg. towards the beach from the Ship; several canoes also in motion; very unusual for the Sabbath. I soon learned the following account: A Teretere (party of visitors), consisting of five canoes, from Tauranga63, under the care of a young man belonging to the Bay, had been chased by page 68 Moka64, one of the Kerikeri chiefs, of noted bad character. The Teretere, not possessing arms, fled, and ran into a small bay, where was Tikoki with about twenty of the Kawakawa Natives, on their way to plant potatoes. The Teretere ran immediately to Tikoki, and were pursued by Moka and his party; who fired about twenty shots, and wounded four of Tikoki's people; upon this Tikoki ordered his people to fire, who killed a chief belonging to Waimate. Moka's party were then overpowered, and their muskets taken from them. This news created much confusion amongst our natives, as there was no calculating where it might stop. Two wounded men came over to Cap. Brind's boat, to be attended: one shot through the thigh; the other through both legs, one was broken. Being unaccustomed to receiving such visitors, it required much time before they were disposed of comfortably. Our eveng. service was entirely set aside. Several of the strangers were relations to the wife of Tahiwanga65, a promising Native living in the settlement, and a Waimate man.

Monday, 20. Several reports relative to the occurrences of yesterday. Many are disposed to slay the whole party of strangers, and I believe Tohi tapu is amongst the number: he has been professing great things. I fear much disturbance may result. This eveng. it is said that the Napuis are going up the Kawakawa to plunder; and that yesterday they took up the seed potatoes of Rangituke66, which he had just planted.—The circumstance of Moka's party, only 10 men, bringing 50 to the stand, shews the ascendancy which the Napuis have over the rest of the bay. Tikoki's people were afraid to shoot him: he is full of all mischief, he is a child of iniquity.

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When Moka had recovered himself from his frenzy, he told Tikoki, that had he been overcome, the whole of the Kawakawa people would have been killed; there is no doubt of it. This brings afresh to our view the importance of a Settlement in the Colony, if it should meet with the sanction of the Government and the Corre -sponding committee.

Tuesday, 21. This morng. at sunrise, obs'd a war canoe full of men, pullg. towards the beach; and soon found it belonged to the Kawaka party, consequently were not under any alarm; as soon as our natives retired to their respective houses to family prayers, the Kawakawa people seized a new canoe which had been brought by the strangers, but was the property of Tahiwanga. This caused considerable disturbance; tho for my part I thought that Tikoki was fully entitled to it, for the protection he afforded to these people on Sunday. After communicating my thoughts to Tahi-wanga, he was fully satisfied, but did not approve of the manner in which it was done. Many reports passing through the settlement relative to these poor people: they are in considerable danger of being murdered. Capn. Brind came on shore and closed our accounts: he behaved with great politeness, in offering to take charge of anything we wished to send by him.

Wednesday, 22. Engaged the whole day in closing despatches, &c., &c. In the forenoon, heard that it was decreed that all the strangers would be spared, excepting those who were within our settlement, living with Tahiwanga. This was considered an infringement upon us, and consequently felt it our duty to interfere. Much conversation amongst the natives at Waitangi, who were all desirous of the death of these people: one man especially, of very bad character, urged the measure; and proposed that if we should oppose them, that they should kill us also; but none of these things move us. We shall certainly exert all the influence we can upon the minds of these men, tho our numbers are nothing to them. After dinner we held a council, when it was concluded that my brother should wait on Cap. Brind, to ask him if he objected to take these poor fellows to their place, on his way to the East Cape67. If he should object, it was considered proper to give them the offer of a conveyance in our boat, tho the distance is 200 miles. Tohitapu came: I did not admire his appearance. He came up to us in a little time, and desired that Tahiwanga should be sent to his place, Waimate, for he was very angry with him. To this we did not listen, but told him we were very jealous of his disposition page 70 towards these strangers: he walked off then towards the house where they were. At 3 o'clock I was called out; as there were several ill looking men hanging about and their appearance suspicious. From Waitangi, we heard that it was the determination of the people there to kill them this night: about forty natives were there, generally armed, and others assembling. Tohitapu was seated there. I felt very indignant with him, but wished to observe his movements. After some time, he said he was going home. This I considered as a signal to the people about, that they were to act in his absence. I therefore told him he must not go, for that I expected these people were wishing to fall upon the strangers. He said they were not his people: he could not say anything to them. As I knew that Tohitapu was a proud man, I was determined to use his pride for the security of these poor fellows; and I told him, that as there was no Native Chief but himself there, and as he saw the disposition of all around was to slay them, I could not let him go: he must remain with me, as my friend. This gratified him; and in the course of an hour most of the people withdrew.—Capt. Brind did not feel disposed to land these people to the Southd., as it might delay the Ship.—We heard that a party from the Thames had landed at Wangaruru, and had killed a number of the Bay of Islanders: this I do not believe. Before Tohitapu returned home, I told him he must keep a good look-out, and listen to what the natives had to say; that should these men be killed at this settlement, he would receive our severe displeasure, as that he could prevent it if he liked. Tohi is fond of a mess of flour and sugar, and frequently has it from us: the idea of losing this will weigh mightily with him.

Thursday, 23. Closed my dispatches. About 10.30 a.m. Mr. S. Butler, who has been farming for some time, at Hokianga, trading with the natives, made his appearance. After some few enquiries, I gave him our opinion upon his recent pursuits—and trading with muskets and powder—the remarks all made by the Natives. I reminded him of the feelings of those who knew him. He however defended his conduct after the manner of those who care not for the world to come. —About noon, as I was prepared to go on board the Emily, the natives came running, and exclaimed, Ka puta te taua, that is, the fight is in sight, or those for that purpose. As I was somewhat unusually attired I had to run and disencumber myself and clear for action. Our natives were out in an instant, and we had soon assembled our forces outside the fences and closed the gates. Tohitapu was soon discovered, capering about, but still I had not learnt what it was all about—whether he came in peace or in war—his party soon advanced, consisting of about page 71 80 men. We soon understood that their object was only to shew themselves; they came and had a dance, after which Tohitapu requested some flour for them. As the minds of the natives were very unsettled, and it was expedient to keep them in tune as much as possible, we had about 20 Ib. of flour and sugar cooked for them, with which they were much delighted and afterwards passed off in quietness.

Friday, 24. About noon we were thrown into considerable alarm by the approach of a war canoe, and it was not a little heightened when it was discovered that Marupo68, a Chief of very bad character, was in it, as he was the person who had threatened the lives of the Rotorua men who were in the settlement. I felt considerable fear for them. On their landing a relation to these poor men was seen which relieved our minds. They remained for some time, but in quietness.

Sunday, 26. After service I went on board the Emily, and met the crew in the cabin—their attention was very great. I then proceeded to the 'Haumi, where I spoke to upwards of 30 persons several of whom were from Rotorua—our message was new to them.

Monday, 27. Early this morning the Emily sailed with a fair wind.

Thursday, 30. Several reports for these last two or three days that the Napuis were on their way to the Kawakawa.

Friday, 31. At sunrise Mr. Fairburn and I went up the Kawa-kawa to see how the Natives appeared, how they were prepared to receive the Napuis. The day was unfavourable, every appearance of a gale. A considerable body of people were assembled together. Tekoki appeared very thoughtful, and asked many questions as to how they should proceed in the event of an attack. We had some very pleasant conversation with them on eternal things, they expressed a desire that Mr. Fairburn and Wm. Puckey69 should go up and join them today, in order to make a stand against the Napuis. We told them this we could not do, but that we had prayed for them and would continue to do so, that the Napuis might be confounded in their consultation. They appeared glad to see us page 72 and much retuned by our visit. They told us, as soon as we should see the Napuis to go over to them and persuade them to return. I have no doubt but that our influence over this Nation is very considerable.

Sunday, 2 September. After service I went to the Puke70, about seven miles over hill and dale, and met about 20 natives, some were very ignorant, others possessed a good portion of knowledge; all seemed glad to see me. A large Ship working into the bay all the afternoon. In the eveng. service as usual.

Monday, 3. About noon, the boats arrived from the Kerikeri and Rangihou—all well. In the eveng. held the prayer meeting, which is always refreshing. I addressed the brethren from I. Saml. 14, 6. —The ship was the Emily. Cap. Brind put back, having sprung a leak.

Tuesday, 4. Immediately after breakfast commenced upon the translation and sat close the whole day. By 9 o'clock, p.m. finished 16 verses of 5th chapter of Matt. to general satisfaction. According to our present order, this chap. must remain until the next meeting here before it can be brought forward again by which we may perceive the importance of an amendment. Several efforts have been made for more frequent communication but as yet we have failed—yet these translations must not be allowed to pass without it. More strength is greatly required, without it we shall but hold our own. We have, however, every reason to praise the Lord for the Christian fellowship which now prevails. I trust the meeting was profitable to all, in every point of view. The general improvement in language very manifest. My mind much cheered.

Wednesday, 5. Warenui arrived at daylight full of importance, stating that the Natemaru the people from upwards that is from the Southd. were coming up and intended to kill us without any ceremony, but we did not hear a word respecting our poor people at the Kawakawa. I hope that storm may blow over. The brethren returned in the course of the morng.

Saturday, 8. Rec'd a note from Cap. Brind, to state that he would be unable to have service on board tomorrow owing to the confused state in which the ship was.

Sunday, 9. After service went to the 'Haumi, heavy rain during most of the afternoon, but few people in attendance. Tohitapu, who was very unwell, crawled out of his house—he appeared willg. to oblige me by listening with all his powers, but as insensible page 73 to the real import of what I had to say as the earth on which he sat.

Thursday, 13. At daylight obs'd a ship working into the bay. Immediately after breakfast Mr. Fairburn and I went to Wangai— the tide was very favourable, which allowed us sufficient time to see all the Natives. Never have I spent a more agreeable season with them, they hailed us with much apparent pleasure, and collected their scattered parties to hear what we had to say. I was much struck with their behaviour, and looked up to the Lord with gratitude for His promised blessing. In His name I told them we were come, to declare the glad tidings of peace with God through Jesus Christ, that they had long been in bondage to Satan, but that liberty was now proclaimed to all believers, that in the Judgement we should be raised again, incorruptible, to give an account of the deeds done in the body. I think I may say that they received the Word with gladness. The second party I spoke to was an assemblage of Chiefs undergoing the process of tatooing, many of them had borne the character of insolence, from these I did not look for much. However, I took courage, remembering that they were not my words which I had to deliver. I accordingly addressed myself to them, and was greatly surprised at their attention—not the slightest disposition to levity—they told me they knew our motive in coming amongst them, was that they might be saved from the place of torment, and become children of God. They asked me why we could not send one of our Natives, who understood the things of God, to instruct them more frequently if we could not ourselves be more amongst them, but alas we have not yet one who could be sent upon this important duty. I could wish that many of them were living with us, even married persons. A little girl who had been living with us for many months, but who had been taken away by her friends, for want of the payment of wages, I was enabled to convey to our house—the poor child appeared rejoiced to return to us and to her old companions in the house. She was covered with oil and red ochre, &c., but by the aid of soap and water and shearing, her person became tolerably purified.

Friday, 14. As the tide answered for our going up the Waikari Mr. Fairburn and I went up immediately after breakfast; it was with considerable difficulty we were enabled to discover the passage. We however arrived about 11 a.m. by the assistance of a Native as Pilot. Most [of] the people were away at their plantation. With those with whom I spoke, I was very much pleased, they listened with earnestness, and frequently exclaimed that it was the first time they had heard these things, and enquired when we page 74 should return to them. Several settlements are inland, but we could not visit them, more time is required for this duty. I have never witnessed such interest as has been manifested lately, it is very encouraging.

Saturday, 15. This afternoon Tohitapu came to shew himself. He said that he had been to the Shipping, and had been much praised for his havg. become a missionary. That they had given him two cartridge boxes, but that he had requested them not to put any powder inside. Rec'd a very polite note from Cap. Duke in answer to one I had sent him, expressing how happy he will be to see me tomorrow on board to attend service.

Sunday, 16. After service I rec'd a note from Cap. Duke, stating that from a disturbance between himself and crew, it would not be convenient for me to go on board. Much rain in the afternoon. Went to the 'Haumi, where was a considerable assembly. I was soon introduced to a man of great renown, Koikoi71, a chief from inland, known as a great Savage. Tohitapu requested me not to say anything about the place of fire and brimstone as a place for wicked men, while this man was with them. Upon which I asked Koikoi if he had never heard anything of that place. He replied no. I thereupon told him that God had declared that “the Wicked shall be turned into Hell, and all the Nations that forget God”, and then proceeded, exhorted them to flee from the wrath to come and lay hold on eternal life. I was more particular in speaking very plainly to this man, as he is a great Chief and a great Savage, and I had been told by Natives in this neighbourhood that we should be afraid to say to him and to 'Hongi what we say to them. I told him he must not suppose that we were angry with him or others, but that we spoke as we did, lest they should be caught in the snare of Satan, and perish for ever. The old man appeared attentive, and by no means offended by what I said. He asked Tohitapu if this was our usual mode of address to them, when he was told it was. I felt thankful at havg. an opportunity of speakg. to this man.

Monday, 17. At breakfast, Tohitapu and Koikoi with others came; bread and tea and stirabout was provided for them, after which Tohitapu was very solicitous that some present should be made to Koikoi, but from our past experience we have determined that no presents shall be made, as it is not attended with any benefit, but contrariwise, as a native conscience is never satisfied. I therefore told Tohi that we never gave away a thing for nothing, page 75 but that if he presented me with some potatoes, I would present him with an axe. After some little abuse, they departed. Tohitapu's pride will be somewhat reduced the next conversation I have with him. The Natives around appeared somewhat astonished that a man of Koikoi's dignity should have been denied by me, or that we generally did not stand more in awe of him.

Wednesday, 19. Tohitapu came, this morning to reconnoitre. I was engaged, and did not see him. No notice was taken of him.

Thursday, 20. Heavy rain during the whole day. While we were at the language, Tohitapu again appeared, and coughed and spat and coughed again, in order to engage our notice, however, we passed him by, and he returned to his place.

Monday, 24. Ret'd from the Kerikeri about 2 o'clock, learnt that Caps. Brind and Duke were waiting to see me, the latter wishing to remain on shore with us while his Ship went out on a service, as he was not well. I was very sorry to hear this news, but determined to state our objections clearly and without reserve to Cap. Duke, which I accordingly did as soon as he made known to me his wishes. I pointed out to him, how impossible it was for us to receive him amongst us, when everyone knew his conduct towards the Natives, that while we were endeavouring to plant the seed of life, the Shipping were casting law on every hand, consequently it was absolutely necessary for the prosperity of the Mission, that while persons belonging to the Ships considered themselves at liberty to think and act as they thought proper without any respect for religious observances, it became our duty to observe the utmost reserve. At the same time we should always render the assistance in our power, which did not subject us to introduce persons within our settlement, whom we could not gladly receive. The two Caps. knew that my observations were true, and had not a word to say.

Tuesday, 25. This afternoon I rec'd a letter from Cap. Duke, earnestly soliciting to be received on shore at our settlement, as it might prove the salvation to both his body and soul. In the eveng. I called the brethren together to consider his letter. Our discussion was for upwards of four hours, so important did we view the case. When it was determined that Cap. D. should not be permitted to land as the extent of evil was incalculable. I accordingly had to write him a letter to this effect, to be forwarded on the morrow.

Wednesday, 26. Cap. Brind sailed with a fair wind from the Westd. Did not hear anything from Cap. Duke. I feel exceedingly thankful that we had resisted the earnest desires of Cap. Duke.

Friday, 28. Mr. Fairburn and I went up to the Kawakawa to page 76 visit the Natives. Those to whom I spoke did not evidence that interest which many others have. I was grieved to witness their insensibility. Several to whom Mr. Fairburn went paid great attention. On these occasions we do not go twice successively to the same settlement, but vary as much as possible, tho all the Natives in that district are spoken to.

Sunday, 30. Had no communication from Cap. Duke. After our Service I went to the 'Haumi. (Tohitapu and I had explained matters in the early part of the week.) The Natives generally, were inland at their cultivations. Poor Tohi tried to please me by his attention to what I say but alas he is very dead.

Monday, 1 October. Every appearance of strong wind from the Westd. Left as soon as possible for Kerikeri, to attend the Committee, where we arrived before noon. All well. Commenced business after dinner. In the eveng. held the prayer meeting as usual.

Tuesday, 2. At the Committee business all day, closed at 8 in the eveng., after a very agreeable and refreshg. meeting. When we consider the peculiarity of our situation and the frailty of our nature, all have abundant cause for praise, that the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace is so preserved amongst us, but still we are obliged to rest upon our arms.

Wednesday, 3. Ret'd to Marsden's Vale in the midst of a violent thunderstorm. All quiet.

Saturday, 6. Much rain and wind during the week, had many thoughts of our little vessel. Rec'd a note from Cap. Duke expressing his hope to see me on board the morrow, to perform Divine Service.

Sunday, 7. After service went to Kororarika. The crew were assembled by the time that I was on board; the crew very attentive; had particular pleasure in speaking to these people, after all that had passed. In the afternoon I went to the 'Haumi—two of Tohitapu's wives, with a few others, were all who were present. Tirangi72, an old man, brother to old Korokoro73, was very ill and unable to move. I tried to speak a few words to him, shewing him his situation, and his need of a Saviour, but he was insensible to page 77 all I could say. His sickness came from us, he said, and that before we came sickness was not known. He was obstinate and would not hear a word of comfort. I was obliged to leave him as I found him.

Monday, 8. A heavy gale during the night from the Northd: felt anxious concerning our little Vessel: very bad weather for making the land. Strong gale all day with rain.

Tuesday, 9. Before midnight, we were startled by the sound of a gun but from the state of the weather I could not believe it possible to be the Herald, but a second and third put it beyond doubt. Our anxiety had been very great during these late heavy gales, and Mrs. W. was sleeping with Mrs. Davis who had been taken ill during the afternoon from her fears and apprehension. In an instant all was in motion, muskets firing, the boys shouting, fires blazing and persons running in all directions to launch the boat. —In about a quarter of an hour we were on board the Herald and with very much thankfulness learnt that all was well. Mr. Davis delivered many Colonial letters to us which were exceedingly gratifying. Mr. Stack74 of the Wesleyan Mission was on board. We were all glad to see him, for he is a valuable youth. Mr. Mair75, the young man who had finished the Herald, & had since had the command of her, had a few days previous to the sailing of the Schr., married the sister of Wm. Puckey, she had always been an excellent character amongst us…. We have no doubt but that they will be very happy together and very useful to the Mission. Mr. Mair is an active and well behaved young man. All we saw and heard called forth our gratitude to our Lord and Master, who hath declared that all things shall work together for good. We have every reason to rely with implicit faith in Him, and to be careful for nothing. We retired to rest for one hour a little before daylight. —The gale broke in the former part of the night, & the sky was tolerably clear before the Vessel anchored. We were in much page 78 bustle through the day, and in the evening assembled a considerable body, all the Males in the Mission being assembled except Mr. Hamlin.

I must here express my regret that no copper can be obtained either from England or the Colony for the Herald; if some measure be not speedily entered upon we may apprehend something serious to her. I shall endeavour to preserve her from all unnecessary expense, but should wish that any application which I may make on her account, be considered without delay, and referred to those who understand the nature of these matters: £50 have already been lost on this account, besides the detention of the Vessel during her repair.

Tuesday, 9. Landed a few things from the Herald, but the weather came on very dirty—and we were obliged to leave off.

Wednesday, 10. The day free from rain, but considerable wind; conveyed some casks on shore.

Thursday, 11. The weather the same as yesterday. The wharf has proved of the greatest service, for tho there was considerable surf on the beach, the goods were landed very comfortably.

Friday, 12. It had been determined that the Herald should move towards the Kerikeri, for the convenience of landing the goods for that settlement & the general stores, but as she may be detained over Sunday, and the crew are in want of refreshment, having been under water all the passage, I detained her until Monday.

Saturday, 13. Went to Rangihou for the purpose of spending the Sabbath with the Brethren. All well there. It is indeed a disconsolate place.

Sunday, 14. The day exceedingly fine. The Service as usual about eleven o'clock. After dinner I accompanied Mr. Shepherd to several small settlements. None of the Natives appeared to shew any pleasure in attending to what was said to them, but generally quite the contrary. I accounted for this in a great measure from their extensive intercourse with the Shipping. My boys invariably make some pleasing observations when they go to Rangihou, as the Natives there pay very little regard to the Sabbath Day.

Monday, 15. Fine morning. Mr. Shepherd and I left early in order to meet the Herald on her way to the Kerikeri river. About 9 o'clock she anchored as far up the river as was prudent for her to go: the canoes and boats were down in time, and all the goods were out before sunset, when we weighed & made sail for the Anchorage under Motuorangi. I arrived at home about 8 o'clock.

Tuesday, 23. Nothing particular during the past week, except that it has been blowing a gale from the Eastd. This day somewhat finer. Mr. Davis & I commenced the building of a chimney for my page 79 new kitchen, the materials very rude, the base will be of shapeless stones out of the sea, the upper part we shall construct of bricks in which were mixed a number of shells, which in the burning have burned to lime; these bricks are therefore so tender as scarcely to bear handling.

Saturday, 27. After much fatigue Mr. Davis and I left off work at 2 o'clock, having mastered the most laborious part of our chimney, the barrel has yet to be carried up, but our lime is so bad we must needs burn some fresh before we can conclude. The prospect of the Sabbath is very refreshing. Our Natives behave very well. This week has been full of bustle. On Tuesday evening Mrs. W. W. was delivered of a fine little girl76. On Thursday, Mrs. Hamlin, after much lingering, was safely delivered of a fine boy. These two cases with my chimney have greatly interrupted our attention at the Language, but I trust we shall now be more steady.

Very great are our daily mercies; we now form a considerable body, and yet illness is not known amongst us.

Sunday, 28. The day very fine. After Service, I went as usual to the 'Haumi: none of the Natives at home except four old women. Our intercourse with these characters is in general very dull, as they are possessed with an idea that our message does not extend to them. It was with difficulty I could gain their attention. On my return home I met with a small party of Natives from the Waikari. They inquired our reason for having so long neglected them. They said it was impossible that they should understand unless we were frequent in our visits. I told them that our desire to see them was very great, but that the weather had been very bad. I had much pleasing conversation with them. A great relief after those lifeless old ladies. They inquired much respecting the school & whether they might be admitted.

Monday, 29. In the afternoon news arrived that Tikoikoi, that Savage who paid me a visit some time since, was on his way for the purpose of helping himself to blankets and iron pots & anything else which might fall in his way. This did not much affect me, tho it was particularly to me that the compliment was intended. In these cases I endeavour to discover the path of duty, regardless of the Natives, and act accordingly, casting myself at the same time on the arm of the Lord, and though we may have yet to suffer the spoiling of our goods, I hope we may do it joyfully and have grace to maintain our ground.

Tuesday, 30. It had been our intention to go this morning up page 80 to the Waikari to visit the natives, but as Hepatahi77 and some other Chiefs from the interior came early into the Settlement, stating that they had travelled in the night to tell us that Tikoikoi with a large party was near at hand, and that they had come to frustrate his designs, I felt thankful to our Heavenly Father for this interference of His Providence. Before I was aware indeed Tikoikoi and his party arrived before the fence, marching toward the gate. I had but time to hasten to meet him outside the gate, which I immediately closed and placed my back against it. He presented his nose to me, which compliment I accordingly returned. He was accompanied by an excellent character—Ware Nui, who is termed the peace maker by the Natives, as he is thus engaged on all occasions. When I saw him I was fully persuaded that no mischief would take place. He ordered his people to sit down while we entered into a parley. He stated to the Chiefs present that I had invited him to the house some time since, and had not given him a present and that when I saw him at the 'Haumi I told him that he would be cast into fire and brimstone, & that this fight was on that account to seek satisfaction. We could not but laugh at these charges, which greatly threw him off his balance. We told him it was his mistake to imagine that he was intitled to any present, that we never did any such thing, and that he had better direct his fight against Toitapu, who had prompted him to expect any present. In answer to the second charge, we said that these were the words of God to him and to all men, for this purpose alone we had come to the land to warn them to flee from the wrath to come, that they were not our words, but were delivered by us in love, that he might not die but have everlasting life. To this he could not say a word. The Chiefs acknowledged the truth of what we said. He told us he had come to make peace, and wanted something to be given in consequence. We did not however think it by any means proper, as the whole had originated with himself and it would have a bad effect amongst the Natives, and the victory would be declared on his side, whereas now I consider we have gained a very signal one. In a short time he turned away in a rage, and some of the Natives gazed at us, not knowing what to think, considering it impossible that we should resist his importunities. Our friendly Chiefs gladly partook of some flour, and in a short time all was quiet. In the afternoon our Natives again cried out that Tikoikoi was returning. We accordingly turned out, but their appearance was very different from that of the morning. They came in procession without arms. Some were carrying small baskets page 81 of cooked potatoes, which were distributed two to each of our houses. The old man walked in great state at their head. They again retired as soon as possible. I had a few words of conversation with Tikoikoi before he left us.

Wednesday, 31. After breakfast Mr. Fairburn and I went up the Waikari to visit the Natives. We arrived in good time and found the people sitting in the expectation of Tikoikoi to have a fight with them, perhaps to kill some, the occasion of which, was, we understood, in consequence of their having given a name to one of their places the same as that of one of Tikoikoi's people. Our friend Ware Nui was already there to parry off the threatened blow. The Natives were very attentive. Before we departed the account came that the canoes were close at hand. We immediately departed, taking with us two girls and one boy for the school. We soon saw the canoes apparently in consultation. I felt that it was possible that we might be insulted by them. We prepared for a good pull as we approached. Tikoikoi was holding a harangue. I spoke to them, but none replied. There were about three hundred people.

Friday, 2 November. In the afternoon many of the Natives returned from Waikari; also Ware Nui. We felt a great desire to express our approbation of his conduct, as the general mediator between contending parties, by presenting him with a piece of scarlet cloth, which Mr. Marsden had sent me about three years since. We accordingly did so. The old man appeared greatly delighted. After which Mr. Fairburn and I went to Wangai to visit the Natives there. The day was very fine. They were very busy planting kumaras; but most of them came as soon as called, and we had a very attentive congregation. I have witnessed some of their superstitious ceremonies over their fishing nets. I warned them to flee from these lying vanities and turn to the Lord before it was too late.

Saturday, 3.78 This morning we received letters from Hokianga, some private and some others from the Society, by the —–, with one from Mr. Hobbs, the Wesleyan missionary, who has returned again to the island. He has particularly solicited Mr. Davis and myself to go over and render them some assistance in the laying of their foundation. We feel it our duty to comply.

Monday, 5. At sunrise Messrs. R. and C. Davis, Mr. Stack and myself left Paihia in the boat for Kerikeri on our way to 'Ho-kianga. We arrived about ten o'clock, and were received with that page 82 usual kindness for which the brethren there are famed. They had prepared many little matters for our journey, which greatly refreshed us, before we had advanced far. By twelve we had crossed the fall, in all fifteen with the Natives who carried our luggage. The road was open and level a few swamps to pass through. We did not meet a Native. About an hour before sunset, we brought to and pitched our tent in a very comfortable spot, amidst high fern and close to a beautiful stream of water. We there assembled our natives for prayer and partook of our repast of which we stood greatly in need. In our hurry we had forgotten to bring oil for the lamp and consequently were deprived of much pleasure as we were obliged to sit in darkness. Our ten boys were very cheerful and we passed a very comfortable night. Our bed of fern tops was very soft.

Tuesday, 6. At daylight strong indications of much rain, the wind from N.E. We were very doubtful of the day and did not know whether to remain or proceed. After breakfast our boys urged us to move on. The sky at the time more cheering, we accordingly packed up our baggage and by seven o'clock were all on the road. In less than an hour we entered the woods in which we continued to the end of our journey. The weather was very close and sultry, as we had no wind the road was tolerably comfortable. About noon we met Mr. S. Butler with two passengers of the vessel in which Mr. Hobbs came. They were on the way to the Bay of Islands, a number of natives with them. By two o'clock we arrived at Patuone's79 place, and heard that Mr. Hobbs80 was about a mile off on the opposite side of the river. We discharged our pieces as a signal for the boat. In about a quarter of an hour she came and conveyed us to the spot where Mr. Hobbs was. However as we had much to consult upon we returned to our former place and pitched the tent which was no sooner done than it began to rain and continued all night sometimes with considerable violence. We were enabled to pass a comfortable night, as it did not penetrate. Owing to the rain our boys could not be assembled at evening prayer, they therefore, without saying a word to us, sang and went to prayer by themselves in a very orderly and pleasing manner. The strangers about us page 83 behaved very well. Patuone came to see us when it was determined that Mr. Hobbs and Stack should settle at this spot.

Wednesday, 7. The morning very fine. As soon as the tide would answer we all went down the river to the Brig, when we saw Mrs. Hobbs and Miss Bedford81 with whom we were much pleased considering them very suitable characters. We spent an agreeable afternoon.

Thursday, 8. The morning fine. After an early breakfast, we proceeded up the river with Mrs. Hobbs, Mrs. Wade82 and Miss Bedford, four canoes alongside for the purpose of disembarking the goods. We were soon up to the settlement, the canoes with baggage in company. One half of a long native house had been prepared for the reception of the females and goods it was neatly filled up with the nikau and made very comfortable. The boxes and casks received this day were all housed.

Friday, 9. The second turn of canoes came up with the goods this morning. The casks which were most of them very heavy were landed very well. The crews of the canoes became very importunate to be paid before they landed any further some of them were noisy but after a little talking they were moderated. It was determined today that Miss Bedford should return with us to the Bay of Islands until the Brethren here are more settled and the house which was in progress should be habitable.

Saturday, 10. About noon the canoes again returned from the Brig having only a few pieces of scantling and some bricks. The paying of the men was done very quietly but to settle with two boys was not so easy. Mr. Hobbs gave what he considered just but their relatives disapproved. Several of them were exceedingly saucy and threatening but we stood our ground and they departed after about two hours' noise. Made every preparation for the services of the morrow and also for our departure on Monday morning.

Sunday, 11. Service at 10 o'clock, when I addressed our little party from Eph. 6. 10. After dinner I accompanied Mr. Hobbs up the River, where were several native settlements. We spoke to a large party who said they had been waiting for us for a considerable time. Some disputed our word others paid great attention.

Monday, 12. With all expedition we prepared for our march towards the Keri Keri, and by 8 o'clock took our departure from Waihou, Miss Bedford in company. As is the custom in this land we were obliged to walk singly, the paths being so very narrow. We had some very ugly places to pass over as there are several page 84 small rivers but deep over which a tree had fallen. It required the greatest care that we did not fall tho the natives would run across like cats. I was surprised to see with what ease Miss B. performed her part. By 3 o'clock we were through the woods and as the remainder of the road was level country we made considerable advance towards the Keri Keri. Before 6 o'clock we pitched the tent and made a very comfortable habitation for Miss B. at the back while we took up our lodging at the door. The night was fine but as I had obtained a reinforcement of fleas my attention was very much taken up with them during the whole night.

Tuesday, 13. We were early on the road. The morning was very fine. With some little difficulty we passed the swamps and by 1 o'clock we arrived at the Keri Keri very much oppressed by the heat. Here we met with every attention, and were soon refreshed by change of linen and a good dinner. About four o'clock we departed for Paihia where we arrived before sunset. Very great are our causes of thankfulness. Most of the children had been very unwell but were now much better. I felt stiff. It was very cheering to return to the Settlement amidst the welcome of sixty Europeans and natives. We had been absent 9 days but as there is no post we know not till we are at home whether all is well or not. But our Lord and Master is very mindful of us and hath never allowed the hair to fall from the head of any of mine during my absence.

Wednesday, 14. Gave orders for the Herald to sail on Monday next.

Thursday, 15. By noon the Brethren from the Kerikeri and Rangihou arrived to attend a Committee previous to the sailing of the Herald. We could not conclude our business this evening.

Friday, 16. It was past 4 o'clock before the brethren returned home after which I continued my writing to the Colony. About 9 o'clock P.M. I received a note from the Surgeon of the Research one of the Company's Cruisers stating that one of his patients was on the point of death and particularly wished to see me which summons I immediately obeyed. The man was at Kororarika. We called on board on our way when I saw Capn. Dillon: he was very ill and could scarcely move. I thought a word would be seasonable and spoke accordingly but he was on the rack in an instant and changed the subject. The Surgeon and I then went on shore where I was taken to the sick man. He appeared in great pain both in body and mind. He was very ignorant, but had pleasing indications about him. I spoke to him and the bystanders for a length of time upon our state by nature & the love of God in calling us to eternal life. All listened. From this man I was called to one of the mates who was ill to whom I spoke upon eternal page 85 things but he soon assured me that his sickness was not unto death as he had considerably improved since he had been on shore. Captains Duke & Kent and others hearing that I was on shore came and joined us whose attention I called to the importance of making our calling and election sure. Upon the whole I was much pleased at an opportunity to show forth the truths of the Gospel and the conduct of all present. The word of God is quick and powerful none can resist its might. It was past one when I arrived at home.

Saturday, 17. Engaged in writing and settling Accounts in connection with the vessel.

Sunday, 18. After service I went over to Kororarika according to appointment, and met about 20 seamen at Capn. Duke's house, where we held divine service. I spoke to them from Is. 53. 1. I afterwards called upon the sick man I saw on Friday night he was much better in his person. On my return to Paihia I went to the 'Haumi. There were but few persons there and they very indifferent. I could not get them to attend. On my way home I fell in with a fishing party of between 20 and 30 persons: they assembled readily and attended well.

Monday, 19. The natives from the Kowa Kowa came to agree about the selling of the land at Oeotutu to us. It has long been the haunt of females who visit the shipping and other bad characters moreover it is much wanted by us for the enlargement of the settlement. The whole morning was occupied in this business. I closed my letters for the Colony by 3 P.M. and went on board the Herald. She immediately weighed, and made sail with a fair wind from the Eastd. As our hands were now set at liberty we turned our thoughts towards the natives at Taeamai whither Mr. Fairburn and myself proposed to go in the morning.

Tuesday, 20. The morning heavy and inclined for rain, heavy rain before noon. The weather cleared up towards the close of the day. Determined to move in the morning weather permitting.

Wednesday, 21. Some indication of wet, wind from the Eastd. By 10 o'clock Mr. Fairburn myself and five natives had crossed the Waitangi on our way. We had to ascend a very high hill, from the top of which we had a bird's-eye view of the Bay and could see the Islands of Matauri and Wangaroa.83 On the other side we had a most extensive and beautiful view I had yet beheld in this land. We had a level country before us interspersed with wood and bounded with high hills. At one we halted to dine by the side of a fine stream of water and then proceeded. At ¼ past 3 arrived at the page 86 Aute. 'Hepetahi was here with a number of his people. From their long continued intercourse with the shipping their state is peculiarly awful they evidently did not like my message tho they were very respectful. Mr. Fairburn had passed on to some other settlement. I was detained here much longer than I had intended as the natives were very importunate that we should wait for some cooked food. We afterwards continued our journey through woods and cleared spots until we overtook Mr. Fairburn, who was seated amongst an interesting group. As the sun was yet high we considered it better to move forward and look out for comfortable lodging. About half an hour before sunset we pitched our tent on a bank in a small river about three yards from the stream and a foot above its surface high banks on either side. We took our supper by the light of a candle and enjoyed our milk which had been provided with care and rolled up in a blanket. The night was very clear, and after assembling our boys and commending ourselves to the Lord we fell asleep and passed a very comfortable night. The boys slept under the bank. Some showers during the night.

Thursday, 22. At daylight began to make preparations for moving. Every appearance of an easterly gale and much rain the sand flying rapidly along. By 6 a.m. we were on the road and soon arrived at Temaranga's84 place from whence I turned off to Powerua taking a guide a lively youth who kept me in conversation the whole way. We passed several places but there were no natives. At length we came suddenly upon two old women who were the wives of the principal chiefs they immediately hailed us with pleasure, and sent off to call the men who were digging fern root at a distance. We assembled about 20 who behaved very well. After I had remained as long as I thought sufficient we returned into the main road, several heavy showers during our walk. We passed a number of houses but saw no natives until we came to the suburbs of Taeamai. Here the natives came running from all quarters and we assembled between 50 and 60 persons. I spoke to them at some length but many were disposed to treat us with the greatest indifference however I was enabled to silence some and others paid considerable attention. I then proceeded on with my guide and soon came to Huhu's85 place, where he was sitting in great state under a shed and surrounded by a number of children the men page 87 being generally at work. I spoke principally to him he listened very politely but evidently shewed a desire to change the subject. He brought out an old gun which he much wished to exchange for my fowling piece which he had seen with one of our boys. From Huhu I passed on to Tupe's86 place, which is called Heru (a comb), from the circumstance that a comb had formerly been dropped there. The boys had already pitched the tent, a considerable number of natives were gazing on but very quiet. In less than an hour it commenced in good earnest both to blow and rain, which obliged us to sit close during the remainder of the day, it increased towards night and presented but an uncomfortable prospect for us, and we were a little apprehensive of being blown over but we were thankful to perceive that everything held fast. Our evening repast was very comfortable under all circumstances. The rain beat in a little on the weather side a little fire was brought into the tent which was somewhat needed. We called the Natives in for our evening worship, and after commending ourselves to the Lord we spread our blankets and passed a comfortable night's rest. Towards daylight the wind changed and the rain subsided.

Friday, 23. The weather appeared promising and by 7 a.m. we were all ready to march. Our party moved homeward, while I remained with those natives who were living near us and spoke to them for more than half an hour but was much pained by their indifference and hardness of heart. The road was cleaner than I expected the streams of water were considerably swollen and as I did not like to be carried on the natives' shoulders where the water was so deep I waded through. About 1 p.m. we halted to dine and rested nearly an hour. We then turned aside for the Morere a considerable Settlement but before we arrived we observed a party of natives digging fern root to which we went. They received us kindly, and as soon as we expressed a desire to speak to them they assembled and attended very pleasingly. We then had to ascend a very high hill and to pass through several small woods before the bay opened to our view. From this point our movements were quick and we arrived at home before sunset when with gratitude we met our families well.

Sunday, 25. After service I went to Kororarika and met the Europeans at Capn. Duke's house they attended well. On my return I was greatly interrupted and prevented from going to the 'Haumi.

Saturday, 1 December. Mr. and Mrs. Clarke and family arrived to dinner. Every one at the Kerikeri had been ill with the influenza page 88 as also everyone in the settlement for the last week. Most of the Natives continue unwell and many of the Europeans.

Sunday, 2. My brother's little girl was this morning baptised Mrs. Clarke was one of the sponsors. After service I went on board the Research Capn. Dillon about 10 persons were present. Capn. D. had been sent for by a sick man in order to make out his will. This afternoon a letter was received by W. Puckey stating the sudden death of his father….

Monday, 3. About noon Messrs. Hamlin and Hobbs arrived from the Kerikeri all well. The news relative to Mr. Puckey confirmed he was found dead in the morning…. The two children are here and conduct themselves very well. William we trust is walking in the fear of the Lord. His sister is very well disposed and is married to Mr. Mair, the young man who commands the Herald. We look forward to their both being eminently useful. The brethren from Rangehoe did not come perhaps owing to the illness of the boats crews. In the evening we held our Prayer Meeting. I addressed the brethren from Matt. 12. 49, 50. Some were prevented by illness from attending, but we had an agreeable and profitable season.

Tuesday, 4. Most of the day engaged in discussing upon subjects of importance in the mission.

Wednesday, 5. This morning fine. As Mr. Hobbs had stated that there was accommodation for Miss Bedford at their station at Waihou, after breakfast he with Miss B. in company with Mr. Clarke and my brother took their departure to 'Hokianga by boat as far as the Kerikeri. During the few days that this young person has been amongst us each individual in the settlement has been exceedingly grieved, our opinions have gradually changed to the opposite extreme of what they originally were. We may err, but I fear not. The latter part of the day engaged in writing to the colony and giving necessary directions to our boys. Since the departure of our two working carpenters and men upon all occasions much more labour falls necessarily to us and tends to hinder us in our more important work.

Thursday, 6. As several persons were sick with the influenza, and my brother absent, I took the opportunity to make preparation for the finishing of my formidable chimney, which Mr. Davis and I had commenced.

Friday, 7. The stage of the chimney mortar mixed and boys in attendance by 8 o'clock when I commenced upon the barrel of my chimney. Mr. Davis engaged with the English boys until 10 o'clock. The day very hot. We did not quit our work till quite dusk much fatigued with stooping. Capn. Duke called and hindered me.

Saturday, 8. As we wished much to finish our work Mr. Davis page 89 and I commenced early upon it but it was near 4 o'clock before we left off. The prayer meeting in the evening was a great comfort. My little boy Thomas who has been very ill during the week has this day been greatly recovered.

Sunday, 9. Service as usual after which I went over to Korora-reka to meet the Europeans at Capn. Duke's house to attend Divine service. We mustered but 7 the remainder were intoxicated with some rum out of Capn. Dillon's vessel. On my return home I proceeded to the 'Haumi. Tohi tapu was very unwell he could scarcely see, most of his people were ill. Tho a little roused by my presence they were very dead. Messrs. Davis and Fairburn left the settlement before the morning service to visit Tekoke our old Chief and others who were very ill. They returned home before sunset and gave but an unfavourable report. As we were going to our evening service a young man landed from a canoe and stated that he had been second Officer of Capn. Dillon's ship but that he had been turned on shore without any means of subsistence and owing to some letters he had written, he was in great dread that Capn. Dillon should procure his death, and he entreated me to allow him to remain as a servant for that he should be happy to do anything that he might be protected by us. I asked him to look at my chimney, which we had the evening before concluded, and to tell me whether he thought it was from choice or necessity that I engaged in those matters. I told him we had numbers of Europeans at command, but that unless we felt assured that a man would conduct himself with propriety we could not allow one to remain amongst us. As he appeared frightened to return within the jurisdiction of Capn. Dillon, after some consultation with the brethren here we gave him permission to remain until Capn. Dillon should sail.

Monday, 10. Received a letter from Capn. Dillon respecting his subscription to the Bethel Union society, which I had proposed to him and his officers when I saw them last. In the afternoon I went on board, he was very polite and made a subscription amongst his officers. I afterwards called on Capn. Duke and Kent, who subscribed each £3, and a Mr. Earl £187, making in all £15. On the 1st of January I purpose making a collection amongst the brethren page 90 when I shall transmit the list of subscriptions to you. My brother returned from Hukeanga having left the Wesleyan Settlement at 4 o'clock a.m. the most expeditious trip ever performed.

Tuesday, 11. Mrs. Clarke and children with some of Mr. Davis' went up to the Kerikeri. The day squally. Engaged the latter part of the day plastering the chimney.

Thursday, 13. Capt. Dillon sailed. My brother and myself engaged the whole of this day and yesterday plastering and repairing some of the cells of the Beehive88, as the school for the female children of the Mission is to commence next week in it. Our performance has been fair and may prove a valuable discovery for future house-builders and repairers in this land for years to come. The Chapel is in a state of forwardness. It is greatly required.

Saturday, 15. At daylight several war canoes were reported as pulling towards Waitanga, and we soon heard that it was Tareha and Kira89 on a stripping expedition. Our boys were in immediate motion. About 9 o'clock they returned with a considerable quantity of potatoes which they had taken in the general scramble but as they were conscious that we should not approve of their behaviour they concealed the greater portion in the sand on the beach. As soon as we were acquainted with these proceedings we instituted a search and were sorry to find that all the natives had been sharing in the honours of the day. The potatoes were collected together, in order to return to the man from whom they had been taken. Taewanga a very promising native was very angry at the idea of having his house examined; but it was necessary that we should put an effective stop to our boys entering into any of these affairs. Most of the natives saw the impropriety of their conduct and cheerfully relinquished all right to their spoil. It had been my intention to have gone to the Kerikeri to remain over the sabbath, but the wind was so strong against me that I was obliged to remain. Occupied until near 4 p.m. finishing the plastering of one of the rooms— very weary, and greatly enjoyed the prayer meeting in the evening.

Sunday, 16. Morning fine. While in the midst of our service, we were called out by our natives as the plundering party which had been clearing the neighbouring of Waitangi of everything they could put their hands upon had assembled around my brother's fence and were in the act of jumping over to take up the potatoes which were growing, and were our all to which we could look. We were soon in the midst of them and never have I seen persons better page 91 disposed for mischief since I have been in the island: there were upwards of a hundred. We called off their attention as soon as we began to speak to them, and asked them if they were come to attend prayers as it was the ratapu. They were somewhat amused at this change of subject and desired us to speak to them. They immediately sat around very orderly when each of us successively addressed them. Some paid attention, others were disappointed, but after remaining somewhat more than an hour they cleared off. They had a number of empty baskets with them for the purpose of taking away the potatoes. We afterwards sent to Tareha and Kira, to ask the reason of this unwelcome visit. They sent word that their people had come without authority. By this circumstance I was prevented from going over to Kororareka. 'Hepatahi with some friendly chiefs hearing that these people were at our place came and remained during the afternoon. I paid a visit to Tohitapu. He was very unwell. The state of his mind as usual. Our natives on watch all night.

Monday, 17. Tareha's and Kira's party departed at the break of day for Kororareka. About 11 o'clock we observed Capn. Duke's premises on fire and conjecturing that the party had gone there this morning had been troublesome and had probably stripped the europeans there, Mr. Davis and I went over to learn particulars. We found Capn. Duke standing amidst the wreck of his property and were much relieved by hearing that he considered the fire as accidental. We remained some time and returned to Paihia we offered him every assistance in our power. Mr. Kemp brought his little girl to school which commenced this day. The circumstance of the burning of Capn. Duke's house has made us somewhat thoughtful relative to raupo buildings. They are very comfortable and soon built, but a single spark is sufficient to put them in motion. This question will require some consideration but wattle and dab is exceedingly expeditious and very durable.

Tuesday, 18. Capn. Duke came over and seriously hindered us all. He stated his loss at £160 by the fire his store was saved. We furnished him with some cups and saucers plates tumblers, &c., &c., tea sugar and soap.

Thursday, 20. Concluded the building of an oven which was commenced on Monday morning by Mr. Davis, my brother and myself. It called forth all our skill ingenuity and patience to construct the roof but by filling the centre with sand we formed a very good arch and fitted the bricks in very tight. This is a valuable piece of furniture and as our family is now sixteen europeans we shall find it of considerable relief to labour.

Friday, 21. At sun rise Mr. Fairburn and I went up the Waikari. page 92 The natives were generally unwell not yet recovered from this illness which has been so universal. They insisted that it had been brought by Capn. Dillon's ship owing to the Doctor's having drawn two teeth of an extraordinary size of a native belonging to one of the islands at which they had touched. Many new zealanders on board had witnessed the operation this is believed by them all. We administered several doses of physic and applied some blisters. They attended well to all we had to say and had much conversation should be paid for attending. I told them this was reversing the upon the merits of the school they wished that all the children state of the question from what it was with us, for that in Europe the teachers were the persons paid. This checked their solicitation. They asked what would be a proper payment for them to give. I told them potatoes would be a very good payment for that the children stood much in need of some. They replied that it would be very good, but I have no expectation of seeing any.

Saturday, 22. As the wind had been exceedingly boisterous lately from the Westd. I determined today to walk overland to the Keri-keri rather than go by water as the passage would be long and tedious accordingly near noon I commenced my journey, in company with one native. The distance is perhaps not more than 14 miles but a most weary road being a succession of hills. The weather was very hot and though two months since water could be obtained at every half mile we could not discover any until we arrived close to the Kerikeri, except at one hole where it was quite warm. I suffered more from thirst than ever I had before. My mouth became quite salt, and I was apprehensive that I must have remained till the cool of the evening but encouraged in the hope of finding water I proceeded and at length came to a beautiful stream, where I immediately recovered strength. Indeed how dependent we daily are for that portion which we require and how little is the want of this most valuable part of our sustenance known among the children of men. Without water we soon grow faint and wither like grass of the field which is our image. This may show us our need of being watered from on high, that we may obtain strength and flourish as trees of the planting of the Lord. All the brethren were well and I spent a very pleasant evening. Mrs. Kemp was anxious about her little girl which may show with what difficulty the mothers would have parted with their children to have gone to the Colony to school.

Sunday, 23. After service we proceeded to Mongonui partly by water and partly by land where were several parties of natives from Waimate for the purpose of fishing. Some attended well, to others it was a very dead letter. One old man who was making a page 93 fishing net would not attend he pretended he was deaf. Of this I felt persuaded, and changed the subject. I asked him in a low voice if he would not buy some powder. This was music in his ears and restored him to his perfect hearing. This river mongonui abounds with fish there are a number of small beautiful bays on either side but the land is very barren and a succession of hills.

Monday, 24. My boat arrived about 9 o'clock from Paihia. At 2 p.m. I landed on our own beach. All well.

Tuesday, 25. As this was Christmas day the services were observed as on the sabbath. Though the first deviation during my life in the non-observation of the old English custom of partaking of roast beef and plum pudding for in these respects we become more indifferent daily as to what our portion may be. Each day has its appointed duty and requires no small consideration. After dinner at 11 o'clock we separated as usual to visit the Natives when I proceeded to the 'Haumi. Tohitapu though unwell appeared glad to see me and immediately ordered his people to assemble. He told me that one family he had been very angry with (Terange) because he would not attend and that he understood he had been insolent to me some time since when he was absent, he had therefore sent him away and asked me when he should recall him. I told him that he had been very insolent, but that he had better send for him back. In the course of our conversation Tohi insisted that he was a believer in God and Jesus Christ for that formerly he was angry a little and killed and bewitched numbers and always delighted in wickedness but now he sat at his place, he slept all Sunday, that we had told him to cast away his evil dispositions and he had done so, that we had told him not to fight, this also he had attended to, &c., &c. I replied that he was a believer in proportion as he hated sin and loved him who had paid the debt of sin. Upon the whole I was pleased with him, and hope he may yet be brought to feel his condition. He has proved of service to us and may yet do so for he is a man of considerable note and influence, and as we may yet see many conflicting seasons amongst this extraordinary people we must keep him near us. 'Hongi's death appears approaching when to all human probability there will be much confusion. Tinana90, a Chief of Waimate, told the brethren of the Kerikeri the other day that they would have to look out when that event took place for that they certainly would be stripped but that would be all. Of this we have no doubt, and it is by no means improbable that each settlement will share the same fate. It has page 94 been reported, that 'Hongi is coming to this place for the benefit of medicine but we hope not, for should he die here we shall be trampled down by the multitudes which will assemble.

Thursday, 27. My brother with Messrs. C. Davis, Fairburn and Puckey and a number of natives went this morning up the Kawakawa for the purpose of cutting timber as none is brought for purchase. My boys commenced the digging of a well close to the house, and cut through 7 feet of sand before they came to clay which was not more than 2 feet deep after which was rock.

Friday, 28. At daylight the mother of Tangatanui came and brought her back. She is a promising little girl but ran off a few days since because some of the others had scolded her for breaking a bason. We were glad to see her back. Tearapero a chief residing near us whose relation had been outlawed for some time past brought his brother who had killed some geese of mine about a year since to make peace: he presented 5 ketes of potatoes which I received with much pleasure, and our differences were accordingly settled. As Mr. Davis and myself were the only Europeans in the settlement the natives were unavoidably left to themselves. At the School Mr. D. took the english boys and I was required elsewhere but had an opportunity of watching the movements of the School, and was exceedingly pleased to observe the order which prevailed. There were four classes a monitor to each but as much attention was paid as though we all had been present. They make considerable progress and their desire to learn cannot be exceeded by any in our own land. Men women and children the gentry of the different orders and their slaves all are on one footing with us and classed together according to their knowledge. Rangituke called this morning to say that Tekoke and himself intended to build a new settlement at his point as they all wished to be nearer to us. This will be very much better in many points of view and humanly speaking will place on a more substantial footing than heretofore and enable us to present a more formidable appearance to these stripping parties which are continually passing on every side.

Saturday, 29. At noon left Paihia for Rangihou with the view of passing the Sabbath with the brethren there. On my landing I learnt that Mrs. Shepherd had been safely delivered of a boy three weeks before, both she and the infant are doing well. Took up my lodging at their house.

Sunday, 30. Every appearance of rain, which is greatly wanted as the ground is dried up. In the afternoon the rain descended by which we were prevented from going out. Had much agreeable conversation with Messrs. Shepherd and King, and happy to observe a general improvement. Mr. King has a considerable number page 95 of children that is native children under instruction to whom he pays a great deal of attention. It is true he has neither much energy nor method, but there is no doubt that he goes on as well as he can. He is a pious man and has endured many trials in the land.

Monday, 31. Retd. to Paihia. All well. Mr. Stack from Waihou Hokeanga had arrived to obtain advice.

1 Te Koki, chief of Kawakawa and Paihia, protector of the Paihia missionaries and their helper in their efforts to end the tribal wars. In 1818 he sent his son, Te Ahara, to Marsden at Parramatta, where he died. As utu for his son's death, Te Koki asked Marsden for a missionary. Another son, Rangituke, was killed at Tamaki in 1828. Te Koki died in February 1829, and his wife, Hamu, a strong personality, went to live at Paihia with the missionaries.

2 Taiamai was one of the four mission districts attached to the Paihia mission. The name is often mentioned in missionary journals and letters, but it has long been out of use and is now difficult to locate. Marsden described it as a district in which several pas were situated. Richard Davis wrote of, “Taiamai at the foot of Pukenui”. Elder quotes L. G. Kelly as his authority in applying the name to a large, upstanding rock in a field about two miles south of Ohaeawai. [Marsden L. & J., p207f.]

3 William T. Fairburn with his wife and two children arrived in the Bay of Islands on 3 August 1823, on the Brampton, with Marsden and Henry Williams. A carpenter, he helped Henry Williams to build the first house at Paihia. In 1833 he went with Henry Williams, A. N. Brown and John Morgan to the Thames and Matamata districts to explore the field for a mission station. As a catechist he accompanied John Morgan, James Preece and John A. Wilson to establish a station at Puriri. His son, Edward, became an accomplished Maori linguist and a progressive surveyor. His daughter, Elizabeth, married Colenso.

4 Captain Brind was captain of the Emily and afterwards of the Toward Castle whaling brigs, and a constant visitor to the Bay. He married, according to Maori custom, a daughter of Pomare, but was rather promiscuous in his affairs with Maori girls. His indiscretions caused the notorious “Girls' War”, and in that war he supplied arms to Pomare. Condemned by the missionaries, he retaliated by associating himself with Captain Peter Dillon in attacking their characters. Brind built and lived in a somewhat ornate house at Matawhi, near Kororareka.

5 The schooner built at Paihia in 1825. [See Appendix IV.]

6 A regular meeting of the ordained missionaries with some others co-opted.

7 The old spelling for Kerikeri [See Appendix II.] The brethren were Messrs. J. Kemp and George Clarke.

8 Captain Robert Duke, a whaling captain, who resided at Kororareka to convalesce after a serious illness. He was master of the Sisters which took the Wellington back to Port Jackson after she was recaptured from her convict mutineers.

9 James Shepherd and John King. Rangihoua was the original station of the Church Missionary Society established by Marsden in 1814.

10 Nagapuhi was the general name given to all the tribes in the Bay of Islands area.

11 Hongi Hika, the distinguished Ngapuhi chief who at this period dominated the Maori tribes. In 1814 he visited Sydney with Kendall, and, returning to New Zealand with Marsden, gave his support in the establishing of the C.M.S. Mission. In 1820 in the whaler New Zealander he and his near relative, Waikato, visited England, where he assisted Kendall and Professor Samuel Lee in compiling a Maori grammar and dictionary. Much of his attention was given to the securing of arms, so that on his return to New Zealand he was able to begin his campaign of conquest. He died in 1828.

12 This was the punitive expedition made by Hongi against the Ngati-Pou of Whangaroa, in which Hongi received the wound which resulted in his death fourteen months later. [Carleton, vol. I, p65n; Marsden L. & J., pp424, 428ff; Smith, Wars, pp196-7.]

13 Warned by the tragic fall of Kendall, the missionaries were forced to be careful not to encourage too close an intimacy with the whaling captains, not only because of the harm such intimacy might do to their reputations, but also because it might make it appear that they condoned the whalers' traffic in firearms and their immoral conduct with Maori women.

14 The Missionary Register was a monthly magazine of the Church Missionary Society which published regular reports on all its overseas stations. For many years it was used by historians as a primary source for details of the years before the Treaty of Waitangi. Its reports were culled from the missionary journals and letters sent to the Society, and suffered from distortions and inaccuracies through the ignorance of the compilers.

15 Paihia was the third missionary station in the Bay of Islands. Te Puna was the first station, Kerikeri the second, and Waimate the fourth to be established. The site was given by Te Koki's wife, Hamu. As utu for his son, who died at Parramatta, Te Koki demanded a missionary, and the Paihia mission station was established in 1823 under Henry Williams. In contradiction of some theories about the derivation of the name, it should be pointed out that Paihia was the long-established Maori name for the area.

16 This vessel “had been sent from Port Jackson with sixty-five felons to Norfolk Island. The sentence of death had been recorded against many of these men for crimes committed in the Colony. The felons took the Wellington and carried her into the Bay of Islands.” [Marsden L. & J., p424.]

17 Kororareka, now known as Russell, situated on the opposite side of the bay from Paihia, in 1826 was already well established as a resort for the crews of whaling vessels and a place of deserved ill reputation.

18 This was Philip Tapsel, who later traded at Maketu. He was a Dane, who at the age of fourteen went to sea in a Danish brig, and assumed the name of Tapsel. During an adventurous life he came to New Zealand in the whaler New Zealander, and assisted in the punishment of Te Pahi for the destruction of the Boyd. In 1827 under Captain Duke in the Sisters, he came to the Bay of Islands and helped to recapture the brig Wellington from its convict mutineers. In 1830 he established himself as a trader at Maketu, but lost everything when Maketu was sacked by Te Waharoa in 1836.

19 The Rev. Nathanael Turner, Wesleyan missionary, arrived at the Bay of Islands with Samuel Marsden and Henry Williams in 1823, and became colleague to the Rev. William White at Kaeo. In 1827 Hongi's warriors attacked the station and it was abandoned. Turner was appointed to Tonga, but in 1836 returned to New Zealand to take charge of the Wesleyan station at Mangungu. In 1839 he returned to New South Wales.

20 Richard Davis came to New Zealand in 1824 as a missionary agriculturist of the C.M.S. He established a valuable garden at Paihia, and in 1831 created a farm at Waimate which was highly praised by Charles Darwin. He was ordained in 1843 and appointed to Kaikohe. He died in 1863.

21 The Wesleyan Mission in New Zealand originated in 1819 when the Rev. Samuel Leigh, then stationed in New South Wales, came to New Zealand for the benefit of his health on the recommendation of Samuel Marsden. The mission was established at Kaeo, Whangaroa, in 1823.

22 The party consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Turner and their three children, Messrs. Hobbs and Stack, and Luke Wade and his wife. The last named were the pakeha servants of the Wesleyan missionaries.

23 James Shepherd, born at Sydney in 1796, visited New Zealand with Marsden in 1817. An expert gardener and agriculturist, in 1820 he was sent to the Bay of Islands to satisfy Te Morenga's request for a missionary. In 1823 he went to Kaeo, but when Leigh was removed because of illness he went to Te Puna. Later at Paihia he assisted the Rev. William Williams in the translation of the New Testament which was published in 1837. In 1840 he was appointed to Whangaroa where he remained for thirty-seven years.

24 John King was an English cobbler, who in 1809 at the age of twenty-two, entered the service of the C.M.S. and took lessons in flax-dressing and twine-spinning. Arriving at Rangihoua in 1814, he acted as a catechist and taught the local Maoris agriculture.

25 Wharepoaka was a son of Rakau, of Rangihoua, of the Hikutu hapu and was one of Hongi's fighting chiefs. He was a brother of Waikato. William Williams called him “a chief of mild manners and great intelligence”. [W.W., Journal, 30 April 1826.]

26 The plan developed as a result of the attack on the Wesleyan station at Kaeo. This left the C.M.S. missionaries with a feeling of insecurity, which was not lessened by the certainty that, at that period, the death of Hongi, or that of any of the leading chiefs, would be the occasion of an attack on them. If that happened, the plan was to establish in New South Wales a colony consisting of the missionaries and their families, the Christian Maoris and such other Maoris who would be willing to go. The idea came to nothing because by the time of Hongi's death the missionaries had become well established among the tribes. Had Hongi died earlier than he did, there is no doubt but that the mission stations would have suffered severely. This plan must not be confused with that of Marsden's “Seminary”. [Marsden L. & J., p446f.]

27 Wharenui, of Paroa, more commonly called Wharerahi, was one of the most influential of the Ngapuhi chiefs of the period, and for many years was a peacemaker among the northern tribes. He was a brother of Rewa and Moka.

28 Rewa, or Maanu, of the Ngaitawake section of Ngapuhi, was a brother of Wharerahi and Moka, and one of Hongi's leading generals. After the death of Hongi and Pomare he became the greatest of the Ngapuhi commanders. Marsden was greatly impressed by his ability and character. He became a Christian and assisted Henry Williams in the task of establishing among the tribes a regime of law and order. He was involved in the “Girls' War”, but actively assisted the missionaries in the endeavour to find a settlement. He died in 1862.

29 For a note on the spelling, see Appendix II.

30 This is the missionaries' translation of muru, to plunder. Muru was an ancient custom of plundering an individual, or a group, for an offence against the tribe. Any person who suffered from an accident or from an illness was regarded as having committed an injury against the tribe, and so was “stripped” as a punishment. The greater the rank of the person, the greater was the offence regarded, and the act of muru was looked upon as a compliment to the person plundered.

31 James Hamlin, an English flax-dresser and weaver, came with the Rev. William Williams to the Bay of Islands in 1826. At Waimate and at Kerikeri he worked as a catechist. In 1835 he went to Mangapouri and in 1836 was given charge of the Manukau station. When he went to Wairoa, Hawkes Bay, in 1844, he was ordained deacon, and in 1863 was ordained priest.

32 George Clarke, an English gunsmith, came to New Zealand in the French corvette Coquille in 1824. Stationed at Kerikeri, he won the friendship of Hongi, and soon became proficient in the Maori language. Governor Hobson appointed him Protector of Aborigines in 1841, but five years later Governor Grey abolished the office. Clarke was then appointed New Zealand secretary of the Church Missionary Society, but with Henry Williams was dismissed in 1849. For a term he represented the Bay of Islands on the Auckland Provincial Council, and for some years was a judge of the Native Land Court.

33 This was the expedition led by Te Koki's son, Rangituke, who was killed at Tamaki.

34 Pomare, a powerful chief whose pa, Otuihu, was situated at the junction of the Kawakawa and Waikare rivers, opposite the present wharf at Opua. He was one of Hongi's leading chiefs. Originally named Whetoi, he took the name of Pomare from the ruling chief at Tahiti, who greatly impressed him. In 1826 he was killed at Te Rore, near Matakitaki, in the Waikato, and was succeeded by his nephew, Whetoi, who also assumed the name of Pomare.

35 The Thames Estuary. “Cook gave the name of Thames River to what is now known as the Hauraki Gulf, the Firth of Thames, and the Waihou River.” [McNab, Tasman to Marsden, p27.]

36 Mr Strong was expected as an addition to the missionary staff in the Bay of Islands, but was diverted to another field.

37 James Kemp, a Norfolk smith, who came to the Bay of Islands in 1819 with the Rev. J. G. Butler. Stationed at Kerikeri, he helped to build the school and served as smith, storekeeper and schoolteacher until 1852. He died in 1872.

38 Tohitapu, chief of the Roroa tribe, whose pa was at Haumi. He was a famous warrior and tohunga. To him fell the body of Captain Marion Dufresne for the cannibal feast after the massacre of him and his crew in 1772. [Carleton, pp38–9.]

39 H.M.S. Rainbow.

40 Captain the Hon. H. J. Rous. afterwards Admiral, was a son of the first Lord Stradbroke. In the House of Commons debate on New Zealand in 1845, he warmly defended Governor Fitzroy. One of the early explorers of Australia, he discovered in 1829 the Richmond and Clarence rivers. Ipswich in Queensland Stradbroke Island and the County of Rous were named in his honour. [Marsden L. & J., p424.]

41 John William Williams who represented the Bay of Islands in the Provincial Council from 1863 to 1865, and represented Mongonui and the Bay of Islands in Parliament from 1873 to 1879. He died in 1904.

42 Charles Davis was no relation of Richard Davis, although he came to New Zealand with him. A carpenter, he remained four years serving as a catechist and, in 1828, returned to England where he married. On their journey back to New Zealand, he and his wife were lost when the ill-fated Haweis disappeared without trace.

43 Motu-o-rangi, a small island opposite Paihia.

44 Christian Rangi was an old chief of Te Parawhau hapu of Whangarei, who came to Waitangi with his family in 1824. “The people of Bream Bay, Whangarei, who were Hongi's allies, felt insecure in their position, which was a sort of borderland between the hostile tribes; and through fear of the Thames natives they came to live at the Bay of Islands.” [W.W., Christianity among the New Zealanders, p60.] Rangi was the first Maori chief baptized into the Christian faith. His brothers were Wini and Tioka. [H.W. to C.M.S., 10 September and 26 December 1825. W.W., Journal, 28 May 1826.]

45 Tareha, a Ngapuhi chief of the Ngati-Rehua, was a very large man and a renowned colleague of Hongi Hika. He lived at Kerikeri and Taka. In 1815 he took part in the killing and eating of sailors of the New Zealander in revenge for their robbing his garden. There is an excellent account of him in Richard Taylor's New Zealand and its Inhabitants, pp517–19. There were three chiefs of this name. Kaiteke, the famous tohunga, was first called Tareha, and it was he who owned Te Ti, at the mouth of the Waitangi River. [L. J. Kelly: J.P.S., vol. 47, p167.]

46 Horotutu, the next beach to Paihia towards the Waitangi River.

47 The people of Korokoro, Te Rangi, Tuhi, &c., who were driven out of Paroa Bay by Hongi in 1826.

48 The Rev. James Norman was for health reasons transferred from the Sierra Leone station of the C.M.S. and arrived in New South Wales in February 1827. He was expected to come to New Zealand to take charge of the boys' school, but he was sent instead to Laurenston and later to Port Dalrymple in Tasmania. [Missionary Register, 1830, p42; 1831, p36.]

49 This refers to the failure of Captain Herd in his endeavour to found a colony of settlers under the direction of the first New Zealand Company. This company was formed in 1825, and in 1826 it sent the Rosanna with some fifty mechanics on board under command of Captain Herd. Some iand in the Thames, including the islands of Waiheke and Pakihi, was bought, but the appearance of the Maoris in a haka frightened the settlers and they left for the Bay of Islands. Early in 1827 the Rosanna arrived at Hokianga. Here Herd bought land at Herd's Point, near the present Rawene, but again the appearance of the Maoris aroused their fears, and the ship sailed on for Sydney, leaving only a few settlers behind.

50 The Rev. William White came to New Zealand with the Rev. Nathanael Turner in 1822, and the next year joined the Rev. S. Leigh in the newly formed Wesleyan mission at Kaeo. Whangaroa. When Leigh resigned, White became superintendent of the Wesleyan mission in New Zealand. In 1827, when Kaeo was sacked, White was absent in England. Returning in 1830, he became superintendent of the mission in Mangungu. In 1836 he was dismissed.

51 The correct spelling, which Williams uses later, is Weiss. He had spent five years as a midshipman in the navy. Sent by the Wesleyan mission to Tonga, he was not allowed to stay and returned to Sydney.

52 Motuorangi.

53 Richard Davis also had the task of seeing some translated portions of Scripture through the press. These were Genesis 1–3; Exodus 20: 1–17; Mathew 5: 1–30; John 1; the Lord's Prayer and seven hymns. [H. W. Williams, Bibliography of Printed Maori, p2.]

54 Captain Peter Dillon, an Irish seaman who visited Tonga about 1809 and traded in the East and in the Pacific for twenty years. In 1814 he was captain of the Active which brought Hall and Kendall to the Bay of Islands to test the proposal to establish a N.Z. mission. He visited New Zealand in 1823, 1825 and 1826, and also in later years. In 1827 he was given command of the Research by the East India Company and authorised to search for the lost La Perouse. In his Narrative of the Successful Result of a Voyage in the South Seas, published in 1829, he severely criticised the New Zealand missionaries of the C.M.S. It was due to his insistence that the Roman Catholic mission was started in New Zealand.

55 Research, of the East India Company.

56 This was the pakeha-maori, Jacky Marmon, who, according to his own story, was born in New South Wales in 1800, visited New Zealand at the age of five, served later as a cabin boy on a sealer, came to the Bay of Islands on a whaler in 1811, and about 1824, deserting from a ship, settled at Hokianga under the protection of Muriwai. He married a Maori girl, Hau-uru, and, when she died, married the daughter of a Mangamuka chief. A poorly educated man, he was undoubtedly a rascal, and rumour reported that he shared in cannibal feasts. He died in Auckland in 1880.

57 A mixture of flour and water sweetened with sugar, of which the Maoris were very fond. The Maori name was kororirori.

58 Captain John Rodolphus Kent, a ship master and trader, in 1820 as captain of the Prince Regent schooner entered the Hokianga River, and was probably the first European captain to do so. Later in the year he sailed with a Maori pilot through waters unknown to Europeans down the coast and across the Thames estuary as far as Coromandel. He was farming for a period at Hokianga, trading in muskets and powder. Later with four companions he became a pakeha-maori at Kawhia, and finally Ngaruawahia. On 1 January 1837 Hamlin records in his journal, “Captain Kent died at Kahowai, Manukau, and was interred here in a sacred place.” In his book Augustus Earle states that Kent had applied for assistance in vain to the C.M.S. missionaries, but in a letter to the C.M.S. dated 27 May 1833, Henry Williams says that Kent “denied that any application was made by him”. [McNab, Historical Records, vol. II, pp497, 649, 652–3; Earle, New Zealand in 1827, pp9, 14, 165; L. G. Kelly, Tainui, p423f.]

59 Butler came to New Zealand with his father, the Rev. John Butler, on 12 August 1819. He was employed as catechist and teacher in the mission until November 1823. Later he settled as a trader in Hokianga and was drowned in the Hokianga River in 1836.

60 Marsden's Vale. The name given by Henry Williams to the mission station at Paihia.

61 The superintendent of the Wesleyan mission at Tonga.

62 Rurerure.

63 Tauranga is used loosely here. This teretere was from Rotorua.

64 Moka, also known as Te Kainga-mataa, was a brother of Rewa and Wharerahi, and a distinguished chief among Hongi's warriors, fighting at Te Totara, Mataki-taki and at Te Ika-a-ranganui, where he was severely wounded. Henry Williams found him impudent, quarrelsome, impetuous, stubborn and ill-disposed to the pakeha.

65 Taiwhanga, a chief of the Uriohau hapu of Ngapuhi who lived at Kaikohe, was another of Hongi's great fighting chiefs. In 1823 he learned gardening under the Rev. J. G. Butler and visited Marsden at Parramatta. After the battle of Te Ika-a-ranganui, he became a devout and consistent Christian, refusing to join in war parties, and living under the authority of the Paihia missionaries. He was baptized in 1830 under the name of Rawiri [David]. He became a dependable leader and a forceful preacher.

66 Rangituke, the son of Te Koki. In 1828 he assembled a war party to avenge the death of Pomare who had been killed at Te Rore. The Ngati-Paoa and Ngati-Tupa were ready for them and defeated them in battle on Motutapu Island, just opposite the mouth of the Tamaki River. Te Rangituke and his warriors were killed, with the exception of one canoe containing twenty men. S. Percy Smith and L. G. Kelly hold that the defeat of Rangituke was in April or May 1827, but Henry Williams records several meetings with Rangituke after that date, in particular on 18 March 1828, “Rangituke went early this morning to take council with Tareha, Rewa, Tohitapu, Te Morenga at Kororareka”. [Smith, Wars, p390ff; Kelly, Tainui, p375f.]

67 “It is to be noted that in the old missionary records the East Cape seems to include any place south of Mercury Bay.” [Marsden L. & J., p155n.]

68 Marupo was of the Ngati-Rahirahi, or Maturuhuruhu tribe, and lived at Pouerua. Principal chief of Waitangi, a nephew of Te Kamera and elder brother of Mahikai, he was a noted warrior and as noted a rascal and a savage.

69 William Gilbert Puckey came with his father, William Puckey, in 1819 to erect mission buildings at Kerikeri. Entering the service of the C.M.S. as a layman in 1821, he continued in that service all his life. In 1831 he married Matilda, daughter of Richard Davis, and in 1833 assisted the Rev. Joseph Matthews to establish a mission at Kaitaia. An accomplished Maori linguist, he collaborated with the Rev. William Williams in the translation of the New Testament in 1837 and its revision in 1844.

70 Te Puke was one of the stations served by Richard Davis. It was bought by Busby in 1839, and is now known as Mount Bledisloe, being part of the Waitangi estate presented to the nation by Lord Bledisloe in 1932.

71 Te Koikoi had the reputation of being the most savage of Hongi's chiefs, taking part in many of the wars of the period, often in company with Rewa. His kainga was at Waimate.

72 Te Rangi, brother of Korokoro and Tuhi of Paroa. All three chiefs were associated in welcoming Marsden and the missionaries in 1814.

73 Korokoro, a famous chief of Paroa, who visited Marsden at Parramatta in 1814, returning with him in the Active. He shared in the welcome to the missionaries, and was present with his warriors on the occasion of Marsden's historic sermon, but continued his warrior's way, accompanying Te Morenga and Hongi in various campaigns. He was succeeded by his brother Tuhi, when he died from wounds at Katikati in 1823.

74 James Stack joined the Wesleyan mission in New Zealand under Leigh in 1823, and was the only member of the Wesleyan mission who was familiar with the Maori language. In 1827 when the mission was abandoned, he went to Sydney, but returned soon afterwards and chose Mangungu for the re-establishment of the mission under Hobbs. In 1831 he went to England to study for Holy Orders, but accepted lay service under the C.M.S., and in 1835 was appointed to Manga-pouri under Hamlin. Trouble with the Maoris caused his transfer to the Bay of Islands where he remained until 1838, when he went to Tauranga. In 1842 he went to the East Cape as locum tenens to the Rev. William Williams. Ill health caused his return to England in 1847.

75 Gilbert Mair visited the Bay of Islands in his own vessel in 1821 and settled there three years later. He assisted Henry Williams in the building of the Herald, which he commanded until its wreck at Hokianga in 1828. Marrying Elizabeth, sister of William G. Puckey, he lived at Paihia till 1832, when he set up as a trader at Wahapu. Mair and Busby were partners in exporting timber, gum and flax, and in land, at Ngunguru.

76 Jane Elizabeth, who married her cousin Henry Williams jnr.

77 Hepatahi, chief of Te Aute.

78 This entry was in the typescript from the C.M.S., London, but was not on the microfilm copy.

79 Patuone was the elder brother of Tamati Waka Nene, and famed as a great warrior. He was protector of the missionaries and also of Thomas McDonell's shipyard at Herd's Point. Baptized by Henry Williams with the Christian names of Eruera Maihi [Edward Marsh], he became a devout Christian. He married the sister of Te Kupenga, the Ngati-Paoa chief of Whakatiwai, and went to live there in the 1830s.

80 John Hobbs, a coachbuilder from the Isle of Thanet, came to New Zealand with Marsden and Henry Williams in 1823, and joined the Wesleyan mission at Kaeo. After the destruction of that station, he and Stack opened a station at Mangungu in 1828. In 1833 he went to Tonga, but later returned to New Zealand and served his Church with zeal and integrity. He died in 1883.

81 Miss Bedford had recently come from England to join the Wesleyan mission.

82 Mrs. Wade, wife of Luke Wade, servant to the Wesleyan missionaries.

83 The islands off Whangaroa Harbour and Matauri Bay.

84 Te Morenga, a famous chief of the Uri-kapana hapu of Ngapuhi, whose kainga was at Taiamai. He became the trusted friend of Marsden, and, though a great warrior, was a friend to the missionaries and a protagonist for English authority to be established in New Zealand. He was a party to the sale of land at Pakaraka to Henry Williams in 1833.

85 Huhu, a chief of the Taiamai, who died at Manowenua about the end of 1837.

86 Tupe, a Ngaituhunga chief of Whangaroa, wounded in the “Girls' War”. He was baptized by the Rev. William Williams in 1835.

87 Augustus Earle, an English artist, who landed in Hokianga in 1827 and travelled overland to the Bay of Islands. He spent six months sketching and studying the Maori people from his headquarters in Kororareka. In 1832 he published The Narrative of a Nine Months' Residence in New Zealand. The book attacked the C.M.S. missionaries, and caused a great deal of trouble. His criticisms were so ill-founded that they merited the rebuke of Baron von Huegel, an Austrian botanist who visited New Zealand on H.M.S. Alligator in 1834, quoted in George Clarke's journal of 31 March 1834: “De work did begin wit a lie, it went on wit a lie, and it did end wit a lie.”

88 The name given to the first house built at Paihia.

89 Kira, a chief collaborating with Tareha. His kainga was at Matauri. His son had lived with Marsden at Parramatta for twelve months, and returned with him in the Active to New Zealand.

90 Tinana, of Waimate, a relative of Hongi and one of his fighting chiefs. There were other chiefs of this name.