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A Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas

A Vocabulary of the Language of the Natives of the Island of savoo

page 163

A Vocabulary of the Language of the Natives of the Island of savoo.

Momonne, A man.
Neekeeng-ïro, A grown man.
Monama, An old man.
Monecopai, A boy.
Mobunne, A woman;
Anawuneekee, A child.
Càtoo, The head.
Row catoo, The hair of the head.
Bocòlo, The crown of the head.
Otaïle, The temples.
Tangarei, The forehead.
Màdda, The eyes.
Ròw na màdda, The eye-brows.
Dungèena madda, The eye-lids.
Roòpa-gàpoong, The eye-lashes.
Wodeèloo, The ears.
Sivànga, The nose.
Roä sivànga, The nostrils.
Cavarànga, The cheeks.
Larà-voòboo, The mouth.
Kooring-voòboo 'deeda, The upper lip.
Kooring-voòboo vàva, The under lip.
Sungeèdee, The gums.
Ingootoo deeda, The upper teeth.
Ingootoo vàva, The under teeth.
Vaio, The tongue,page 164
Pàgavee, The chin.
Row, na voobo, The muftachios.
Row, vee, The beard.
Lacòco, The neck.
Làdogòro, The throat.
Soosoo, The breasts.
Caboo soosoo, The nipples.
Dùloo, The belly.
Assoo, The navel.
Kòlogoòno, The shoulders.
Càmacoò, The arms.
Làrabòrro, The arm-pits.
Vosëoo, The elbows,
Baibaö, The wrist.
Wùlaba, The hand.
Daraba, The palm of the hand.
Dunèäba, The back of the hand.
Kifooë aïaï, The thumb.
Kifooë Aïyooyoo The forefinger.
Kifooë Aïtororro, The two next fingers.
Kifooë Eikee, The little finger.
Koo-oo, The nails.
Voorai, The backside.
Tooga, The thighs.
Roòtoo, The knees.
Làracrùkee, The hams.
Baibo, The legs.
Dooloomoònoo baibo, The calves of the legs.
Pacalaï, The ancles.
Duneeäla, The feet.
Woterdo, The heel.
Dara yïlla, The sole of the foot.
Kissoòei yìlla, The toes.page 165
Racäee, The skin.
Killooë, The veins.
Macoocooree, The flesh.
Munje, Fat.
Row, Hair.
Cabao, A buffalo.
Dejaro, or diaro, A horse.
Vavee, A hog.
Gnaca, A dog.
Badoo gnaca, The barking of a dog.
Kesàvoo, A goat.
Doomba, A sheep.
Keë, A ewe.
Maiö, A cat.
Roolai, The tail of a quadruped.
Doleela, A bird.
Pangootoo, The beak of a bird.
Carrow, The tail of a bird.
Row-mannoo, Feathers.
Dulloo, An egg.
Manoo, A cock or hen.
Raree-manoo, The comb of a cock.
Tutuo-manoo, Cock-crowing.
Kidicoo-manoo, Clucking of a hen.
Nudoo, A fish.
Unjoo, A turtle.
Toodoolai, A libellula, or dragon-fly.
Samala, A muscheater.
Sotee, Nautilus pompilius. The large chambered nautilus, or sailor-shell.
Kerogga, Coralline.
Adjoo, A tree, and wood.
La, The trunk of a tree,
Coree, or koree, The bark of a tree.page 166
Calai, A branch.
Row, A leaf.
Vooe, Fruit.
Dooe, or Dooa, The syrup palm.
Kililla, Areca.
Ao, Chinam.
Cananna, Piper betle.
Nai, Tobacco.
Vomoo, Plantains.
Chevoos, ava, Oomarra, or sweet potatoes.
Oobee, Ignames or yams.
Cleeoo, Bamboo.
Dubboo, Sugar Cane.
Leebee, Avirrboa bilimbo.
Boa feeree, Palm-fruit.
Wasilaggee, Tamarinds.
Wudyarroo, Limes.
Yirroo, Oranges.
Nicu, Cocoa-nuts.
Arre, Rice.
Kivoonoo, Cocoa-nut rind.
Cadjoo manoo, Cinnamon.
Mangooroong-ootoo, Nutmegs.
Wowdulloo, Cloves.
Vopaio, Black-pepper.
Cootoo-codo, Ginger.
Lodo, The sun.
Wurroo, The moon.
Leèroo, The sky.
Miramoo, The clouds.
Capoa-reero, 'The horizon.
Demoo, The East.
Va, The west.
Wodai, The north.
Wullow, The south.page 167
Sabooai, Smoke.
Mireèngee, Cold.
Kibàfoo, Heat.
Aee, Fire.
Ailei, Water.
Aidàffee, The sea.
Nova, The surf of the sea.
Vorai, or raee, The earth.
Càco, The land.
Collolaide, The hills.
Wawadoo, A stone.
Lafilai, Sand.
Buffee, Iron.
Bulido, Lead.
Millapoòdee, Silver,
Millalàrra, Gold.
Umoo, A house.
Bagoo, A stool.
Cabeeffa, A basket.
Dupee, A mat
Lèöravoo, A looking-glass.
Baraco, A box.
Retaca, An axe.
Ingootoo-tumoo, A comb.
Toodee, A knife.
Toodee-yampoo, A cafe-knife.
Yobe, A sword.
Kepocke, A long spear.
Kepovarena, A cannon.
Daire, A drum.
Goola, Palm syrup.
Booro, Bread.
Dàgee, Mutton.
Gàrra, Salt.
Munje, Oil.page 168
Leepa, Cotton cheque.
Seegee, The cotton cloth made on the island.
Codo, A callico gown.
Singoodoo, A palm bonnet.
Oodoo, Beads.
Gaddee, Large ivory rings.
Tàtà, Tataow, or marks made in the skin.
Màànadoo, A fish-hook.
Cova, A boat.
Joolee, or toolee. A large canoe.
Capa, A ship.
Dupoodeo, White.
Cairara, Yellow.
Dumuddee, Blue.
Mingaroo, Green.
Sooree, Red.
Bulla, Black.
Sao-lodo, The morning.
Deeda-lodo,' The forenoon.
Nutoo-lodo, Noon.
Maceo-lodo, Afternoon.
Munda-lodo, The evening.
Mudda, Midnight.
Pooai, More.
Taro, There.
O, Yes.
Tiràmacoòfee, Farewell.
Bolè, Stay, wait a little.
Buffoo, Enough, I am satisfied.
Sillaèo, To see.
Roädeèloo, To hear.
Taïyiggce, To feel.
Kìffoo, To smell.
Gnaä, To eat.
Neenawei, To drink,page 169
Neeno-darao, To drink to one.
Toonoo, To roast or bake.
Varitai, To kindle or light.
Jugge, or tugge, To kick.
Tookoo, To Row.
Voffee, To paddle.
Ta laco, To bend.
Ta puceo, To break.
Ta feeo, To tear.
Ta te, To cut.
Ta soonne, To hide.
Ta tucke, To lay by.
Ta ingaree, To shew or take out.
Ta teetoo, To rise.
Ta tooe, To fall.
Midyadee, To sit down.
Ta eaco, To walk.
Ta rai, To run.
Ta mudje, To talk.
Painyee marunga, To blow the nose.
Painyee roo elloo, To spit.
Ta bunge, To sneeze.
Ta maia, To cough.
Ta marree, To laugh.
Picoongaca, To whine.
Ta tanjee, To cry.
Ta budje, To sleep.
Maddee, To dye.
Manu Diami, The Governor's name.
page 170
Isse, or usse, One.
Rooe, Two.
Tulloo, Three.
Uppa, Four.
Lumee, Five.
Unna, Six.
Petoo, Seven.
Aroo, Eight.
Saio, Nine.
Singooroo, Ten.
Singooroo isse, Eleven.
Singooroo rooe, Twelve, &c.
Rooingooroo, Twenty.
Rooingooroo isse Twenty-one, &c.
Tulloomooroo, Thirty.
Tulloomooroo isse, Thirty-one, &c.
Uppangooroo, Forty.
Lumingooroo, Fifty.
Unnangooroo, Sixty.
Peetoongooroo, Seventy.
Aroongooroo, Eighty.
Saiongooroo, Ninety.
Singassoo, One hundred.
Looang assoo, Two hundred.
Setuppah, One thousand.
Roo setuppah, Two thousand.
Selacussa, Ten thousand.
Serata, One hundred thousand.
Sercboo, A million.
page 171

After a stay of two or three days, we left Savoo, and, on the lst of October, in the morning, discovered Java and Prince's Islands. We directed our course through the Straits of Sundy; and, in the afternoon, passed a small island, upon which we saw a very high hill, of a conical figure, and several small ones. This is called the Isle of Crocata: We saw also Pepper-Point. In the night, the weather was squally, and we had rain, with thunder and lightening. By our reckoning we found that Java Head is about 14° 22' to the west of Timor. We had a brisk trade-wind from the S.E. and very near over-shot the Straits; but not finding land, we hauled to the eastward, and luckily got into the Straits to the leeward of Prince's Island. Our latitude, at noon, was 6°9'.

On the 2d, we failed up as far as Angor Point, where we were becalmed, and waited for the current, which sets to the south till the monsoon shifts. We saw two Indiamen at anchor in Angor Bay. This was a pleasing sight; and, being impatient to hear news from England, the pinnace was hoisted out, and some of our people went on board of them, who learned that the Swallow had arrived safe in the English channel; that fresh disturbances had arisen at home, in respect to the ministers, and in America on account of taxes; that the flame of war was like to break out; that the Russians, Poles, and Turks, were already embroiled in a war; and that the Russians had made some vigorous attacks upon the Turks both by sea and land We sent the boat on shore for some plantains and cocoa-nuts; and, in the evening, having a gentle breeze, we weighed anchor, and stood through between Angor Point and the opposite shore, and past Keita Island. The land of Sumatra seemed very near, and appeared to be exceeding high. We had also a more distinct view of Java, which was woody, and very high, particularly Bantamhill, which is to be seen at a great distance.

On the 3d, we got up near to Bantam Point, or Point St. Nicholas, where we were becalmed, and dropped anchor. We saw a Chinese vessel pass along the Straits, with Chinese colours flying, which were white, and had a broad border, partly blue and partly black: in the middle of it several Chinese characters, and a star, which were painted of the latter colour. She had one mast; an oblong square fail, a bamboo yard, and an awning, or house, in the middle.

page 172

In the afternoon, some people came off to us, in a boat, from Angor-Point, to enquire who we were, and brought plantains, pumplenoses, oranges, turtles, parrots, domestic poultry, some small birds, and monkeys, which they offered to sale. They told us that the Prince-George, captain Riddle, was lost last June off Batavia, and that the crew were carried by a Dutch ship to Bengal.

In the evening we weighed anchor, but, having only a light breeze, we made no way.

On the 4th, we had a northerly wind, which was directly against us, and the current ran very strong. Finding that we had lost ground, we anchored at night off Pulo Pisane; and, while we lay at anchor, some of our people went on shore in a boat, and bought some cocoas, and Paddy, or rice in the husk. On the evening of the next day, a light breeze sprang up from the West; but we were soon becalmed, and dropped anchor again. The weather was very sultry. Thermometer 86.

On the 7th, we weighed and dropped anchor several times, having light breezes and calms: however, the tide shifting in our favour, we reached, that day, as far as Pulo Babi, which lies in the bay of Bantam, and passed Pulo Panjang.

On the 8th, having light breezes, with calms, and the current running strong against us, we made but very little way. This day we failed between the Milles Isles, Pulo Tidong, and Pulo Pare. These are mostly small and low islands, covered with trees; and, by the lights which we saw on shore, we concluded that some of them were inhabited; and were not deceived in our conjectures; for, at night, some of the natives came off to us, and brought some turtles, pumpkins, and dried fish.

On the 10th, we anchored in the road of Batavia, in which we found sixteen large ships, three of which were British; one of them an Indiaman that had lost its passage to China, and the other two private merchantmen. A lieutenant, in the pinnace, was dispatched to the deputy-governor with a message, who told him, he page 173Should be glad to see captain Cook, and that it would be proper to present his requests to the council in writing, who were to meet the next day. The pinnace returned to the ship, loaded with pine-apples, plantains, water-melons, and a bundle of London news-papers, which were very acceptable presents.

The Dutch commodore sent a messenger on-board of us, to enquire who we were; and by him we learned that the Falmouth man-of-war fell to pieces in this road about four months before we arrived.

Batavia, formerly called Jocatra, is situated in a very large open bay, in which is a great number of low islands; the principal of which, called the Milles Isles, lie off the bay. It is walled round, and has many canals cut through it, supplied by a river, which is divided into several streams, that run through the town. The main canal, which is large enough to admit small vessels, is carried along way into the sea by means of a mole. The mountainous part of this country is at a great distance within land; and the plain flat land, which surrounds the city, is of considerable extent, very fertile, and watered with a great many rivulets; which renders the communication between different parts very easy. The roads which lead from the city are many, and as good as ours in England; they extend a long way into the country, and are so many avenues, planted with Tamarind, Cocoa, Pisang, Bread-fruit, Jacca, Duriam, and Allango, trees, which render them very pleasant. There is a great number of villas all along these roads, many of which have a magnificent appearance. In brief, the whole country looks like a garden, divided into different plantations by hedge-rows of trees and canals. But these canals, which are so convenient and enrich the views of the country, are supposed to be prejudicial to the health of the inhabitants: for, in the dry season, they stagnate, become putrid, and, being exhaled by the sun, the air is charged with noxious vapours: while the great number of trees prevents them from being dispersed by the winds, and occasions that kind of putrid fever, which is so common, rages so much, and is so fatal amongst them, insomuch that it carries off a patient in a few days; and indeed the climate is so unhealthy, that even the slaves, brought here from other parts of India, feel the effects of it. Fluxes too are also very common and dangerous at Batavia; and their intermittents, which the inhabitants think trivial, are very pre-page 174judicial to foreigners; but it must be allowed, however, that they mostly prove so for want of observing a proper regimen.

The houses in the city are mostly built of brick, and plaistered over; many of them are very spacious, and furnished very sumptuously, especially on the ground-floor; the bed-chambers, in general, having but little, furniture in them. There are five gates to the city, with draw-bridges to each, which are shut at night. The suburbs, which surround the town, cover a large piece of ground, but are meanly built. The Campan China, which is largest, is on the south side.

The public buildings, in this city, are the castle, a town-hall, and several churches. The castle is square, surrounded by a ditch, and consists of several square courts, in one of which is deposited a great number of warlike instruments, especially of guns and balls.

The town-hall and the great church are handsome edifices. The church is of an octagon figure, having a dome and lanthorn of the same form, and has a very fine organ. Ruyter's kirk, belonging to the Lutherans, is small, but a very neat building. The Portuguese church is of an oblong square; and the priests, belonging to it, preach in the Malay as well as the Portuguese language.

The streets of Batavia are paved on both sides, are very regular and straight, and a canal runs through the middle of most of them, both sides of which are planted with trees, which have a very agreeable effect; and, as all kinds of goods are conveyed by water, the streets are in good repair. The bazar, or market-place, is large and square, intersected by rows of stalls, and abounds with different fruits and garden herbage, also with poultry, pork, dried fish, and a variety of other commodities. Near it is another square bazar, for fish, shell-fish, and meat; but the chief market for vegetables is held at a place, called Tannabank, a little distance from the town, on every Saturday morning, where they may be had very cheap.

This city is the seat of the Dutch-governor-general and council of the Indies, and is, with several neighbouring settlements of that nation, immediately under their direction; and to them all the other governments, belonging to their East-page 175India company, are subject. They meet, for the dispatch of business, several times in a week. There are also two sabanders, who, amongst other things, transact: the business of foreigners with the council; a mayor of the city; and a land and water fischal for criminal affairs.

The Dutch, by their industry, have done more here than any other power in Europe has done in India; and, by means of their policy, have rendered it one of the most flourishing cities in this part of the world, where most European, as well as Indian, commodities may be purchased; but it is not a good market for Indian goods; for you meet with but few of them, and those few are very dear. This city is the chief rendezvous of the Dutch trade for the East-Indies, and from this port the ships for Europe take their departure. Here is a large house, appointed by the company, as a hotel for the accommodation of all European strangers, where they are obliged to reside, and pay two rix-dollars a day for a maintenance, while the Dutch may live for twenty-five rix-dollars a month. There is not, perhaps, any city in the world that contains a greater variety of people. One would imagine there were assembled, of different human beings, from every nation under heaven, who, for the most part, retain their several peculiar dresses, and are allowed to live after the manner of their respective countries. Of whites, there are Dutch, who are masters; but the greater part of the company's servants, and of the inhabitants, are, Germans, Danes, Swedes, and Hungarians; with a few English, French, and Italians; of these the foreign merchants are chiefly composed; and most of them keep their chariots, and live in great luxury and elegance. A great number of slaves precede and follow their chariots; and, when the women go abroad, the female slaves sit on the steps of the chariot. The men are dressed excessively gay, having silk and velvet garments, richly laced and embroidered, with laced hats, and finely-dressed wigs. Their waistcoats have sleeves; and, when they sit in a house, they always take off their coats. Amongst the middle class of people, a pair of drawers, which have two gold buttons and reach above their breeches, is reckoned a great piece of finery. The women dress mostly in chintzes, made generally in the European, though sometimes in the Malay, fashion: they are seldom seen walking in the streets, usually riding in carriages. Both men and women have a sickly complexion, without any colour in their cheeks; but paleness, it seems, is reckoned one mark of beauty among the ladies. Besides chariots, which are open and richly page 176ornamented, they have sedans, with wooden lattices, carved and gilt, and short spokes, which make an aukward appearance to a stranger: and, for their children, they have a sort of oblong square box, with a lattice at the sides, and a roof fashioned like the eaves of a house; this has a spoke at each end, and is carried by two men on their shoulders, and the child within sits all along on the bottom of it.

Their manner of living is pretty much the same in all seasons of the year. They rise as soon as it is light, and drink tea or coffee; then transact their business, either within or without doors, till nine o'clock in the morning, at which time it is too hot to be in the open air; and they negotiate business, or divert themselves otherwise, within doors, till about noon, and then dine. After dinner, they strip themselves of every thing, except a pair of drawers and a short cotton gown, and go to bed. At four or five o'clock in the afternoon they rise again, drink tea, and, if they have no business to transact, as there are no public places of diversion, they take an airing in their carriages; come home, sup, and go to bed again about eleven at night. Those born here of European parents, who are not many and are of a mixed breed, generally follow the Malay customs.

The inhabitants are mostly Chinese, and their number is very great both in town and country. The China town, which is on the south side of the city, is pretty large, but meanly built, as the better sort of Chinese live within the city. The greater number of shopkeepers are Chinese; they make all the arrack and sugar; nor can any person hold an arrack-house without having it under the name of some Chinese. They also cultivate all the variety of garden-stuff with which Batavia is furnished; and of them there are silver-smiths, pewterers, carpenters, joiners, masons, calkers, barbers, hawkers, dealers, and chapmen. There is not any trade, however mean and servile, which they do not follow: and, though the Dutch have laid them under many restrictions, yet they find means to acquire a comfortable subsistence, and often accumulate wealth. The Dutch have imposed a poll-tax on them of a ducatoon, or six shillings and eight pence, a month.

The Chinese in and about Batavia have a sallow complexion, black eyes, and tolerable good noses, but they pluck their beards up by the roots, and make, upon the whole, a very effeminate appearance.

page 177

They form two sects, and keep mostly to their own customs. One of them wears all their own hair; and the other, which is by far the most numerous, shaves all the head except the crown. These different modes arise from a peculiar religious tenet held amongst them. When a rich man has a child, and thinks he can maintain it, independent of any servile employment, he suffers the hair on its head to grow, which is wound up, tied upon the crown, and ornamented with a gold bodkin or two, and it must never afterwards be shaven; these are of high rank amongst them. The other children have their heads shaven nine months after their birth, and on every ninth day afterwards, till they attain a certain age; and then they are at liberty either to wear it growing or have it shaved: the lock of hair, left on the crown of some of their heads, grows to a great length, reaching down to their posteriors. Their dress is excellently adapted to a hot climate, being generally white taffety, or callico; and consists of a pair of trowsers, over which they wear a frock with wide sleeves, which buttons before: a purse, wrought with silk, hangs beneath the upper garment; and a pair of Chinese pampouches completes their dress. The old men sometimes wear a sort of white boots, that reach up to their knees; and they always carry a fan in their hands, to shade their heads from the sun. Their usual salutation is, Adda bai ké, how do you do, sir? and they are very courteous in their address and behaviour, especially to Britons, whose generosity, I suppose, they have often experienced. The hawkers, amongst them, who outdo the Jews in low artifice, will ask twenty dollars for a thing, and take one; and have acquired, even among themselves, the character of great cheats.

Before the rebellion in 1740, the Chinese were intirely governed by two of their own nation, who were judges in all cases, and sat in council. At present, they have a captain and two lieutenants, one of whom sits every forenoon, with a jury of twelve, in a hall they have for that purpose, to hear and make up suits and quarrels, which happen amongst them, if possible, before they go before a Dutch court of judicature; and this the Chinese must do, if they design to live in harmony with their community. To the said hall they all repair, the three first days of the month, to pay their head-money; at which time there is a Dutch ensign hoisted on a staff before the gate.

page 178

The Chinese have four pagodas, or places of worship, in Batavia; but they do not seem to be a religious people, and are very careless and inattentive in the time of worship. I went into one of their pagodas, where I saw a company of them playing at cards in the principal part of it, that had an alcove, with several images in it, and lamps burning before them; some little boxes full of ashes, on which they burnt paper before their idols; and, on the wall, a number of Chinese characters; in other parts of the edifice there were lamps, images, and several small stoves. I saw a ceremony performed in one of the streets, on the decease of a person, which, for its singularity, may be worth relating.—Having made a large fire, with slips of paper, they brought out, one after another, a great number of paper pageants, gilt and coloured, with several human figures composed of the same materials, and kept feeding the fire with them, till they were all consumed; then they threw a parcel of cups and bottles into the fire, that had something in them, but I could not learn what, went into the house, and the ceremony ended. Their mourning for the deceased is a white turban.

There is, it seems, but one Chinese woman in Batavia, and she is but seldom seen: It is deemed a crime to bring them from China; such of the Chinese, who design to continue here, and incline to marry, take to wife one of the Malay women.

The Malays of both sexes, who are mostly slaves, are very numerous: Every white man keeps a number of them; and they are the only servants employed within-doors and without. Under this name are compréhended many sorts of people, who come from Sumatra, Amboyna, Banda, and Ceram. Those that come from the coast of Malabar, are distinguished by their slimness and complexion, which is jet black. The Orang Bougees, or such as come from the island of Celebes, are remarkable for their fine black hair; and those from Timor are pretty black: These, with all others from the eastern isles, are, in general, called Malays; and all speak the low Malay, though their languages are different in their respective countries. Most of them have flattish noses, and are, in general, short; the women, especially, are very small.

page 179

The dress of the male Malays, who are slaves, is very simple; consisting of a pair of short drawers, and a long shirt, or frock, above, made of striped or plain cotton, which buttons about the wrist with six small buttons; and those who can afford it have two or three gold buttons at the neck. They are accustomed to hold one hand on their heads, placed in a particular manner. The free-men are better clad, and affect, in some respects, the European dress and customs, having black sattin breeches, and waistcoats with sleeves, and carry their hats under their arms; but they wear neither shoes nor stockings.

The women-slaves wear a long piece of cotton check wrapped about their loins, which serves instead of petticoats; and, over that, a very short white callico jacket, which buttons at the wrist, and is close before. They have remarkable good hair, which they tie upon the tops of their heads, and stick two or three silver or gold bodkins into it; this, with a silver peenang box which hangs to a girdle, and a handkerchief, with fearee, put over their shoulders, makes them appear very gaudy. The free-women, who are called Noonga Cabaia, wear a long chintz banjan, called a Cabai, which reaches down to their heels; and they have square-toed slippers, turned up at the points very high, with which they make shift to hobble along.

The Malays, and many of the white people, bathe in the river at least once in the day, and sometimes twice. The men are much addicted to gaming; and all of them chew the Penang and Searee, which blackens their teeth; but they have an expeditious method of cleaning them with betle: They also chew tobacco, cardamums, and gaimbre. They are reckoned to be an indolent revengeful people; and, when they think themselves injured, they repair to a gaming-house, and smoak opium till they are mad-drunk, and then sally out, with a creess in their hand, to seek their enemy; attempting to kill every person that opposes them; and are often killed themselves, before they are apprehended: This is called an Amock, and is very common in Batavia. The criminal, if taken alive, is broke upon the wheel.

The Malays are Mahometans, and have several mosques about Batavia.

page 180

There is another set of people called Portuguese; whom the Malays call Orrang Cerami, or people of Ceram; but for what reason I could not learn: They are very dark-coloured, but you may distinguish European features amongst them.

Other people, of which there are many to be seen at Batavia, are Banjans, or Gentoos; the Malays call them Orrang Codjo: Their heads are shaven, and covered with a conical cap; the other parts of their dress are a short petticoat, or wrapper, about their loins; and, over that, a banjan. The Javanese, who reside here, are dressed much in the same manner, except the cap: they are all free, as the taking them for slaves is prohibited under a very severe penalty. Here are also Armenians, Persians, Moguls, people from many parts of India, as well as negroes from Madagascar, Mosambique, and all the eastern parts of Africa.

Batavia is plentifully furnished with all sorts of provisions; but, in this city, as well as in others that are very populous, most articles bear a high price. Here are some bullocks, but many more buffaloes, which are sold on reasonable terms, and their flesh eats pretty well; also Cambeong, or goat-sheep; but they are lean, dry, and indifferent food: Hogs of the Chinese and European breed; the former are very fat, eat very well, and are cheap; but the Europeans despise them, and prefer the latter, which are very dear. They have also tame fowls in abundance, which are cheap. I have likewise seen wild-fowls. Their ducks are not so good as ours, and are of another kind. Muscovy ducks and geese are bought reasonable; but turkeys and pigeons are dear. They have a plentiful market of fish, which is the favourite food of the Malays, but no great variety: Claw-fish, shell-fish, and particularly oysters, though small, are pretty good food; but their turtle, of which they have a plenty, is remarkably bad, and is only eaten by the common people. I believe there is not any place can equal Batavia for the variety of provisions, which may be bought at stalls, and are hawked about the streets, ready cooked, or cooking. They are furnished with flour from the Cape, and their bread is very good and cheap; but rice is more generally used, which grows in Java, and is very plentiful. Their common drink is arrack punch. The best arrack is sold for fifteen-pence the gallon. By what I could learn, the principal ingredient in it is sugar; with the best sort they mix Dooae, or palm-syrup; but whether they use rice I cannot tell. page 181Claret and Rhenish are the most common wines drank at Batavia: Claret you may buy at eighteen-pence the bottle; but beer sells at twenty-pence. Sugar is another article which they have in great plenty; the best sells for about twopence-farthing the pound; and sugar-candy at threepence-halfpenny. They have a great quantity of coffee, which grows at Java: It is a company's trade, but may be bought, smuggled, for twopence-halfpenny the pound. They make as good butter as need be eaten; and have a sufficient quantity of it to serve most of the inhabitants with their coffee and tea: they have also some good butter from the Cape. Of garden-stuff, they have pease, French-beans, asparagus, cos-lettuce, parsley, purslain, onions, white radishes, potatoes, cabbages, spinage, cucumbers, celery, endive, and these all the year long: besides these, which are exotics, they have several sorts of Cajang, or beans, Oobe, or yams, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, mushrooms, Vuevues, which taste like mushrooms when roasted, garlick, and a sort of small onions that taste like shallots, Chabe, or red-bird pepper; with a variety of other pot-herbs, too tedious to enumerate.

The best fruits they have at Batavia are the Mangasteen, which is so wholesome, that it may be eaten in a fever: the Ramboutan, about the size of a large plumb, growing in bunches, and covered with a thick husk, of a bright red colour, full of soft prickles, which gives it a furzy appearance; the inside, which is about the size of a pigeon's egg, is transparent, and yields a very rich juice, which has an agreeable poignancy. Pine-apples, which are also very good and plentiful, may be bought for an halfpenny or a farthing each. The Nanca and Durian are much admired by the natives; but they are very disagreeable to foreigners, as they smell like onions and garlick, mixed with sugar: the Nanca is rather long, divided into four equal parts within, has a stone in each, and is as large as a half-peck loaf: they grow on the trunk of a tree; the outside of the fruit is of a green colour, and the inside of a yellow: they are covered with a bag, before they are ripe, which preserves them from the vermin. The Durian is confiderably less, quite round, and covered with spiny tubercles. They have bread-fruit, too; but, being full of seed, it is never eaten. Also a plenty of mangoes, of several sorts, which, in my opinion, eat best when they are green, with pepper and salt. Oranges are very scarce and very indifferent; but they have plenty of limes, and some Namnams too, which eat very well fried. They also have a fruit, produced by a sort of rattan, called Salae, which is page 182covered over with small brown scales, and tastes like cheese, apples, and onions. Guavas, though deemed good of their kind, smell so disagreeably, that I could not endure them. Of Jamboo, they have many sorts, some large, some small, some round, and others long; white, pink, crimson, and scarlet. They have also a plenty of cocoa-nuts, of which they generally make their oil. Their other fruits are Pisang, or plantains, Manco, or water-melons, anona squamosa, custard-apples, anona reticulata, grapes, pumplenoses, citrons, and acajou apples.

All the ships, which are careened and hove-down here, go to a small island in the bay, called Unrust, about seven miles from Batavia; where there is proper tackle to heave them down, and a bass, or overseer, to manage all matters. The whole island is one dock-yard, inhabited entirely by carpenters, and others, who belong to the ships that are there.* Near Unrust is another island, called the Kuypers, or Coopers, which is full of warehouses, where ships deposit their goods while they are heaving-down. About a mile from this, there is another island, called Palmirante, where there is an hospital for sick seamen: and upon this island the ships page 183companies inter their dead. There are many other islands in the bay, named Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Eadam, where the company have rope-manufaćtories, and send their felons.

The island of Java abounds with monkies, cockatoos, parrots, and wild poultry: there are also a great many horses, which are small, but very spirited.

The westerly monsoon sets. in about Oćtober or November, and sometimes later; and then the rainy season comes on: the easterly sets in about April or May.

The general language spoken at Batavia is low Malay; and it is necessary that every person, who designs to stay long there, should learn it. This language is very different from the high and proper Malay, which is spoken on the continent of India; and may be compared to the Lingua-Franca, being a compound of several other languages; viz. of Malay, Portuguese, and those of the eastern isles. A short vocabulary of each is here annexed as a specimen; as also vocabularies of the languages of other nations, in the neighbourhood of Batavia, which I collećted from natives of the different places, during my stay in that city.

* At this place our ship was examined; and we found that many of her planks, and her keel, were much damaged; one part of her not being above one-eighth of an inch thick, which was luckily before one of the timbers, or, in all probability, she would have sunk long before we reached the bay of Batavia. While our ship was repairing at Unrust, most of the crew were at Cooper's-Island, where they were taken with a putrid dysentery; three of whom, the steward of the gun-room, one of the seamen, and a boy, died. The disorder also carried off Toobaiah, and the lad Taiyota, natives of Otaheite, whom we designed to have brought to England. They had been several times up to Batavia, and expressed great surprize at the many various objects to which they had been unaccustomed: they were particularly struck with the sight of carriages drawn by horses; and were very inquisitive in respećt of what they saw, that was new to them; having, before our arrival at Batavia, made great progress in the English tongue, in which they were greatly assisted by Mr. Green, the astronomer, who took much pains therein, particularly with Taiyota. When Taiyota was seized with the fatal disorder, as if certain of his approaching dissolution, he frequently said to those of us who were his intimates, Tyau mate oee, "my friends, I am dying." He took any medicines that were offered him; but Toobaiah, who was ill at the same time, and survived him but a few days, refused every thing of that kind, and gave himself up to grief; regretting, in: the highest degree, that he had left his own country; and, when he heard of Taiyota's death, he was quite inconsolable, crying out frequently, Taiyota! Taiyota! They were both buried in the island of Eadam. During our stay at Batavia, most of us were sickly; Mr. Monkhousc, our surgeon, and the astronomer's servant, died; and some others hardly escaped with life.