The Polish hostels, 1946-58
When the Polish children and their staff arrived in New Zealand in 1944, they firmly believed that their stay would be temporary and that they would return to Poland as soon as the war ended. Therefore, their schooling at the Polish Children's Camp in Pahiatua was in Polish, and all the children remained in the camp so they could better assimilate back into Polish culture. The teaching of English was kept to a minimum.
However, in February 1945, it became obvious that the children, especially the orphans, would not be returning to their homeland after the outcome of the Yalta Conference. Eastern Poland, where they had come from, had been annexed by Russia and the rest of Poland enclosed in the Soviet bloc.
As a consequence, the camp's Polish staff and the New Zealand Government began planning the relocation of the children and their future. There was much controversy. The Government was anxious to integrate the children into New Zealand society as soon as possible. But on the other hand, the Polish staff feared that if the children went among strangers then they would lose their special Polish identity and religion. Eventually, an agreement was reached between the New Zealand Government, the Polish staff and the Catholic Church on the best way of relocating the children.
Polish Boys' Hostel
The hostel's proper name in the Catholic Archives in Hill Street, Wellington, is Catholic Polish Youth Hostel, but among the Polish people it was referred to as Bursa Męska or Polish Boys' Hostel.
Sister Monika (Maria) Alexandrowicz was an Ursuline nun who, together with Sister Imelda Tobolska, had shared the children's fate through Russia and Iran. She worked with those children for 14 years in New Zealand – first as a teacher at the camp and then as a manager of the Polish Boys' Hostel, followed by the Polish Girls' Hostel, before she was recalled to Poland. She describes those times very clearly in her memoirs Od Lubcza na Antypody (From Lubecz to the Antipodes):
"When the older boys were leaving the camp to go to Wellington, some to St Patrick's College, Wellington, and some to apprenticeships in carpentry, motor mechanics and other trades, the necessity arose for setting up a hostel for these boys. We were aided in this work by Father John Kavanagh, who was appointed by the Bishops' Curia to liaise between the Curia and the page 325Government. After negotiating all the conditions with the authorities, both Government and Church, Father John Kavanagh bought a two-storey house in Clyde Street, Island Bay, which was to accommodate 40 Polish boys, some of whom were already working and some attending school.
"On the adjacent section, there was a very little house which was allotted for our use, Sister Imelda's and mine. We managed also to set up a little chapel – a converted army hut – between the hostel and our house. So, on 26 August 1946, Sister Imelda and I moved into the Polish Boys' Hostel in Island Bay, Wellington, beginning a new phase of our work."
Funds for the hostels
Funds for running the hostel were provided mostly by the Government and partly by the working boys who paid for their board. Sister Alexandrowicz said that the New Zealand Government was very supportive of the project to establish hostels for the Polish children who had left the camp and were working or studying in Wellington. Prime Minister Peter Fraser stated that the Polish children must be brought up in a Polish atmosphere, and in accordance with the religious and cultural traditions of their homeland. Apparently, he even extracted a promise from his successor that the Polish children would be treated as well as during his term.
Sisters Alexandrowicz and Imelda took turns in running the hostel, and the boys were responsible for keeping it clean. In the evenings, Sister Alexandrowicz gave lessons to the boys in Polish language and history. Life was busy.
The boys' impressions
The two Sisters, as well as the other Ursuline Sisters who came later, were professionally trained to care for young people, so it is not surprising that the boys under their care in the Polish Boys' Hostel remember the life then as peaceful, the food plentiful and the discipline just.
The atmosphere apparently changed somewhat once civilian staff took over from the Sisters. Some of the civilian staff were obviously less experienced in dealing with young boys and therefore too high-handed in the treatment of their charges. As the boys grew, their desire for independence also grew and trouble arose only when some staff member could not accept that.
Christmas 1950 on the steps of the Polish Boys' Hostel, Island Bay, Wellington, during a visit by the Polish priest. Some of the boys arrived from New Zealand schools to spend their holidays at the hostel. Back (l-r): Józef Kubiak, Stanisław Kilian, Józef Zawada, Stanisław Ośeciłowski, Jan Kołodziński, Alfred Sapiński, Julian Nowak 2nd back (l-r): Eugeniusz Szadkowski, Stanisław Wójcik, Jerzy Białostocki (above, boys' supervisor at the Polish Children's Camp in Pahiatua), Father Broel-Plater, Ellinor Zaleska (Officer in Charge of Polish Affairs, Child Welfare Division, Education Department), Helena Białostocka, Paulina Jastrubecka, Marcin Babczyszyn (hostel manager), Hildegard Babczyszyn (standing front of post), Marian Budny (leaning on post), Lech Lubas (standing front of post), Władysław Wojtowicz (leaning on post) Sitting 2nd step (l-r): Mieczysław Głowacki, Rudolf Szymczycha Sitting front (1-r):Ryszard Białostocki, Stanisław Wójcik, Barbara Babczyszyn, Piotr Adamczyk, Stanisław Brejnakowski, Wacław Juchnowicz
Most boys remember the hostel as a safe, good place to live in. Brothers, sisters and friends visited them there. When the Polish Girls' Hostel was established, the boys would go there to play games, perhaps dance or even take one of the girls to cinema with the permission of Sister Alexandrowicz.
The boys helped not only with the cleaning of the hostel but also with its maintenance. One boy recalls an amusing incident when they were setting-up the vegetable garden. "The hostel had a large plot of land, so one of the male staff decided he would aid in the economy of the hostel by planting potatoes. He remembered how this was done in Poland and that he would need a horse. A friend of the hostel found a horse in Happy Valley and the boys enthusiastically brought it to the hostel. It was duly tied and placed at the beginning of a row, but the horse did not move. No matter how loud and how often the staff member ordered 'Hetta! Wiśta! Wio! Wio!' the horse refused to obey. And no wonder – the man used Polish orders to a horse that did not speak Polish!"
Sister Alexandrowicz mentions in her memoirs that during that period they received nothing but kindness, sympathy and offers of help from Prime Minister Peter Fraser down to strangers on the street.
She recalls one lady in particular, Ruby Fleming, who came to the hostel one day and, gesticulating energetically as neither side understood the other, let the Sisters know she wanted to help them. Sister Imelda immediately showed her how to make gołąbki (meat and rice parcels in cabbage leaves) for the day's dinner. From that day, Mrs Fleming came frequently and became a good friend.
More Ursuline Sisters
In anticipation of establishing a Polish Girls' Hostel, on 26 August 1947 three Ursuline Sisters arrived from France – Sister Franciszka Maślak (Sister Marcina), Sister Augustyna Sobczak and Sister Bernarda Brennan, an Irish lady who had joined the Polish Ursuline Sisters and learned to speak Polish very well. They took temporary residence in a New Zealand convent but worked for a while at the Polish Boys' Hostel, which continued to serve the boys for another five years until it was closed in August 1952.
Polish Girls' Hostel "Ngaroma"
As in the case of the Polish Boys' Hostel, it was Father John Kavanagh, the Polish children's legal guardian, who found a suitable property (a beautiful mansion and extensive former home of the Hope-Gibbons family) for setting up the Polish Girls' Hostel. Part of the cost was covered by the Catholic Bishops' Curia and the rest by the New Zealand Government.
On 8 December 1947, Queen's Drive in Lyall Bay, Wellington, became the location for the Polish Girls' Hostel for the next 10 years – a home for Polish working girls and school girls. Father Kavanagh stayed for a few days in the empty hostel, then Sister Brennan and two senior girls (Helena Nawrocka and Henryka Nasarzewska) moved in. The home soon began to fill up.
The Sisters' plan was that the Polish working and school girls, and later the youngest girls from the camp, would stay in the hostel and be brought up in a Polish, Catholic atmosphere. When they no longer needed the hostel, it would be used as a home for new Polish migrants seeking shelter, children of working mothers and older people needing constant care.
Father Michał Wilniewczyc, before his departure for Lebanon, with the Ursuline nuns at the Polish Boys' Hostel. The Sisters were eventually recalled to Poland after working voluntarily and tirelessly to ensure the wellbeing of their charges
However, the Curia had different plans. Soon after the Sisters moved in, Father Kavanagh informed Sister Alexandrowicz that the Curia wished that only working girls live in the hostel. Moreover, half of them would be Polish and half New Zealand. The younger girls were to be placed with New Zealand families. That information was a blow to the Sisters and the Polish people in Wellington. If this new plan eventuated, the most vulnerable group of the Polish orphans would be placed in the hands of strangers, no matter how loving.
"I was in a boarding school in Dunedin at that time and I remember how frightened I was that 'they' would abandon me somewhere among strangers and not let me go back to my friends," says Stefania Sondej (Manterys).
If this new plan was put into effect, Sister Alexandrowicz foresaw many problems – no Polish, Catholic atmosphere, probably little cooperation of New Zealand girls with Polish nuns, mixed races and different needs, but most of all the youngest Polish orphans would be dispersed among strangers. The Sisters were not against mixed races (they later cared for young children of different races and nationalities) but they wanted to attend first to the special needs of the Polish orphans. "Only tolerance and compassion could heal the scars" in those children, as Father Michael O'Meeghan wrote in Steadfast in Hope.
No amount of persuasion on the part of Sister Alexandrowicz would change Father Kavanagh's mind. So in desperation and after many prayers, she turned for help to the Polish ex-soldiers, especially Captain Tadeusz Szczerbo-Niefiedowicz, formerly of the Polish navy. He, together with some other Polish ex-soldiers, went to see some Members of Parliament with a petition to look into the matter of the Polish Girls' Hostel. The petition was successful.
After a consultation of the Government with the Catholic Curia, it was decided that the hostel would remain the property of the Curia, but that it would be used solely by the Polish people and the Ursuline Sisters would be in charge.
By the middle of December 1947, the rest of the Sisters and more girls moved in and the hostel was fully operational. It began with 80 girls and at its peak accommodated 120.
First Christmas at the hostel
The first Christmas at the hostel was a moving occasion for the girls and Sisters – familiar and friendly faces, all the Polish traditions associated with Christmas observed and a cheerful, homely atmosphere. Everyone felt that this was their home, and that with God's help they will live there safely and happily.
The Ursuline Sisters at work
Sister Imelda, professionally trained in home science and talented in turning plain ingredients into something delicious, did the cooking and looked after the singing in the chapel.
Sister Augustyna was in charge of all the household cleaning and the convent garden, and sometimes exchanged work with Sister Imelda.
Sister Marcina, a quiet, serene person, had a great gift for dealing with very young children – she was very patient and spent many hours playing with them. As a result, they adored her and listened to her every word.
Sister Brennan, somewhat older than the rest of the Sisters, though her deportment was the best in the hostel, was a great organiser. She found a way of simplifying every task that needed doing. For example, to prevent too many dishes being broken, she allotted each girl her plates and cutlery, as well as a pigeon hole, and each girl washed her own dishes under a running tap – quick, hygienic and no arguments. She looked after the library and made sure the equipment, such as the radios and sewing machines, was in working order. She was a very intelligent and cultured person, and would even slip informative books into the room of one of the girls studying for her degree.
Sister Alexandrowicz was an incredible person and the girls were very lucky to have such a person for their "mother" at the hostel. She was strong in character, had unwavering faith in God, really loved people, especially children, and was an excellent administrator. What ordinary matron would sneak round the hostel in the small hours on the eve of St Nicholas' feast day to hang some lollies on each doorknob? A chapter at least would be needed to describe her. She was responsible for the entire hostel, did the accounts both for the hostel and the girls, ordered and paid for all the supplies, and looked after the spiritual welfare of her little band of Ursuline nuns.
She tried to treat each of her young charges as if she were her own child and bring her up accordingly. A formidable task, but her love and dedication produced wonderful results. Because she created such a caring atmosphere, some of the lucky girls, whose fathers came here after demobilisation from the Polish army, were unhappy to leave the hostel.
"The girls living in the hostel were very happy," says Romualda Waluszewska (Sokalska). "Sister Alexandrowicz was very kind and watched over us like a mother. She often reminded us that the hostel was our 'home'. During the weekend when the girls went out, she would wait until they all returned safely. At times we felt she cared and worried for us too much. It wasn't until we became mothers that we realised she was doing it for our own good."
Over the years, other Polish women helped with various tasks. Maria Sawicka, a nurse, looked after the hygiene of the younger girls and the minor page 331ailments of all. Jadwiga Michalik helped supervise homework, taught national dances and supervised the making of costumes for concerts. Sister Paula, a young Ursuline nun who came here temporarily, produced some Polish plays with the girls. She left in 1954.
House duties and regulations
With so many girls and so few Sisters, it was necessary to introduce some sort of regulations to make life easier for everybody and perhaps employ some lay staff. Sister Alexandrowicz asked the senior girls for any suggestions. They all agreed there was no need to hire additional staff and that they would do the cleaning. Moreover, they agreed that some sorts of rules were necessary for the smooth running of the hostel. A roster for general cleaning on Saturday was written up, prayer times decided (older girls privately, younger ones as a group), times for getting up and making of sandwiches.
On Saturdays, there was mending and perhaps sewing of clothes. Older girls sometimes even made dresses for the younger ones. On Mondays after work and school there was the washing of clothes. On Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays the older girls could stay out later to 12.30am and on other days the doors were closed at 10pm. If an older girl wished to go out with a boy, he had to be introduced to Sister Alexandrowicz and promise to bring her back himself. During the 11 years of existence of the hostel, the girls rarely broke these rules and never blatantly.
The girls at the hostel were a pious group. They were taught to have trust in God, to thank Him for their deliverance from the Russian forced-labour camps and to take all their troubles to Him. It was not unusual to see some girl praying in the chapel during odd times of the day. On Sundays, the girls dressed in their best clothes and went to Mass, either in the city to Polish Mass once a month or to the hostel's chapel. Sometimes there were Masses in the chapel during weekdays. All the feast days were observed, as well as the Lenten devotions with all the Lenten Polish hymns, the happy May devotions to Mary, the Rosary devotions in October and meditating on the life of Christ.
Recreation and culture
On Sunday afternoons, the girls would play tennis, basketball or netball, go out for a walk or organise a dance to which boys from the Polish Boys' Hostel, and later Polish ex-soldiers, would come. Father Leahy strongly supported the Polish basketball team Białe Orły (the White Eagles). With his encouragement they even won a tournament in 1951, beating the best team in Wellington.page 332
Sometimes Polish plays would be put on. Often you could hear somebody singing, practising the piano or playing records. The piano was paid for from the profits of a concert held in St Francis' Hall in which girls from the hostel took part.
Church feast days, national days (such as the Polish Constitution day on 3 May), Christmas, important visits and the 10th anniversary of the Polish children's arrival in New Zealand gave opportunities to put on a concert for which Polish dances, songs and recitations had to be learned. In 1955, Professor Rytel, a well-known Pole from the US who visited the hostel, was amazed at how well the children spoke Polish. One frustration was the lack of written or recorded music – it had to be recalled from memory and played by ear.
The costumes for dancing, on the other hand, dropped from heaven! Father Leon Broel-Plater, who replaced Father Michał Wilniewczyc as the Polish chaplain, received US$1,000 from the US – a present for the children. From that money, material was bought to make Polish costumes and there was great rejoicing when they were finished.
Life was happy and busy.
Girls begin to leave
The girls soon grew into young women. On weekends the hostel swarmed with young men, both Polish and New Zealanders. More and more weddings took place, so that by the time the hostel closed there were many children born to those marriages. Some of those children were brought back to the hostel to be looked after by the Sisters while the mothers worked.
The number of inhabitants in the hostel began to dwindle, not only because of the marriages, but as the girls grew more self assured they sought more independence and looked for private quarters (prywatki) to live in. Some also went to other countries to join relatives. But they all said that nowhere will they have as good a life as they had with the Sisters.
In about 1952, the Sisters began to accept more and more young children of different nationalities and races – Irish, New Zealand, Italian, Yugoslav, Hungarian, Maori and a Russian girl. Most of them learnt some Polish. One little Italian boy was most entertaining in his patriotism and was very proud of being able to speak Italian. So someone asked: "What's 'frog' in Italian, Alvaro?" Without hesitation, he answered: "Froga!"
The numbers and ages of the children had decreased, but not the quality of care nor the character of the place. As the children were younger and from such varied cultures, more work was required in looking after their physical and educational needs. The Sisters needed at least one other person to help them. With permission from her Superior in Poland, Sister Alexandrowicz asked her own sister, Jadwiga Alexandrowicz, a qualified teacher who lived in Canada. She arrived in 1955 and left New Zealand with the other Sisters. Intelligent, capable and with a pleasing personality, she was of great help to her sister who by then was showing signs of exhaustion.
Polish children's 10th anniversary of arrival
Ten years had passed since the Polish children's arrival in New Zealand on 1 November 1944. The Sisters and girls decided to celebrate that anniversary in their hostel in May 1955. Official guests were invited and notices sent out to former inhabitants of the hostel.
At the jubilee concert was a representative of the Government (Ernest Corbett, MP), a representative of the Catholic Church (Monsignor Arthur McRae), the Rector of Polish Catholic Mission (Father Broel-Plater) and other priests (Father Huzarski who was a Dominican, Father Leahy and Father O'Neill), poet Eileen Duggan and her sister, members of the hostel board, many well wishers, and of course the Sisters and Ngaroma girls, both past and present.page 334
The concert began with very friendly and informal speeches by Minister Corbett, Monsignor McRae, Father Broel-Plater and Stefania Sondej (Manterys) on behalf of the girls. There were Polish dances and recitations, but the most exciting and moving part was the documentary of the arrival of the Polish children in New Zealand, filmed by the National Film Unit. The excited, confident and healthy young adults watched the pathetic-looking children in the film, recognised themselves, and here and there tears began to flow. But the film reminded them also of the extraordinary friendliness with which the people of New Zealand welcomed them those 10 years before. The hostel also resounded with excited voices of young mothers showing off their "home" to their families.
St Anne's Hall, Newtown, Wellington, 9 March 1958. The Ursuline Sisters are farewelled and thanked for their years of dedication and service in the Polish Boys' and Girls' Hostels in Wellington before their recall to Poland. The Sisters are (l-r) Augustyna Sobczak, Imelda Tobolska, Marcina Maślak, Bernarda Brennan and Monika Alexandrowicz
There followed a sad and difficult period of finding new homes for the hostel children and preparing for departure – a painful wrench for the Sisters. Going home did not fill them with joy. Poland was in communist hands where convents were being closed, nuns persecuted and their schools secularised. But most of all, the Sisters in New Zealand had become part of the Pahiatua children's lives and vice versa. They were a valuable asset not only to the Polish people but to New Zealand, but would play only a minor part in Poland. The last of the older girls to leave the hostel were Ola Szulgan, who left in a wedding dress to marry Mieczysław Lis. Stefania Sondej (Manterys), who left at the same time, was her bridesmaid.
Farewell – 9 March 1958
Sunday. The day began with a Mass celebrated at St Anne's church by Father Broel-Plater. After Mass, the Polish community in Wellington gathered in St Anne's hall. It was full but the people were subdued. The following people gave speeches, all thanking the Sisters and regretting their departure – Father O'Neil (representing Archbishop McKeefry), the Polish chaplain Father Broel-Plater, Ellinor Zaleska (wife of the last delegate of the Polish Government-in-Exile), Kazimierz Wodzicki (the last Consul of independent Poland), Bronisław Nawrocki (president of the Polish Association), Jerzy Pobóg-Jaworowski (president of the Polish Ex-Combatants Association) and Stefania Sondej (Manterys) on behalf of the hostel girls.
Ursuline Sisters' departure
Sisters Alexandrowicz, Imelda, Augustyna, Marcina and Brennan left New Zealand on 13 March 1958 on the ship Monowai. Ngaroma changed hands several times. In 1986, the Polish Pope John Paul II stayed there during his visit to New Zealand. In 2004, it was the residence of the Apostolic Nuncio.
"Distinctive piety and culture"
The wartime refugees (the Polish children), in their turn, integrated well into the Church and the nation, while at the same time preserving their distinctive piety and culture, markedly different from the Irish.
Father Michael O'Meeghan in Steadfast in Hopepage 336
It is owing to the calibre of some of their caregivers, such as Sister Alexandrowicz with her band of Ursuline Sisters and the Polish Children's Camp's chaplain Father Wilniewczyc, as well as some lay teachers, that the children kept their faith in God alive and stayed loyal to their motherland, yet became model citizens of their adopted country New Zealand.
Sister Alexandrowicz's farewell speech
We may judge what sort of person she was from the following excerpts from her farewell speech in 1958 before the Ursuline Sisters' departure for Poland. (She was visibly moved and spoke with urgency.)
"Before I leave, I would like to ask of you one thing – do not place too much value on today, on material needs of daily life. We have started this day in church with a hymn to God. Let us raise our minds each day to God and thank Him for sparing us, because all of us who are present here in the hall, were near departure from this world.
"I thank God each day for sending this little band of children who came with us – to New Zealand and not to another country. Two years ago, I visited other countries and nowhere have I seen Polish children living in as good conditions as in this country. The Polish children here received the best and for that we owe thanks to God.
"Do not engage yourselves in material concerns so deeply that you forget about God. Yes, God deserves our gratitude. Let your children know that God delivered you from the hopeless years of misfortune. Let them be aware of your past, speak to them about it, remind them of it, that they too may thank God for your deliverance and be in constant contact with God. Who knows what fate will await them. Do not let them immerse themselves in material life – should misfortune strike them, they will panic. If they accept your example, that will sustain them.
"Most of you were brought up here without family atmosphere, without a home. We tried to create that for you but we could not – we are not your parents. Provide your children with that atmosphere.
Give them what they will not get from the New Zealand way of life. If you do not create a Catholic atmosphere in your home, they will not obtain it from the local environment.
"The Catholics are a minority in this country – your children must obtain that atmosphere from their father, from their mother. I would not like you placing material prosperity before the welfare of your children. Better to be a little poorer but have plenty of family love. And you must give proof of your love – show your love in what you do for your family, not just words."
Polish clergy in New Zealand
After the departure of the priests and nuns from this period, their positive influence continued through the work of the Polish priests of the Society of Christ who, since their arrival in 1970, provided for the religious needs of the Polish people in this country. They also understood the need of the refugees to maintain their heritage.
Polish Boys' Hostel in Hawera
By the end of 1948, there remained only 42 boys in the Polish Children's Camp in Pahiatua. For the first term of 1949, they attended local schools, which was also their first year completely in English. What they lacked in academic achievement they made up on the sports fields. In May 1949, they sadly departed the camp in army trucks for Linton Military Camp, south of Palmerston North, lived in army barracks and followed army routine. Buses took them to Sunday Mass and to school in Palmerston North. They soon became more fluent in English.
Polish Boys' Hostel in Hawera, Princess Street extension. The hostel existed from 1949 to 1954, having achieved its objective of gradually absorbing its group of Polish children into the community
The living quarters, grounds and gardens were well kept by the boys on a roster basis. They worked hard to create a very large vegetable garden, and restored the orchard to produce a variety of fruits and berries. Each morning and evening they gathered for prayers, and attended Mass on Sundays and holy days at the local gothic parish church. The Polish priest Father Broel-Plater visited every few months to celebrate Mass and devotions in Polish.
The boys completed the 1949 year at St Joseph's Convent School, taught by Sister Pauline and Sister Charles Cowan. The latter came out of retirement to teach "her Polish boys" and taught English syntax and grammar, writing, maths, early New Zealand history, and government and political structures, plus religious instructions, prayers and hymns. A dynamic and gifted teacher with a no-nonsense approach, and powerful singing voice, she prepared them for high school and the New Zealand way of life. Several of the boys achieved academic distinctions, including English and public speaking.
From 1950, the boys attended Hawera Technical High School, some 3km away. They bought bicycles with their pocket money, which was hard earned from after-school and Saturday jobs mowing lawns, gardening or working on nearby farms. The people of South Taranaki were very supportive and provided these jobs for them. The boys earned their respect and lived up to their high expectation of honesty and hard work. They went on bicycle trips on Sundays and grew in strength, stature and responsibility.
The boys were also a dominant presence in the college, especially in sports but also in the classrooms, and were recognised for their dedication to hard work and play. Upon leaving school, the local people readily offered board to them. Some took up apprenticeships or farmed nearby, while others went to college. There was little encouragement to take up professional careers. The attraction was to earn one's own money and become independent.
At the end of 1954, the hostel was closed and reopened as Calvary Hospital under the care of the Sisters of the Little Company of Mary, dedicated to the care of the sick and the dying. Later it became a privately owned rest home and hospital.
The boys had a life full of rich experiences.