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Chapter Ten — The Story of Kahungunu

page 73

Chapter Ten
The Story of Kahungunu

We now tell the history of the man whose conquests in the realm of marriage changed the whole of the Maori history of Hawke's Bay. Kahungunu must be one of the most amazing characters in Maori history. He was not a warrior. In fact, he was the reverse. Yet he undoubtedly had personality and versatility, and was thus able to win his way into the favours of tribe after tribe as he journeyed down the East Coast from his Northern home.

Before we tell of his movements we must admit that there are many conflicting stories anent this hero's movements and activities. We propose to take as the basis of our story, the story which was related to Mr. S. Percy Smith by Pango of Te Arawa, which account was published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society and later reprinted by Mr. T. Lambert in Old Wairoa. We are making some alterations to this story to accord with local versions.

Kahungunu was a giant of a man, big-framed and handsome. Perhaps it was his physique which made him so attractive to the opposite sex. Nevertheless he was also an industrious fellow, preferring pastoral pursuits and fishing to warfare. With such qualities it is little wonder that his position was gained by captivating women of fame and high rank, and actually it was not his own descent that gave him claim to the following of so large a section of the native race, so much as the fact that he married into tribes, becoming their provider, if not in a warlike sense their protector. Why was it that only once was Kahungunu and his people attacked and raided? He seems to have been a pacifist in spirit, for even his one battle (Maunga-a-kahia) was settled by diplomatic methods.

The favourite child of his father, Tamatea-pokai-whenua, Kahungunu was not brought up to achieve supernatural powers as a tohunga, but was allowed latitude enough to choose and shape page 74his own career. In this way he would not only escape many of the severer prohibitions of tapu, but would also acquire much useful practical knowledge. We now present the character study of our hero as written by that keen historian Hare Hongi (Mr. H. M. Stowell, of Wellington).

"It was amongst these surroundings that the lad Kahu matured. At a very early age he appeared to have taken a leading part in advising and managing systematic operations, both on land and at sea. For, as a young man, it was said of him: 'Kahungunu is an industrious man, and one who knows how to manage works, both on land and at sea' ('Ko Kahungunu he tangata ahuwhenua; mohio ki te whakahaere i nga mahi o uta, me o te tai'). The works on land included the ordering and building of village-houses, on a system, attending to cultivations, with a special regard for their proper irrigation and drainage; bird-snaring and spearing appointments; an encouragement of the arts of carving, tattooing, weaving, and canoe-making; while those of the sea were, of course, the management of canoes, and a study of the seasonable times for taking the best fish and shell fish."

Hare Hongi also writes of Kahungunu after his arrival at Whakatane:

"Here was the last pa of his Ngati-Awa ancestor, Toi, and here he was cordially welcomed by kindred of his own grandfather, Rongo-kako. Meanwhile our erst Kaitaia-born Kahu, son of a notable father, was rapidly gaining a peculiar reputation of his own, for the suddenness in which he got straggling and disorderly villages, huts, canoes and cultivations put into the most excellent order. It became an axiom how the young men rose to execute his will. And it is these things which afford glimpses of the Kahu of those days, who was climbing the ladder of fame to the spectacular career which he left behind him. The soul of industry himself, he quickly inculcated that in others. He was an intense advocate of that fatherly and motherly advice to their matured sons and daughters which has passed into proverbs. 'The man who procures and cultivates foods, marry him; the man who sits about the house, thump his noddle.' (Tane i te mahi kai moea; tane i te noha-whare kurua te takataka);'Wahine i te ringaringa, waewae kakama moea; wahine i te ngutungutu, whakarerea atu.' ('The maid who is nimble with her fingers and feet, marry her; the maiden who is nimble with her lips, leave her to herself.')"

As we have already related, he was born in Kaitaia, and when page 75his father and his household was driven from the North he was taken to Tauranga, where he grew to manhood.

His adult travels started through a quarrel with his half-brother. A fishing net was being drawn into the beach at Otira, near Tauranga. Hardly had the ngakau or "belly" of the net been drawn in than Kahungunu, forgetting all the etiquette of general distribution and the rule that first an offering should be made to Tangaroa, the god of the ocean, and secondly that the workmen should be served before others, rushed in and seized a fish for himself. His elder half-brother, Whaene, angered, snatched up a tamure (snapper) and threw it at Kahungunu, who, in protecting himself, received a severe prick on his hand by a fin of the fish. Feeling very annoyed over the incident, but ignoring the fact that he himself was the cause of it, Kahungunu left Mangatawa pa and journeyed to Opotiki, where he dwelt with his first cousin, Haumanga, and her husband, Tunanui, whose second name was Haruatai.

On his arrival, the customary tangi, observed when long-parted relatives meet again, was held. In the evening, after the welcome, Haumanga asked Kahungunu the reason for his coming. Kahungunu in reply blamed Whaene for causing the friction that made his departure advisable, no doubt forgetting to tell of his own part in making the quarrel. Haruatai asked, "What do you intend to do about it?" Kahungunu replied, "I propose that we make war on them." War was the usual resort of the Maori after such a quarrel, and Haruatai agreeing, the taua, or war party, was gathered. Kahungunu's conscience must have worried him, however, for after starting out he diverted the party from Tauranga to Rotorua, and instead of fighting his half-brother, Whaene, who was no doubt expecting him, he attacked the Rotorua natives and won the battle known as Te Awhenga. An important prisoner named Ahukawa was taken prisoner here, and this fact has been handed down in Maori song thus:

"E tipi taku mana ki runga o Tauranga kei Rotorua e kei Te whenga ra ko Ahukawa raia taku Whaka-rau-ora."

("My prestige will stride forth on top of Tauranga, to Rotorua, and at Te Awhenga where Ahukawa was made my prisoner.")

Kahungunu returned to Opotiki. A son was born to Haumanga and Haruatai, and Kahu asked that it be named Tu-Tamure (prick by Tamure), thus commemorating the grudge that he still bore against his half-brother at Tauranga. But he did not stop long at Opotiki for the wanderlust of his ancestors was page 76strong within him. His next port of call was Whangara, just up the coast from Gisborne. Here he was shown the footprint of his grandfather, Rongo-kako, which footprint, or tapuwae o Rongo-kako, had become embedded in the rock after Rongo's mighty step across the bay from Mahia.

While visiting a pa on the hill Titirangi, above the Gisborne Harbour, Kahungunu saw the smoke of the fires of a large settlement inland on the opposite side of the Waipaoa River. On asking who was living there, he was told that the pa was Popoia, owned by Ruapani, the principal chief of the whole district. So to Popoia our hero journeyed, and was so well thought of that Ruapani gave him his daughter Rua-rere-tai as wife. Kahungunu settled in the pa, and doubtless became a useful fellow. Time passed on until Rua-rere-tai was about to give birth to a child and she was desirous of something tasty with which to vary her diet. She asked her husband to procure some birds for her to eat in order to cause the milk to flow for his (as yet unborn) child. On reaching the forest he found a nest of a tieke in a hollow tree, from which he obtained some young birds. He took them to the village and cooked them, thus fulfilling his wife's desire. Not long after, the child, a girl, was born, and was named Rua-herehere-tieke, thus commemorating the finding of the young birds.

After a time Kahungunu tired of the settled life and started travelling again. This time he proceeded to Whare-ongaonga. Here a lady named Hine-puariari, a daughter of Pa-nui, fell in love with him, a case of love at first sight. Kahungunu reciprocated and the pair became man and wife. As the news of the marriage spread, the women of the district came to congratulate the bride. On being asked how she was faring with her husband, the bride replied: "Kaore hoki tera te hanga o taku tane, kaore e rupeke mai ana, takoto noa mai te nuinga i waho." (The remarkable thing is that the treasure of my husband could not be admitted and the major part of it was obliged to remain outside.) When this gossiping remark of the brown daughter of Eve reached the ears of Rongomai-wahine, from a visiting lady from Mahia Peninsula, she jokingly and challengingly replied, "Na temea ano ra he kopua papaku, mehemea e taka mai ana ki te kopua hohonu a Rapa e tuhera atu nei, pokopoko ana ia ki roto." (It is because it is a shallow pool; should it have fallen into the deep pool of Rapa (her father) now opening towards him, it would have been lost out of sight.")

Kahungunu continued in this pa and also married his wife's page 77sister, Kahukura-waiaraia. Hine-puariari had two children, Powhiro and another, while the second wife also bore two, one named Tuati, and another.

Although Kahungunu had seemingly settled down at Whare-ongaonga, the challenge of Rongomai-wahine had not been forgotten by him, especially as news of her fame continually came to him. So he prepared himself to journey further down the coast in search of a fresh conquest in the realm of love.. When, however, he arrived at Tawapata, on the Mahia Peninsula, he found that Rongomai-wahine had just married Tama-taku-tai, an adept at wood carving. This did not deter or dismay the newcomer, especially as his own eyes told him that the stories of the beauty of Rongomai had not been exaggerations. He determined to possess her as his own, but his desire was not shown in precipitate action. Rather was he cunning and calculating in his suit. In a subtle way he sought to discredit the husband by persuading the people that the gathering of food was the most useful accomplishment that a man could have. He set a number of the people to work gathering fern-root. Around the edge of the forest on the hills they dug laboriously. When a large quantity had been gathered, Kahungunu asked for some forest creepers known as aka-turihanga. Instead of dividing the bundle, to the surprise of all present he bound all the root into one very large bundle, and shouldering the heavy burden alone he carried it to the edge of a cliff above the pa and rolled it over. There must have been a considerable quantity of the aruhe, or root, as the story tells that it rolled down the hill like a landslide, blocking up the doors of the houses. This showmanship had the desired effect, and the gratified women exclaimed, "Ah! this is indeed the son-in-law for us. As for the other lazy man, he knows nothing but how to carve."

Kahu secured the inspiration for his next move from watching some shags diving into the sea in their search for food. As he watched from the cliff he held his breath while one of the birds stayed under water. At the same time he counted, pepe tahi, pepe rua, pepe toru, pepe wha, and so on until the cormorant reappeared. After about ten experiments he found that he could hold his breath much longer than the birds. He set the people preparing a long rope of leaves from the ti tree (cabbage tree). and also kawhiu. or basket, suitable for holding paua shellfish.

In the morning he took the people to the rocks, and throwing his basket into the sea he commenced diving. He filled the basket with the favoured paua and ordered the people to pull it ashore. page 78He repeated the feat until he had sufficient shellfish to feed the whole pa. During the last dive he placed the pauas on his body, where they remained by suction. Wading ashore he was found to be literally covered with shells, and he presented the delicacies to the women, who were loud in their praises of this newcomer who was proving such a versatile fellow.

When the resultant meal was in preparation, Kahungunu showed his epicurean taste by reserving the roes of the pauas as his own particular dish. At night he slept at the back of the sleeping house while Tama-taku-tai and his wife slept near the window. We will tell the sequel of the story as politely as possible. About midnight Kahu found himself full of bad wind, which was due to the peculiar gastric qualities of paua roe. To what depths of intrigue love will lead a man. He crawled over to the sleeping pair, and, lifting their mat, he discharged the wind in their vicinity. Quickly returning to his bed he awaited the result. The wife awoke and accused her husband of the ill practice. Sleepily the husband returned the accusation, and an argument resulted. Kahu waited until they were once more asleep and repeated the offence. Awaking once more Rongomai-wahine railed her husband, saying, "All you are good for, you lazy fellow, is to eat and discharge wind." Mutual recrimination followed, which resulted in the wife following the age-old custom of returning to her mother where she spent the rest of the night.

In the morning Kahungunu again went to his favourite spot on top of the cliff. There was a good sea running, and he noticed that his rival Tama was preparing his canoe for the sport of whakaheke-ngaru, or riding on the crest of the breakers. Kahu stayed until he had twice witnessed Tama put to sea and ride to shore on the waves. Then descending to the beach he proposed that he should accompany Tama in one of the rides. Tama, good fellow that he was, assented, and took Kahu as passenger in the bow. After two trips thus placed, Kahu asked to be allowed to steer the craft, so the men changed places. Kahu took the canoe well out until they saw a big wave rolling towards them. Tama shouted, "Here is a big wave." "No," said Kahu, "that is not a big wave." They went ashore on the wave, but paddled well out to, sea again. Along came another great wave, and the previous conversation was repeated, Kahu again making light of their feat in riding on such high breakers. As they were carried along swiftly by this wave, Kahungunu pulled his steering paddle sideways, and the canoe broaching over was swamped. Tama-taku-tai could not swim, and he was immediately drowned. No inquest was held, and Kahu the provider thus took Rongomai-wahine as page 79wife. If any questions were asked no doubt they were dismissed with the reply, "All's fair in love and war." This was one of the most important love matches of the East Coast, not only because of the intrigue surrounding it but because it undoubtedly changed the whole Maori history of the East Coast.

Up to this time the local people had not known the full history and parentage of their hero. On a certain day Kahu asked his wife to go with him to the stream that she might dress his hair for him. His lady combed and oiled his locks in the true fashion of the day, but when she was tying the koukou, or topknot, with some local flax, the strand broke and the locks fell loose. Kahungunu asked for his belt, a war girdle known as tatua-pupara. From it he took some of the flax which had been grown at his home, Kawhainui, near Tauranga, near where his great-grandfather Tamatea-mai-Tawhiti was buried. This was softened in water and Rongomai bound this around her husband's hair, the tie being successful. Kahu then stood up, and turning to the north where the clouds stood over his father's home, he said, "E, te putiki wharanui o Taniatea i mahue atu ra i runga o Tauranga." ("Here is the binding broad-leaved flax of Tamatea that was left at Tauranga.") This was the first occasion on which Kahu had declared his true identity, and following this he became the permanent husband of the handsome Rongomai-wahine.

In the course of time the news spread that Rongomai was soon to be a mother. The news even reached Tamatea in Tauranga. The old man quickly set about preparing some fine clothes to take with him as a present, as he journeyed to see his expected grandchild and the parents. From Opotiki he travelled via the Wai-o-eka valley. About half-way up the valley he left his tame karoro, or seagull, which, turning into stone, is still shown in the locality today. On reaching Mou-mou-kai, a pa in the vicinity of Morere, and not far from his destination he heard that the child, a girl was born, but that its father was not Kahungunu but the dead Tama-taku-tai. Tamatea was so disappointed and disgusted that he left all his presents hanging on a tree and, without visiting his son proceeded on to Wairoa, Mohaka and Whanganui-a-rotu (Port Ahuriri). On account of the annoyance of Tamatea and the casting away of the presents, the babe was named Hine-Rauiri (Lady Castaway), a singularly appropriate name. The poor child was also treated as a commoner, in that no whare-kohanga, or nest-house, was built for her delivery and nursing. It was usual to do so with the birth of high born children, and the custom was surrounded with important ceremonials. The children of the Kahungunu-page 80Rongomai-wahine match were Kahukuranui (son), Rongomai-papa (daughter), Tamate-kota (son), Mahakinui (son), and Tauhei-kuri (daughter).

About the fifth or sixth generation after the arrival of the Fleet in 1350, that is to say, about the year 1475, the pa, Maunga-a-kahia, at Mahia, sustained a seige. Kahungunu was by this time an aged man, and his children grown to adulthood, and with the exception of Tauhei-kuri all went away and married into prominent people of the Poverty Bay district.

It will be remembered that Kahungunu had stayed for awhile with his brother-in-law Haruatai at Opotiki, and that while he was there he and Haruatai had captured in battle an important Rotorua Maori named Ahukawa. Haruatai was a great warrior, and continued his warlike expeditions long after Kahungunu left him. These fighting trips, involving long absences from home, Haruatai left his wife, trusting man, in charge of the slave Ahukawa. The captured chief betrayed his trust. Haruatai returnéd and found evidence of the misconduct, but also found that Ahukawa was not wholly to blame. He remarked philosophically, "Katinoa waiho ahau kia taipu noa atu ana i waho."("Enough, let me lay outside here.") Not long after a male child was born to Haumanga, the wife, and was named Tama Taipunoa, or "Son of being left outside." The child grew to manhood and with his elder brother Tu-tamure learnt the finer points of the use of weapons and the art of warfare.

In view of the story that follows, it seems ironic that Kahungunu should have been connected with the arrival of both these brothers in the world. Kahu had himself suggested that Tu-tamure be named "prick of the snapper" after the argument he had had with Whaene, his own brother. Now Tu was about to become a thorn in aged Kahu's side. Kahungunu had helped to capture Ahukawa, who was the actual father of Tama-taipunoa. The two brothers Tu and Tama were both fighting men, and their ambition even led to them investing the pa where lived Kahungunu, the now aged friend of Tu's father.

Leaving Opotiki with over 500 warriors, the brothers won several victories before they arrived at Maunga-a-kahia. The pa was well placed on a high hill overlooking the sea on the eastern side of Mahia Peninsula, north of Nukutaurua. It was the principal pa of Kahungunu, and had three lines of defence in earthworks and palisades. The earthworks must have been very high, for even today they still remain eight feet above the surrounding levels. The outer walls were termed pekerangi and page break
This photo shows the flag referred to in the history of Rongomai-wahine. It was taken at the opening of the Mohaka Church House in 1902, which was the last House to be built under the Movement described in the above history. In the background is part of the famous Mohaka Round House, which was built in this fashion to enhance the prestige of the Mohaka people.

This photo shows the flag referred to in the history of Rongomai-wahine. It was taken at the opening of the Mohaka Church House in 1902, which was the last House to be built under the Movement described in the above history. In the background is part of the famous Mohaka Round House, which was built in this fashion to enhance the prestige of the Mohaka people.

page break page 81 the inner, where the last stand was made, was termed kere-tai, or "the citadel."

Owing to the strength of the pa, the fighting was confined for a long time to the outside of the defences. Ultimately the outer palisade gave way, and the position became more serious. Hearing of this, Kahungunu sent his daughter Tauhei-Kuri to see how the battle was going. Just as she reached the line of the defenders, one of the attackers, who had been endeavouring to sever the creepers used in binding the palisades, broke his wooden mere. The man exclaimed in disgust, "Taku he ki te ake-rautangi, mei tikina ki te pipiha o te ika nui a Tangaraa, tau ana te wawaro ki runga o Maunga-a-kahia." ("My mistake to rely on the ake wood; should my meapon have been made of the jaw of the monster fish (whale) of Tangaroa then it would have triumphed on Maunga-a-kia.") At this saying one of the other attackers threw a whalebone mere to the speaker. Seeing this the girl returned to her father, and said that she believed the pa would be taken. Kahungunu then sent her down to ask the name of the leader of the war-party. On reaching the fighting line she cried, "You men! Stop fighting for a moment! I am asking who is the chief of your taua," At this, one of the attackers gave a command and advanced to the palisade in front of the girl. Half turning towards the sea he said, "Ranga ranga te muri, ka tutu te ngaru o te moana ko au, tenei ko Tu-tamure." ("When the north wind blows up rise the waves of the ocean. It is I, Tamure.") On this report reaching him, Kahungunu exclaimed, "It is your cousin, go and tell him to cease fighting." The girl obeyed. to such effect that Tu-tamure indeed gave the order that stopped the fight for the time being, the attackers retiring outside the defences to await developments.

The old chief now tried diplomacy. "Oh daughter," he said, "Wilt thou consent to be the wife of thy tungane?" (consin). Tauhei-kuri consented, not because of love, but because of her father's wish, and because it was a convenient way of making peace, thus saving the lives of her father and people.

So no time was lost in adorning Tauhei in all the finery that she possessed. She was then escorted to the camp of the enemy. She asked for the camp of Tu-tamure. He and his brother were sitting alone. Not knowing which was which, as maidens will, she chose the younger and more handsome of the pair, which happened to be Tama-taipunoa, and fell in front of him. Afraid of his brother, he pushed the girl over to Tu. The girl recovered her balance and again knelt in front of the younger man. Again page 82he pushed her over to his brother. At this, Tu-tamure arose and went over to a flat rock on which was a pool of clear water. Looking at his image reflected in the water, he exclaimed, "Oh! indeed I am ugly!" Returning to his younger brother, Tama, he said, "Marry our young lady."

This was a convenient way of making peace, and the mirror-like rock pool is still shown today and is known as "Te waiwhakaata o Tu-Tamure" (The water looking-glass of Tu-tamure). After the wedding Tu-tamure and all his warriors of the tribe of the Pane Nehu left for their homes at Whiti-kau, inland of Marumutu on the road to Turanganui. From thence they returned to Harua-tai and Haumanga, the parents at Opotiki. Tama-taipunoa and his bride remained at the Mahia and later went to live at Turanganui (Poverty Bay), where they begat Tawhiwhi and Mahaki. From the latter descended the Poverty Bay tribe known as Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki.

Maunga-a-kahia hill with the earthworks of the pa can still be seen on the Mahia today. It is on the eastern side of the Peninsula between Opoutama and Table Cape. It is fitting here to insert a description of the pa site written by Hare Hongi after his visit there with the late Mr. G. C. Ormond some years ago.

"Came the day when with a pair of hacks guaranteed to transport two old men to safety, we started off to visit and to scale the pa whereon Kahu had breathed his last. At the end of a long ride, and having crossed casual streams and tidal-inlets, we reached the pa.

From a broad and splendid flat, just above the beach level, the wide face of the pa, Maunga-akahia, towers sheer up its 800 feet. We rode to the far end of this and, dismounting, led our horses up a steep slope, half-way to the summit. There we had to tether them and climb, at times on all fours, to the top. What a magnificent view seaward! Past Gisborne, Whangara and Tokomaru Bay, to the East Cape. Landward, I could see that the pa was a detached fragment of the terrace, which stretched away, uniformly to the homestead. There had been a subsidence, which had, however, left the pa site standing at the original terrace-level.

"The pa summit, long and narrow, is very nearly level. We stepped it and figured that its area was nearly an acre and a half, quite commodious enough.

"And it was here that Kahungunu had died! I was very deeply impressed; not alone from a moving historical sense, but. for the more intimate and personal sense that, as a boy of twelve, page 83I had stood on that Kaitaia pa, where he was born. And here, now, in my old age, I was standing on the spot where he had died; away here, in the far South. Surely, but few of his descendants could truthfully say that! Kahungunu, the Kaitaia-born, founder and eponymous ancestor of the great Ngati-Kahungunu tribe, that most considerable of modern Maori tribes, respected and feared, which controlled and held that vast estate which extends from north of the Nukutaurua Peninsula to Wellington itself. And now, of which may be written: Sic Transit Gloria Mundi: Haere ra, e Kahu ma."

We quote one further paragraph from Hare Hongi:

"It is passing strange that he himself, his father and his grandfather, being all for peace, the fates willed that his old age should be embittered by the martial ardour of his many sons and grandsons. Those carried on sanguinary strife. Not against their neighbours only, but amongst themselves. They pushed and fought their way southward, leaving to posterity a story teaming with romance, chivalry and battle. With heroes and heroines (hinepare) to the full. As the Ngati-Kahungunu tribe, their long drive southward did not even end at Heretaunga, but extended as far as the Wairarapa district."

There are doubtless many other interesting stories that could be told about this great ancestor. In his ripe old age he married a fifth and last wife. She came to him through an expedition that he had arranged to avenge the death of his own son. As in his other battles, so in this one, he did not lead the force himself but secured another to do it for him.

Tuaiti, the son of Kahungunu by his third wife, Kahukura-waiaraia, married Moetai, a daughter of Moeahu, of Poverty Bay. Their home was at Rurutawhao, on the Aranui block, to the north of Awamate. Te Rironga, a brother of Moetai, happened to pay a visit to his sister. During his stay Tuaiti lured him across the river ostensibly to gather the berries of the kahikatea (white pine) which grew there. Te Rironga never returned, but was murdered by Tuaiti. The scene of the tragedy was in a bush gully near the present Frasertown Road and not far from the junction of the Kauhouroa stream and the Wairoa River. Tuaiti returned alone and when his wife asked where her brother was he replied that Te Rironga had returned to Poverty Bay. The sister felt suspicious in view of the fact that her brother had left without bidding her good-bye, and her suspicions were increased by the fact that her husband crossed the river every day. Her certainty of the murder was proved by smelling her husband's page 84breath while he was asleep. His breath smelt strongly of human flesh.

Concealing the knowledge of her discovery from her ogre husband, she communicated the news to her father Moehau, who raised a war-party. Moetai advised them to come at the time of the full-moon in order to facilitate the nocturnal crossing of the Wairoa River. The taua, led by Rongo-whakaata, who had married Kakahu-po, the other daughter of Moeahu, halted at Putahi, on the bank of the Wairoa. Moetai saw them by the light of the moon and while Tuaiti slept, blissfully unconscious of the plot, she stealthily took canoes over the river for the party. She advised them to turn over Tuaiti's canoe as it lay on the skids and this was done. The party advanced on the whare and the wife opened the door for the avengers. By this time Tuaiti had awakened and hearing the footsteps he leapt to the door, taiaha in hand. As he emerged his wife caught him by his leg, but he shook free and raced for his canoe. He could not handle the upset canoe and he was killed at the water's edge. In the morning his body was put into the canoe fully dressed and a paddle was put in his hand and the craft pushed into midstream. So the ship of the dead passed downstream. Other whares lined the bank, and some of the people, seeing the man apparently asleep, showed their contempt by saying: "To te tangata nanakia tona ahua, rereketonu ana mahi." The word nanakia is that applied to an ogre who might live in a cave, or to a man whose ways were bestial and mysterious. Tuaiti was well known, and seeing him floating down the river in such a manner, none would call to him nor attempt to waken him. At the Turiroa bend of the river it was found that the craft carried a dead man, and the canoe was hastily pushed into midstream again. Slowly the waka with its ghastly freight floated down until it once more grounded at the bend, which was later called Te-uhi-a-karoro, opposite the present Spooners Point. There some of his own people, the Ngai Tauira. found him, and his body was lifted from the canoe, and was cooked and eaten.

In due course the news of his son's death came to Kahungunu. He also heard that the avenging Rongowhakaata had taken Moetai to Turanganui as a second wife. Kahungunu journeyed to Wairoa and there persuaded one, Wekanui, to lead a war-party to seek vengeance for the death of Tuaiti. The battle was fought at a pa named Kai-whakareireia, on the present site of the Ormond township. The battle was a fierce one and some important chiefs, including one named Rakainui, were killed. Wekanui here captured Pou-Wha-ekura, a woman of high rank, and as he led page 85her away, Kahukuranui also claimed her. Kahungunu, the latter's father, settled what might have resulted in an argument by taking the woman himself. It is said that the woman herself chose the older man, evidently preferring to be an old man's darling rather than a young man's slave.

The wives and children of Kahungunu are as follows: A black and white diagram showing the wives and children of Kahungunu.