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Fretful Sleepers and Other Essays



1. As a pakeha I felt it necessary to seek the opinions of three Maoris on the stories from which this study took its start, i.e. those reprinted in Davin, D.M. (ed.), New Zealand Short Stories, Oxford, London 1953.

To these three people, Miss J.C. Sturm, Mr Matiu te Hau and Mr Hirone Wikiriwhi I acknowledge my indebtedness.

2. Sorrenson, M.P.K., 'Land Purchase Methods and their Effect on Maor [sic: Maori] Population, 1865-1901', Journal of Polynesian Society, 65, 1956, pp. 188-99.

page 69

3.   Sinclair, Keith, A History of New Zealand, Penguin, Harmondsworth 1959, p. 114.

4.   Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives 1906: H-31, p. 67.

5.   See note 3.

6.   Curnow, Allen (ed.), A Penguin Book of New Zealand Verse, 1960, p. 72. The passages quoted are from Alfred Domett's Ranolf and Amohia. A South-Sea Day-Dream, Smith, Elder & Co., London 1872, pp. 88, 94; and New Zealand Parliamentary Debates 1860, p. 213.

7.   Baughan, B.E., 'Pipi on the Prowl', 'A Grandmother Speaks', Brown Bread From a Colonial Oven, Whitcombe & Tombs, London 1912.

8.   Grace, Alfred A., Tales of a Dying Race, Chatto & Windus, London 1901, p. 90.

9.   Grace 1901: 'Told in the Puia', 'Why Castlelard Took to the Blanket'.

10.   Grace, Alfred A., 'Hira', Maoriland Stories, Alfred B. Betts, Nelson 1895.

11.   Grace 1901: 'Te Wiria's Potatoes', reprinted in Davin 1953.

12.   Grace 1901: 'Pirihira'.

13.   B[aucke], W[illiam], Where the White Man Treads Across the Pathway of the Maori, Wilson & Horton, Auckland 1905, reissued 1928. 'A Quaint Friendship' was reprinted in Davin 1953.

14.  Monthly Abstract of Statistics, 30 September 1958, p. 13.

15.  New Zealand Official Yearbook 1957.

16.   The 1957 figures are from the New Zealand Official Yearbook 1958.

17.  New Zealand Population Census 1951, VIII, pp. 63, 65. The statistics show 3.36% Maoris earning £700 or more in a year, against 18.6% pakeha; 12.06% Maoris living in huts, whares and baches, against 2.08% pakeha.

18.   Gillespie, O.N. (ed.), New Zealand Short Stories, J.M. Dent, London 1930. There are 32 stories in all. The hostile one is by Maori Mac.

19.   Grace 1895: 'The Chief's Daughter', 'Reta the Urukehu'.

20.   Hyde, Robin (Iris Wilkinson), 'A Ceiling of Amber', in Gillespie 1930; 'The Little Bridge' in Allen, C.R. (ed.), Tales by New Zealanders, British Authors' Press, London 1938.

21.   Weston, Jessie, Ko Meri: or a Cycle of Cathay, Eden, Remington & Co., London 1890, p. 365.

22.   It is probable that there were in fact no liaisons between Maori men and white women well-bred enough to qualify as models for fiction. Grace's Hone Tiki thought so and had his explanation: the pakeha woman did not attract the Maori man since she was thin, ugly, too talkative and unsubmissive, whereas the pakeha man preferred the Maori woman because she was plump, quiet, kind and submissive.

23.   Lancaster, G.B., 'The Story of Wi' in Allen 1938.

24.   Gries, Joan, An Outline of Prose Fiction in New Zealand (2 vols, unpubl. doctoral thesis, University of Auckland, 1953), vol. 2, p. 237.

25.   Lawlor, Pat (ed.), Maori Tales. A Collection of Over One Hundred Stories, New Century Press Ltd, Sydney 1926, p. 121.

26.   Fussell, J.C, Letters from Private Henare Tikitanu (2nd ed.), Worthington & Co., Auckland 1917.

27.  ibid., pp. 11, 26, 28.

28.   Lawson, Henry, 'A Daughter of Maoriland' in The Antipodean, 3, 1897. Reprinted in Over the Sliprails, Angus & Robertson, Sydney 1900, and included in The Prose Works of Henry Lawson, Angus & Robertson, Sydney 1948.

29.   Lawson 1948: pp. 283-4, 285.

30.   I have considered the facts behind this story more fully in Henry Lawson Among Maoris, A.N.U. Press 1968.

31.  Maori Mac, 'Harry Kingi's Broken Vow' in Gillespie 1930; and von Keisenberg, 'Within Sight of Kapiti' in Allen 1938.

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32.   'Harry Kingi's Broken Vow'.

33.  McEldowney, Dennis, 'By the Lake', Book, 9. Reprinted in Davin 1953.

34.   In Allen 1938.

35.   In Allen 1938.

36.  The four preceding quotations are in order from The Journal of Katherine Mansfield, (ed. J. Middleton Murry), Constable, London 1954, pp. 24, 30, 29, 29.

37.  Mansfield, Katherine, Something Childish and Other Stories, Constable, London 1924.

38.   Sargeson, Frank, Conversations with My Uncle, The Unicorn Press, Auckland 1936.

39.   Finlayson, Roderick, 'Wi Gets the Gospel', Brown Man's Burden, The Unicorn Press, Auckland 1938.

40.   'A Man of Good Religion', ibid.

41.   'On Top of the Hill', ibid.

42.   'Standards of Living', ibid.

43.  ibid.

44.   Finlayson, Roderick, Sweet Beulah Land, The Griffin Press, Auckland 1942.

45.   Finlayson, Roderick, Tidal Creek, Angus & Robertson, Sydney 1948.

46.  Mr te Hau tells me that the story recalls a real incident in the King Country when an old woman who allowed a mining company to lay a loco-track through her land claimed a higher royalty than she was given and lay for three days across the tracks to prevent the loco passing.

47.  At the time of which Mr Finlayson was writing, the proportion of Maori dwellings of one or two rooms was over a half, and if one adds temporary dwellings the proportion was 67% (New Zealand Population Census, 1926, XIV; 8-9). The corresponding figures for pakeha dwellings were 9.1% and 13.5% (ibid. XIII: 4).

48.  William Baucke 1905.

49.  Pat Lawlor 1926, p. 9.

50.   Giles, Magdalene, 'School', Canterbury Lambs 2, 1947.

51.   Gaskell, A.P., 'The Picture in the Paper', New Zealand New Writing, 1. Reprinted in Gaskell, The Big Game and Other Stories, the Caxton Press, Christchurch 1947.

52.  Reprinted in Davin 1953.

53.   Stewart, Douglas, 'The Whare', A Girl with Red Hair and Other Stories, Angus & Robertson, Sydney 1944. Reprinted in Davin 1953.

54.  The word was in official use in New Zealand until 1947.

54a. In Book, 9.

55.   In Landfall, 5.

56.   In Landfall, 6. Reprinted in Middleton, O.E., Short Stories, The Handcraft Press, Wellington 1953.

57.   In Landfall, 5.

58.   In Landfall, 9. Reprinted in Duggan, Maurice, Immanuel's Land, The Pilgrim Press, Auckland 1956.

59.   'Agonies', Here and Now, 4.7, 1955; 'The Least Thing', Here and Now, 49, 1956; 'Floor', Here and Now, 51, 1956.

60.   In Fernfire, 1, 1957.

61.   'Morning Lift', Fernfire, 1, 1957.

62.   In Canterbury Lambs, 2.

63.  ibid.

64.   Wikiriwhi, Hirone Te M., 'He Korero Hararei' ('A Holiday Story'), Te Ao Hou, 4, nos. 2-3, 1956.

65.  Durie, Mason, T Failed the Test of Life', Te Ao Hou, 4, no. 2, 1956.

66.   Mead, S.M., 'Constable McFarland', Te Ao Hou, 5, no. 2, 1957.

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67.   Paki, Rora, 'Ka Pu Te Ruha Ka Hao Te Rangatahi' ('The Old Net is Cast Aside, A New Net Goes Afishing'), Te Ao Hou, 4, No. 3, 1956 - the story is in English; 'A Home is Made', Te Ao Hou, 5, no. 3, 1957.

68.   'Love in the Mill', Te Ao Hou, 5, no. 3, 1957.

69.   'Death in the Mill', Te Ao Hou, 4, no. 3, 1956.

70.   'The Visitors', Te Ao Hou, 5, no. 4, 1957.

71.   'The Burial', Te Ao Hou, 5, no. 2, 1957.