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Fretful Sleepers and Other Essays



1. For background to this article I am indebted to three or four dozen papers and articles too numerous to name, and to conversation with Bruce Biggs, Pat Hohepa, Hugh Kawharu. B. Kernot, Joan Metge, Erik Schwimmer and Matiu te Hau. I am also indebted to I.L.G. Sutherland's assessment of the Maori situation in 1951, published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society, 1952; to the 'Rakau Studies' by Victoria University of Wellington psychologists; and to David P. Ausubel's Maori Youth. My own claim to be able to present as far as possible a Maori point of view is six years' close association with Maori students, and my attendance at the young leaders' conferences organised by the Auckland Council of Adult Education in the Auckland and Hawkes page 127 Bay Provinces since 1959. There was a national conference in Auckland in 1959; regional conferences in 1960 at Turangawaewae marae, Whakatane, Gisborne and Kaitaia; in 1961 at Tauranga-Taupo, Whakarewarewa and Wairoa. I have not seen the reports of similar conferences at Christchurch Marton and Waitara.

I have doubled long vowels in Maori words except those in everyday use in English such as Maori and pakeha, and names of places and persons.

2.  Ritchie, Jane, Childhood in Rakau, Wellington 1957, p. 26.

3.  Report of Young Maori Conference, Auckland, May 1939, p. 18.

4.  Maori-European Standards of Health, Department of Health, Wellington 1960, p. 4.

5.   Borrie, W.D., 'Some Economic and Social Implications of Maori Population Growth in New Zealand', Journal of the Polynesian Society, December 1961, p. 410.

6.  Report of the Waiariki Young Maori Leaders' Conference, Whakatane, August 1960, p. 30.

7.   Hohepa, P.W., in a thesis subsequently published, A Maori Community in Northland, A.H. & A.W. Reed, Wellington, 1970, pp. 52, 66-7.

8.  ibid., p. 67.

9.   Booth, John, 'A Modern Maori Community' in Freeman, J.D. and Geddes, W.R. (eds.), Anthropology in the South Seas, New Plymouth 1959, p. 242.

10.  Maori Synod of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, A Maori View of the Hunn Report, Christchurch, p. 21.

11.  Report of the Waikato-Maniapoto Young Maori Leaders' Conference, Turangawaewae, May 1960, p. 20.

12.   It is possible that no conclusion can be drawn from the published statistics which show only a selection—arrest cases only (which are only a tenth of total distinct cases) and only about half of those, without any indication of how these cases were selected. For what they are worth, the percentages worked out from the selection of distinct arrest cases from the Magistrates' Courts in Reports on the Justice Statistics of N.Z. are: 2.84% fewer Maoris not convicted than non-Maoris in 1958; 3.52% in 1959; 3.64% in 1960.

13.   Ernest Beaglehole and James Ritchie, 'The Rakau Maori Studies', Journal of the Polynesian Society, June 1958, p. 137.

14.  Report of Young Maori Conference, Auckland, May 1939, p. 22.

15.  Report of the Northland Young Maori Leaders' Conference, Kaitaia, October 1960, p. x.

16.   Richard Thompson in N.Z. Monthly Review, September 1961.

17.   Dugal Campbell in the Journal of the Polynesian Society, December 1958.

18.   Hohepa, op. cit., p. 93. Also Joan Metge, The Maoris of New Zealand, Rou-tledge and Kegan Paul, London 1967, pp. 130-4.

19.   In Comment, Winter 1961.

20.  'Hohere', in Here and Now, October 1957.

21.  The incident is taken from 'Kaumatua' in N.Z. Monthly Review, July 1961.

22.   Te Ao Hou, September 1961.