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A Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, with English and Samoan vocabulary

5. Verbs

5. Verbs

Most of the verbs are primitive or underived words; as tu, to stand; nofo, to sit. Compound verbs are readily formed by prefixing faʻa or faʻale; as faʻalealofa, to love but little, lit., like not loving. Others are formed by prefixing mata; as mataita, angry-looking. So also with loto; as ua lotoleaga, he is evil disposed. And so with many other words. Many nouns may be turned into verbs by adding the verbal particles: as loto, the heart; ua loto, he desires; ita, anger; ua ita o ia, he is angry; puaʻa, pig; faʻapuaʻa, swinish.

Some few verbs are formed from prepositions; as lumanaʻi, from luma; tuanaʻi, to have passed behind, from tua, behind; lugalugaʻi, from luga.

The reduplication of the first syllable, as with the adjective, makes the plural. The reduplication of both syllables gives a diminutive or frequentative force to the verb:—

Plural. Freq. and Dim.
Folo, to swallow. fofolo. folofolo.
Galu, to be rough (sea). gagalu. galugalu.
Iʻati, to clap hands. papati. patipati.
Velo, to dart. vevelo velovelo.
Nofo, to sit. nonofo. nofonofo.
ʻEmo, to wink. ʻeʻemo. ʻemoʻemo.
Umi, long. uumi. umiumi

In words of three syllables, when the last, or two last, are doubled, the first vowel is usually lengthened; as manatu, to think; manatunatu; manuʻa, manunuʻa; manifi, manifinifi; savali, savalivali.

An examination of the most common verbs in the Samoan shows that the plural is formed in nine different ways, as under:—

  • 71 reduplicate the first syllable.

  • 61 are the same in both singular and plural numbers.

  • 33 take the prefix fe and a suffix which ends in i.

    page 15
  • 22 reduplicate the second syllable.

  • 16 reduplicate the third or fourth syllable.

  • 11 drop a syllable.

  • 9 make the vowel in the first syllable long.

  • 3 reduplicate two syllables, or the entire word.

  • 5 are of irregular formation.

Some examples of the first class, which is most common—viz., those which reduplicate the first syllable—have been given.

The following verbs form the plural by a reduplication of the second syllable:—

Singular. Plural.
aulaʻi, to be heaped up. aulalaʻi.
ʻaumoe, to go courting. ʻaumomoe.
afi, to do up in a bundle. afifi.
afio, to come, to go, etc. afifio.
alaga, to call, shout. alalaga.
alofa, to love. alolofa.
aluga, to rest the head on a pillow. aluluga.
fatai, to sit cross-legged. fatatai.
fanau, to bring forth. fananau.
fetutaʻi, to join by a knot. fetututaʻi.
galue, to work. galulue.
gape, to be broken. gapepe.
maʻona, to be satisfied (with food). maʻoʻona.
mafai, to be able. mafafai.
malemo, to be drowned. malelemo.
maliu, to die. muliliu.
mataʻu, to fear. mataiaʻu.
salofia, to be starved. salolofia.
taʻele, to bathe. taʻeʻele.
taʻolo, to lie down. taʻoʻoto.
tafao, to walk about. tafafao.
taʻalo, to sport. taʻaʻalo.

The following form the plural by a reduplication of the third (two the fourth) syllable. It will be noticed that these are all compound words, and that the reduplication is on the second word in the compound; hence it is thrown on to the third or even the fourth syllable:—

Singular. Plural.
anapogi, to fast. anapopogi.
faʻalanu, to wash off salt water. faʻalalanu.
faʻamomo, to break in pieces. faʻamomomo
faʻalaʻalo, to make to sport. faʻataʻaʻalo.
faʻataʻoto, to lay down. faʻataʻoʻolo.
faʻatafa, to step aside. faʻatatafa.
faʻatu, to set up. faʻatutu.
faʻaiusa, to compare. faʻatutusa.
laulautu, to stand up together laulaututu.page 16
lemafai, to be unable. lemafafai.
mulilua, to commit adultery. mulilulua.
taumafa, to eat. taumamafa.
taʻafili, to wallow. taʻafifili.
taʻalise, to be quick. taʻalilise.
taʻatia, to be prostrate. taʻatitia.
taʻavale, to roll. taʻavavale.

The following form the plural by a reduplication of two syllables, or the entire word:—

Singular. Plural.
una, to pinch. unauna.
fiti, to fillip. fitifiti.
matavale, to look cowardly. matamatavale.
fanau, to bring forth. fanafanau.

There are several monosyllabic verbs which make the plural by reduplication, such as fo, to doctor; pl. fofo; pa, to explode; pl. papa; tu, to stand; pl. tutu.

In forming the plural the following verbs drop a syllable. But it will be seen that the singular form is reduplicated:—

Singular. Plural.
faʻaitiiti, to make smaller. faʻaiti.
faʻaloaloa, to stretch out. faʻaloloa.
faʻamalimali, to speak with familiarity. faʻamamali.
faʻanevaneva, to walk about idle. faʻaneneva.
faʻataavalevale, to roll round. faʻataavavale.
lagilagi, to warm. lalagi.
liʻoliʻo, to surround. liliʻo.
matamata, to look at. mamata.
pilipili, to be near, to approach. pipili.
tatala, to untie. tala.
mulumulu, to rub mumulu.

These verbs form the plural by lengthening the vowel in the first syllable, but without otherwise altering the word:—

Singular. Plural.
faitau, to read. faitau.
faitala, to give news faitala.
vaʻai, to look at. vaʻai.
valu, to scratch. valu.
palutu, to beat. palutu.
saʻili, to seek. saʻili.
savali, to walk. savali.
tauivi, to wrestle. tauivi.
manatu, to think. manatu.
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Some verbs form the plural by taking the prefix fe, and usually by taking a suffix, which is either i, fi, ni, si, faʻi, maʻi, naʻi, vaʻi, or toni. In one case a is inserted between the usual prefix and the root (sogi, feasogi), in some the reduplication of the singular form is dropped and in one n is inserted in the root (tulei, fetuleni).

Singular. Plural.
ʻaa, to kick. feʻaa.
ʻaau, to swim. feausi.
ʻaʻe, to ascend. feʻaʻei.
aofaʻi, to collect together. feaofaʻi.
ala, to scratch. feala.
alo, to paddle. fealofaʻi.
ʻata, to laugh. feʻatani.
inu, to drink. feinu.
ita, to be angry. feitatani.
oi, to groan. feoi.
u, to bite. feu.
utu, to fill. feutufaʻi.
filo, to mix. fefiloi.
gagana, to speak. feganavaʻi.
lata, to be near. felataʻi and lalata,
lele, to fly, felelei.
mea, to do. femeinaʻi.
mili, to rub. femili and mimili.
misa, to quarrel. femisaʻi.
momoʻe, to run. femoʻei and taufetuli.
pupula, to shine. fepulafi.
sogi, to salute. feasogi.
susu, to suck (the breast). fesusui.
tagi, to cry. fetagisi.
tago, to take hold of. fetagofi.
tatao, to press. fetaomaʻi.
tofu, to dive. fetofui.
togi, to throw. fetogi.
toso, to drag. fetoso, toso, and totoso.
toto, to bleed. fetotoi.
totolo, to crawl. felolofi.
tulei, to push. fetuleui.
paolosauni, to connect by marriage. paolofesauniaʻi.

Taufai prefixed to some verbs makes the plural intensive, as, Taufaioso, to continue jumping; Taufaipepese, to continue singing.

irregular verbs
Singular. Plural.
sau, to come. o.
alu, to go. o.
momoʻe, to run. taufetuli and femoʻei.page 18
nonoa, to tie. noati.
palasi, to drop down. palasi.
faifai, to abuse. fafai.
active verb

The verb itself undergoes no change to denote the person. The present tense either takes the pronoun first with the euphonic particle te* between it and the verb, or else the verbal particle e precedes, and the pronoun follows the verb.

present tense (and also used as a future)



ʻOu te pule, I rule.


E pule ʻoe, thou rulest.


E pule ʻo ia, he rules.



Ma te pule, or
e pule i maua, E pule i taua, } we two rule.


Lua te pule, or
e pule ʻoulua, } you two rule.


La te pule, or
e pule i laua, } they two rule.



Matou te pule, or e pule i matou,
Tatou te pule, or e pule i tatou, } we rule.


Tou te pule, or e pule ʻoutou, you rule.


Latou te pule, or e pule i latou, they rule.

ʻUa, though generally past, also sometimes designates the present; thus, ʻua maʻi ʻo ia, he is sick.

E sometimes denotes what now is, and always was so: e silisili le Atua, God is very great.

imperfect tense

Na ʻou alofa, I loved.


Na ʻe alofa, thou lovedst.


Na ia alofa, he loved.

etc. etc. etc.

Sa differs but little from na; sa ʻou nofo, I sat or was sitting.

perfect tense

ʻUa ʻou sao, I have escaped.


ʻUa ʻe sao, thou hast escaped.


ʻUa sao ia, he has escaped.

Also ʻUa ia sao, and ʻUa na sao.

etc. etc. etc.

The pluperfect is expressed by the imperfect, or by adding ʻuma: ʻua ʻuma ona taʻele ina ʻua o mai i latou, they had bathed when they arrived.

* Te is a future particle.”–Codrington.

page 19
future (immediate)

ʻO le a aʻu alu, or a aʻu alu, I am about to go.


ʻO le a ʻe alu, or o le a alu ʻoe, thou art about to go.


ʻO le a alu ʻo ia, he is about to go.

etc. etc. etc.

future (indefinite)



ʻOu te alu, or ta te alu, I shall go.


E alu ʻoe, or ʻe te alu, thou shalt go.


E alu ʻo ia, or ia te alu, or na te alu, he shall go.



Ma te o, or e o i maua,
Ta te o
, or e o i taua,
etc. etc. } we two will go.

imperative mood

Seʻi ʻou saʻili, let me seek.


Ina ʻe saʻili, or saʻili, or saʻili ia oe, seek thou.

Ia ʻe saʻili, do thou seak.


Ia saʻili, ʻo ia, let him seek.

In poetry i is used sometimes for ia: Sau i fale i ta gaguse, Come into the house that we may die together.—Fagono.

infinitive mood

E saʻili, to seek.

An infinitive appears as a noun: Ou te musu i galue, I am unwilling to work.

subjunctive mood

The subjunctive is expressed by the particles ina ia, ina ua, ona na, before the verb; thus—


Ina ia oʻu alu, that I should go.


Ina ia e alu, that you may go.


Ina ia alu o ia, that he should go.

etc. etc.

Ex. E lelei ina ia oʻu alu, It is good that I should go.


Ina ua oʻu alu, or ona ua oʻu alu, that I went.


Ina ua e alu, that he went.


Ina ua alu o ia, that he went.

etc. etc.

Ex. E lelei ina ua e alu, It is good that you went.

  • ʻO loʻo saʻili, seeking.

  • ʻO loʻo ʻua saʻilia, being sought.

  • A saʻili, about seeking.

page 20

Ona is used before verbs to form a participle: E tuai ona sau, His coming is delayed.

the passive

The passive is formed by suffxing to the root one of the following particles: ina, ia, a, fia, gia, lia, mia, sia, tia. Euphony regulates the choice of the particle in each particular word. If the word will admit of it, it is shortened; thus, muina, to be burnt; tuluia, from tutulu, to be leaked upon; saʻilia, to be sought; inofia, from inoino, to be demanded of; alofagia, to be beloved; taulia, to be fought; siʻomia. to be surrounded; ʻinosia, from ʻinoʻino, to be hated; pulutia, from pupulu, to be mediated with.

The formation of the passive, like the formation of the plural, is very complicated. No rule can be given to guide the learner. Euphony alone seems to regulate the choice of the particle in each word. And euphony may be one thing to a native, and another thing to a European learning the language. In order to help learners, I give below lists of many of the most common verbs, except those which form the passive in ina, which are the most numerous. In the dictionary, where the passive form of a verb is not given, it may, as a rule, be taken for granted that it is in ina. The greater part of the verbs which take the causative prefix (see next section) also form the passive in ina. In the following lists those forms which are most largely used come first.

I. Verbs which form the Passive in a
ʻaami, to fetch, ʻamia. lele, to fly, lelea.
aʻs, to ascend, aʻea. lemafai, to be unable, lemafaia.
au, to carry away, aea, liaʻi, to pull up, liaʻia and liaʻiina.
afe, to call at, afea. manatu, to think, manatua.
ave, to take, avea. manino, to be clear, maninoa.
ʻoomi, to squeeze, ʻomia. moe, to sleep, moea.
ʻoosi, to scratch, ʻosia, muimui, to grumble, muia and muimuia.
osi, to make, osia.
faʻaali, to show, faʻaalia. numi, to be involved, numia.
fai, to do, faia. paʻi to touch, paʻia.
faifai, to abuse, faia. palu, to mix, palua.
fao, to rob, faoa. pipisi, to be infected, pisia.
fafao, to pack in basket, faoa and faoina. puʻe, to seize, puʻea.
saʻili, to seek, saʻilia.
fafagu, to waken, fagua. salo, to repeat over and over, saloa.
fanau, to bring forth, fanaua. sapasapai, to take in the arms, sapasapaia.
fasi, to beat, fasia.
fati, to break, fatia, sasae, to tear, saea.
fue, to beat, fuea. segi, to snatch, segia.
fusi, to tie, fusia. sili, to question, silia.
futi, to pluck feathers, futia. soli, to trample on, solia.
gaui, to break, gauia. sosolo, to creep, soloa.
gali, to gnaw, galia. suʻe, to search, suʻea.
lagilagi, to warm, lagia. sufi, to choose, sufia.page 21
taʻele, to bathe, taʻelea. toto, to bloed, totoa.
tao, to bake, taoa and taoina. tuʻi, to thump, tuʻia.
taʻu, to tell, taʻua and taʻuina. tuu, to place, tuua and tuuina.
tausi, to take care of, tausia. tuli, to drive away, tulia.
tafe, to flow, tafea. vaʻai, to see, vaʻaia.
tali, to receive, talia. vagavagai, to surround, vagaia.
teu, to adorn, teua. valu, to scrape, valua.
tinei, to extinguish, tineia. vavae, to divide, vaea.
togi, to throw, togia.
II. Verbs which form the Passive in tia
ini, to pinch, initia. paʻu, to fall, paʻutia.
oʻo, to arrive at, oʻotia. pupulu, to intercede for, pulutia.
u, to bite, utia. pupuni, to shut, punitia.
fono, to hold a council, fonotia. saisai, to bind, saisaitia.
lamalama, to watch for, lamatia. sau, to bedew, sautia.
mataʻu, to fear, mataʻutia. siʻi, to lift, siʻitia.
na, to conceal, natia. sola, to escape, solatia.
nau, to desire, nautia. sua, to grub up, suatia.
nonoa, to tie, noatia. taumafa, to eat, taumafatia.
III. Verbs which form the Passive in sia
aʻa, to kick, aʻasia. gau, to break, gausia.
elo, to stink, elosia. laʻa, to step over, laʻasia.
ʻinoʻino, to hate, ʻinosia. milo, to twist, milosia.
ona, to be drunk, onasia. motu, to break, motusia.
faʻafoʻi, to bring back, faʻafoʻisia. tagi, to cry, tagisia.
fau, to tie together, fausia. tatalo, to pray, talosia.
folo, to swallow, folosia. tofu, to have a portion, tofusia.
fuli, to capsize, fulisia. velo, to dart, velosia.
IV. Verbs which form the Passive in gia
alofa, to love, alofagia. no, to borrow, nogia.
ʻata, to laugh, ʻatagia. pala, to rot, palagia.
ita, to be angry, itagia. pepelo, to lie, pelogia.
ʻole, to deceive, ʻolegia. po, to be benighted, pogia.
ʻote, to scold, ʻotegia. popole, to be anxious, polegia.
ula, to joke, ulagia. pusa, to send up smoke, pusagia.
uli, to steer, uligia. savili, to blow (wind), saviligia.
malulu, to cool, malugia, and malulugia. tautala, to talk, tautalagia.
V. Verbs which form the Passive in ia
asa, to be lacking, asaia. fo, to doctor, foia.
usu, to go to a fono, usuia. ganagana, to converse, ganaia.
faʻagala, to desire earnestly, faʻagalaia. moto, to strike with the fist, motoia.page 22
mulumulu, to rub, muluia. sesega, to be dim, segaia.
nofo, to sit, nofoia. sisina, to drop, sinaia.
nuti, to crush, nutiia. sulu, to light, suluia.
po, to slap, poia. susulu, to shine, suluia.
sasa, to beat, saia. vavao, to forbid, vaoia.
VI. Verbs which form the Passive in fia
alo, to paddle, alofia. sao, to escape, saofia.
inoino, to demand, inofia. sisila, to look, silafia.
oso, to jump, osofia. taofi, to hold, taofia.
ula, to smoke, ulafia. tago, to take hold of, tagofia.
una, to pinch, unafia. tilotilo, to spy, tilofia.
utu, to draw water, utufia. totolo, to creep, tolofia.
lolo, to overflow, lofia.
VII. Verbs which form the Passive in mia
inu, to drink, inumia. faʻasino, to point out, faʻasinomia.
ʻuu, to grasp, ʻumia. lago, to lean against, lagomia.
faʻalanu, to wash off salt water, faʻalanumia. siʻo, to surround, siʻomia.
tanu, to bury, tanumia.
VIII. Verbs which form the Passive in lia
au, to reach to, aulia. tau, to fight, taulia.
matau, to consider, mataulia. tautau, to hang up, tautaulia.
puna, to spring up, punalia (Tutuila). tau, to buy or sell, taulia.

As far as I can remember, only those verbs which end in tau form the passive in lia. But all verbs thus ending do not thus form the passive: faatau, to buy or sell, is faatauina; faitau, to read, is faitaulia, but more commonly faitauina.

IX. Verbs which form the Passive in na
sasaʻe, to capsize, saʻena. teteʻe, to reject, teʻena.
suʻe, to lift up, suʻena. tuʻu, to leave, tuʻuna.

The following verb lengthens the last vowel to form the passive:–

tatala, to untie, tala.

These two combine the directive particles mai and atu, and add the passive form a:

Aumai (au and mai), to bring, aumaia. Avatu (ave atu), to take, avatua.

In declension, the pronoun follows the verb in the passive.

page 23
Present Tense

(also used as future).



E alofagia aʻu, I am beloved.


E alofagia ʻoe, thou art beloved.


E alofagia ʻo ia, he is beloved.



E alofagia i maua,
E alofagia i taua
etc. etc. } we two are beloved.

Intransitive as well as transitive verbs take a passive; as ʻua nofoia le fale, the house is inhabited.

The Causative, like Hiphil in Hebrew

This is formed by prefixing faʻa to the root; as tupu, to grow; faʻatupu, to cause to grow. I. Faʻa, like fa, also denotes a diminished degree; as lata, to feel at home; le lata, not feeling at home; faʻalelata, to be not quite at home. 2. It is also used to mark comparison; as faʻatamaitiiti, to act like a child. 3. Some of this class of verbs are used intransitively; as faʻamalosi, to strengthen oneself. 4. It changes the noun to a verb, as ʻau, a handle; faʻaʻau le toʻi, to put a handle to the axe. 5. It changes the adjective to a verb, by making the thing to be what is expressed by the adjective; as leva, long; faʻaleleva, to make long. 6. It changes intransitive verbs to transitive, as ola, to live; faʻaola, to deliver. 7. Sometimes it is prefixed to verbs apparently without altering the meaning, as potopoto, faʻapotopoto, to gather together.

This and the following form are declined just as the simple, active, and passive forms of the verb:–


Ou te faʻatupu, I cause to grow.


E te faʻatupu, you cause to grow.


Na te faʻatupu, he causes to grow.

The Intensive, like Piel

Continued action is denoted by prefixing tau; as tausau, to endeavour to come; taufaʻatupu, to continue to cause to grow.

Intensity is also indicated by reduplication; as mu, to burn; mumu, to burn brightly. On the contrary, reduplication is, also used to indicate diminished action; galu, to be rough; galugalu, to be somewhat rough (of the sea). The simple root only is doubled, as suʻesuʻe, asiasi, but not a prefix; savilivili, maʻanuminumi, maʻeʻaʻeʻa.

The suffix aʻina also denotes intensity of action; faiaʻina, to be overcome, surpassed; teleaʻina, to hurry on; tuliaʻina, to drive on.

page 24
The Reciprocal, Hithpael

This is formed by prefixing fe to the root, and affixing, according to the requirement of euphony, some one of the particles ni, aʻi, faʻi, saʻi, laʻi, maʻi, naʻi; as fealofani, root, alofa, to love mutually; femaliuaʻi, root, maliu, to go about from place to place; felamataʻi, root, lamalama, to watch for one another; fetaola faʻi, root, ola, to make a fire burn brightly; fealumaʻi, root, alu, to go from place to place; fetuanaʻi, root, tua, to sit back to back.

To take along with a person is expressed by suffixing taʻi, or saʻi; as moʻetaʻi, to run with a thing; ʻausaʻi, to swim with a thing. Also by the preposition ma, with, as a aʻu alu ma aʻu; lit., I will go with me, for, I will go with it.

The suffix aʻi (interposing a consonant when euphony requires) makes the meaning emphatic; as nofoaʻi, lafoaʻi, leoleosaʻi, uligaʻi, alofaʻi.

Ma prefixed to an active verb makes it neuter; as sasaʻa, to pour out, to spill; masaʻa, spilt. Or it denotes ability; as mafai, to be able; ʻua ma manava, he can breathe. The full form, however, is much better, ʻUa mafai ona manava.*

The prefix ga expresses equality or companionship; as gatusa, to be equal; gatasi, to be together; gasolo, to glide along. It occurs only in the dual and plural numbers.

All these forms are declined in the same way as the simple primitive verb.

The Verb “To Be”

The verb to be is expressed by the verbal particles:–

  • ʻO aʻu ʻo le tagata, I am a man.

  • ʻO oe ʻo le tama, You are a boy.

  • ʻO ia ʻo le teine, She is a girl.

  • ʻO i maua ʻo fafine, We two are women.

  • ʻO i taua ʻo taulelea, We two are young men.

  • ʻO oulua ʻo aliʻi, You two are chiefs.

  • ʻO i laua ʻo faipule, They two are councillors.

  • ʻO i matou ʻo tufuga, We (exclusive) are carpenters.

  • ʻO i tatou ʻo le ʻauvaʻa, We (inclusive) are the crew.

  • ʻO outou ʻo le ʻauʻoso, You are the food-gatherers.

  • ʻO i latou ʻo tagata ʻese, They are strangers.




Ou te i ai, I will be there.


E te i ai, thou wilt be there.


E i ai o ia, he will be there.


  • Ma te i ai, we two (exclusive) will be there.

  • Ta te i ai, we two (inclusive) will be there.

  • Lua te i ai, you two will be there.

  • La te i ai, they two will be there.

* Ma is a prefix of condition.”–Codringtom, p. 137.

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Matou te i ai, we (exclusive) will be there.

Tatou te i ai, we (inclusive) will be there.


Tou te i ai, you will be there.


Latou te i ai, they will be there.




Na aʻu i ai, I was there.


Na e i ai, thou wast there.


Na i ai ʻo ia, he was there.


  • Na ma i ai, we two (exclusive) were there.

  • Na ta i ai, we two (inclusive) were there.

  • Na lua i ai, you two were there.

  • Na la i ai, they two were there.



Na matou i ai, we (exclusive) were there.

Na tatou i ai, we (inclusive) were there.


Na outou i ai, you were there.


Na latou i ai, they were there.


ʻO loo i ai ʻo ia, he is there, etc., etc.

The Interrogative is formed by adding the particle ʻea: as, ʻOu te se teine ʻea? Am I a girl? ʻO ia ʻea lenei? Is this he? And so on through the different persons. In asking the question, Is there? the relative particle ai is used with the verbal particle, as, E ai se vaʻa? Is there a canoe? Pe ai ea sou vaʻa? Have you a canoe? lit., whether is there your canoe.

On Tutuila, isi is used for to be and to have: E isi sau ava, Have you a wife?

Compound Verbs

Verbs compounded from two verbs; as, ʻAi-taoto, to eat lying down; Moetu, to sleep standing; Fasioti, to strike dead.


Verbs composed of a noun and adjective; as, Lotoleaga, to be of a bad disposition.


A verb, noun, and preposition; as, Mateimaʻalili, to be dead with cold.


Verb and noun; as, Faleola, to be a thriving family; Soloalofa, to pine from affection.


Verb with particle; as Teʻaʻeseina, to be away from; Avatua, to have it given.


Verb and adjective; as, Faʻatelevave, to cause to make haste.

Deponent Verbs

These are in very frequent use, and are distinguished from the passive by the pronoun being placed before the verb; thus, Oʻu te alofaina o ia, I love him; Ma te manatua oe, We two will remember you.

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Impersonal Verbs, Fa, Galo

faʻi, fa ita, fa aʻu mai, I thought (erroneously).


fa ʻoe, fa te ʻoe, you thought.


fa te ia, he thought.



fa te ʻi maua, we two thought, etc.

Galo, to forget.


ʻua galo ia te aʻu, I forgot.


ʻua galo ia te ʻoe, you forgot.


ʻua galo ia te ia, he forgot, etc.

Particles directives to Verbs

  • mai, direction towards the speaker. ata, direction from.

  • aʻe, above; ʻua alu aʻe, it is gone up. ifo, below, down.

  • ane, a more indirect motion, along, aside.


  • ʻua savali mai ʻo ia, he walks this way.

  • ʻua la o atu, they two are gone away.

  • ʻua alu aʻe le la, the sun has gone up.

  • ʻua alu ifo o ia, he has gone down.

  • ʻua alu ane i le ala, he has gone along in the road.

  • ʻua alu ane i le fale, he has gone aside to the house.