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Chapter Nineteen — Other Ancestors

page 143

Chapter Nineteen
Other Ancestors

Te Huki

Te Huki was an outstanding ancestor of Te Wai-roa district, second only to Tapuwae in rank and activity. Kahukuranui, their grandfather, was the eldest and most celebrated son of Kahungunu and Rongomai-wahine. Tapuwae descended from Hine-manuhiri, the daughter and elder child of Kahukuranui and Tu-teihonga, while Te Huki descended from the younger male, Rakaipaaka.

In birth Te Huki was famous in that he descended from Kahungunu in an unblemished line of male descent (Ure-pukaka) as follows:

  • Kahungunu (male)—Rongomai-wahine.
  • Kahukura-nui (male)—Tu-teihonga.
  • Rakai-paaka (male)—Tu-Rumakina.
  • Kaukbhea (male)—Mawete.
  • Tu-te-Kanao (male)—Tama-te-ahirau.
  • Tu-reia (male)—Hine-kimihanga.
  • Te Huki (male).

In life he fulfilled the promise of his great ancestry. With diplomatic skill he inter-married himself, and later, also his sons and daughters, into the various tribes over the vast tract of country from Poverty Bay to the Wairarapa. This has become figuratively known as "the setting of the net of Te Huki." The late Sir James Carroll gave Wairoa one of its most interesting placenames when he used the story of Te Huki's net as his basis for the naming of the Wairoa Racecourse. On the opening day Sir James made the following speech:

"Ladies and Gentlemen: The Wairoa Racing Club have given me the honour of naming this racecourse. In doing so, it gives me the greatest pleasure in naming it Te Kupenga. In our pakeha language Te Kupenga is 'the net.' To give it its full name, it is Te Kupenga-a-Te-Huki, or 'The Net of Te Huki.' Figuratively it is a human net, meaning a league of the people. About eight generations back from the present generation of the Maori people, page 144and before even the European nations thought or knew of the forming of the League of Nations, which has now been done, Te Huki, one of the principal ancestors of the Maori people of this district, formed a league of the people extending from Porangahau to Whangara, along near the sea coast. This was done by setting up his net, known as Te Kupenga-a-Te-Huki, which I have just explained. He selected and placed one of his grandsons named Ngarangi-whakaupoko at Te Poroporo, near Porangahau, to act as the post of the southern end of his net. From this post sprung the principal chiefs of that locality. Those are the Tipene Matuas, the Henare Te Atuas, the Ropihas and Te Kurus. He placed another of his grandsons named Ngawhakatatare at Whangara as the 'eastern post of the end of his net, from whom sprung the paramount chief of that locality, Te Kani-a-takirau, and others. Finally he placed his son Purua-aute in the centre as the spreading float of his net, from whom sprung the principal chiefs of Te Wai-roa and Heretaunga districts.

"Today we are being hauled in and mingling in the human net of sport, and judging by the happy expressions on the face of the Patron (Mr. G. C. Ormond), the net of finance must have had a very successful haul." A voice from the crowd (one of his cobbers): "You must have your pockets full, too, Jimmy." "No," replied Sir James, "unfortunately my pockets were not made to hold money, though I came into the course with pockets full, it has all been hauled into the net.

"In conclusion, I hope and pray that the net in future will continue in its successful hauling."

Te Huki in his early days resided near the coast between Waihua and Mohaka, which country rises and falls in hills and valleys along the main road from Waihua to Mohaka. This tract was called Nga-ngaru-a-Te-Huki, or the waves of Te Huki.

Te Huki was not a warrior or a military genius. He was more of a diplomat than a fighter. Similar to his sister, Te Rauhina (the peace-talking wife of Tapuwae), his ambition was always in the interest of peace and love.

He first set out to plant unity amongst the people by marrying the daughters of influential chiefs. He married his first wife named Te Rangi-tohumare, who was the granddaughter of Te Whati-apiti, the eponymous ancestor of the tribal name Ngai-Te Whati-apiti of Heretaunga. He again married Te Ropuhina, a chieftainess of Nuhaka, and finally married Rewanga, the daughter of Te Aringa-i-waho, the chief of the Titi-rangi pa on a high hill above the Gisborne Harbour.

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In order to maintain his popularity with the people, Te Huki did not remove his wives from their respective homes and people. Nor did he build for himself a special home and territory, but attended his wives by periodical visits throughout the vast country between Heretaunga and Poverty Bay. By such behaviour, not only, was he highly respected by the people of his wives, but he kept intact the love of the people towards, his wives and children.

By his first (Te Rangi-tohumare) he settled his first son, Purua-aute, in the Wairoa district. Subsequently he married Tapuwae's queen daughter Te Mata-kainga-ite-tihi (as has been mentioned in the history of Te Kapua-matotoru). The second son was Mataitai (I), who was placed at Mahia, from whom sprung the chief Ihaka Whaanga, and others. The next was Hine-raru (female), who was personally taken by him (Te Huki) and established by marrying to Hopara (a prominent young chief of Porangahau), who begot Ngarangi-whakaupoko (as has been referred to in the speech of Sir James Carroll in this story).

By his Nuhaka wife (Te Ropuhina) he had three sons:—Te Ra-ka-to, who was settled at Mahia, to become the eponymous ancestor of the sub-tribe Ngai Te-Ra-ka-to; Tureia (2) was settled at Nuhaka, while Te Rehu (younger) was also settled at Nuhaka, to become the prominent ancestor of that place and the origin of the sub-tribe Ngai-Te Rehu.

By his poverty Bay wife (Rewanga) he had a daughter named Te Umu-papa, who married Marukawiti, the celebrated son of Kanohi (the most powerful ancestor of Uawa and the origin of the sub-tribe Ngati-kanohi). From this union sprung Ngawhaka-tatare (the eastern post of the net, as has been mentioned).

These marriages and unities may not be of any interest to our pakeha readers, but are extremely important to the Maori people of the East Coast, from Wairarapa to Uawa, for it was through these diplomatic marriages and activities that the people became united, and succoured each other whenever need arose, as has been related in the history of Te Wera Hauraki.

Te Huki met his death while journeying to visit his wife and family at Titirangi pa. During his journey he was waylaid while crossing Te Arai River below the present bridge and was killed, taken away and eaten by Te Whanau-a-Apanui tribe, of Te Kaha, Bay of Plenty. His death later was avenged at the battle known as Whawha-Po, as has been related in the history of Te-O-Tane, and also at the battle of Toka-a-Kuku (related in the history of Te Wera Hauraki) both in this book.

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It is interesting to note that one of the small constructional locomotives used in the construction of the Wairoa-Napier railway was named Huki and had the name attached by a brass plate.

Te Kapua-matotoru

Te Kapua-matotoru was an ancestor who descended from a high line of aristocracy. He was the most celebrated grandson of Tapuwae and Te Huki, the outstanding ancestors of the Ngati-Kahungunu proper, whose histories are recorded in this book. It has been claimed that those who can trace their descent from either of these ancestors are among the aristocracy, while those who cannot thus prove their descent are commoners.

The mother of Te Kapua-matotoru was Te Mata-kaingai-i-te-tihi, meaning "A face to be gazed at as the highest pinnacle." She was the first child of Tapuwae and Te Ruataumata, and was made by her father the greatest and highest of his children (hei tihi, or queen). The father of Te Kapua-matotoru was Purua-aute, the first child of Te Huki and his first wife Te Rangi-tohumare, who was the granddaughter of Te Whati-apiti, the eponymous name of the tribe Ngai-Te Whati-apiti of Heretaunga. Purua-aute, being the first child of Te Huki, was made the greatest and highest of his children, who was chosen to be the husband of Te Mata-kainga-i-te-tihi, the queen daughter of Tapuwae, as has already been related. In furtherance of the prestige given to Purua-aute, he was chosen and made the "Poito whakarewarewa i waenganui o te kupenga a Te Huki" ("Centre float in keeping the net of Te Huki stretched").

By this union Te Kapua-mototoru was the first child and was made the greatest. Mataitai (2) was the next, who begot Ihaka Whaanga, who became the paramount chief of Nuhaka and Te Mahia. Te Kahu-o-te-rangi was the next, who begot Paora Rerepu, the celebrated chief of Mohaka.

Te Kapua-matotoru was born in a pa named Pohonui-o-hine, on the Awamate side of the Wairoa River, opposite Mr. Duff's old homestead behind the Wairoa golf links. Later this pa was removed across the river and was called Whereinga. When Te Kapua-matotoru grew to manhood, he was taken by Manawa (a chief of Ngati-Rakaipaaka), who lived in his pa called Wairoro, near Te Kokohu, Tahaenui.

Te Kapua-matotoro, by his own choice, married a woman of the place named Te Aramoana (a commoner). When a child was born to them, Manawa made the sneering remark, "E Tama, tau wahine e moe ai koe ko te ruruwai na" ("O Son, what a rubbish page 147of a woman you have married"). Te Kapua-matotoru asked, "Kev wheat na?" ("Where is it then?" or "Where is a better?"). Manawa replied, "Ara, tikina i a Te Whewhera, kia waha kai ake ana a Poheke a Potakataka, he upoko no Rakiapaaka" ("There, go and get Te Whewhera, so be justified in Pohehe and Potaka-taka carrying food on their backs, as being superior in birth to Rakai-paaka"), meaning that Te Whewhera, being descended from Hine-manuhiri, who was an elder sister of Rakaipaaka, it would be deemed fit for the Rakaipaaka's descendants to carry foods on their backs for Te Whewhera's issue.

Te Whewhera was already married to a chief named Te Kakari, and had a new-born child. Nevertheless, she was taken away and married to Te Kapua-matotoru. When this was done, the two new-born children were despatched by means of witch-craft. This was done so as to leave no prior issue to this union, thus commencing with the marriage a, clean line of descent.

After this matching the couple were taken back to Wairoa and settled at the pa Whereinga, and also in a pa called Hikawai, near the Maori settlement called Te Mira (Mill), near Frasertown.

The married couple having settled at the above pas, the people of Te Wai-roa and outside districts looked forward to obtaining aristocratic descendants from this union, and on that account they were called Te pareke-reketanga a nga rangatira (Seed-bed of chiefs). It was the human equivalent to stud-breeding.

All places where food was obtainable were reserved as a supply for this union:—Whakapunake Mountain, famous for birds, was worked by the people. Wairau-kereku, at Waikare-moana, was also famous for native pigeons, and Pakitua was placed there as workman to bring in the kereru-tahu (preserved pigeons). Ohuia and Wairau Lakes, famous for eels, were worked by Takapumaro and Te Whakaangiangi. Other reserved areas for food are too numerous to mention here. These food reserves were called Hei wai u mo Te hewhera (To make Te Whewhera's milk flow).

Hine-maka (female) was the first child of this union, and was taken to Heretaunga, and begat Hone Te Wharemako, Te Otene Pomare, Hamana Tiaikiwai, and others.

Te Ruruku-o-te-rangi (male) was the next, who was also taken to Heretaunga, from whom sprung Hori Tupaea and his sister Maku Ellison, Arini Donnelly, the Tarehas, the Spooners, and others.

Te Ipu (male) was taken to Whakaki, from whom sprung Patu Te Rito, Lady Pomare, Watene Huuka, and others.

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Raeroa (male) was retained at Paeroa, from whom sprung Haenga Pare-tipua, Hori Tupaea, Eru Mete, Pare Kara (Mrs. A. T. Carroll), and others.

Hine-ori (female) was taken inland up the Wairoa River, from whose line sprung Hata Tipoki and others,

Hine-tunge (female) was taken to Waiau, inland of Wairoa, and had as issue Waata Taiaroa, Kerei Te Otatu, Hekera Ponga, and others.

Hine-rara (male) was taken to Kihitu, from whom sprung Hamana Tiakiwai, Pereatara Pakuku, Turi Kara (A. T. Carroll), and others.

Kokotangiao (male) was settled at Ruataniwha, and begat Maraki Kohea, Heremia Te Popo, and others.

Hine-i-nohi (female) was the last, and settled at Waihirere, Wairoa, and begat Paora Te Apatu, Rawinia Te Apatu, and others.

These were the children and descendants of Te Kapua-matotoru and Te Whewhera. Wherever they were placed on the East Coast they became paramount chiefs. By tradition these high born people were to keep within their own bounds and succour each other whenever the need arose, and it has been so to this day.


Hine-matioro was one of the women of the Ngati-Kahungunu tribe to have been elevated to the majestic position of high priestess, or queen. The others were Tamai-rangi and Mahina-a-rangi. Hine-matioro was well known as the Great Queen of the East Coast, so often referred to in the missionary journals of that period. The reason she was so highly respected was that all the lines of aristocratic descent converged in her, as shown by her genealogy recorded in this book.

She was set apart by her people and strenuously guarded by them. Her life was always made safe from an attacking force, or war party, and safe conduct was always offered to her and her guardians. She had very great privileges and was looked upon as a divine person. She was alwavs kind and generous to the tribe and people. All the food planted by the people was for her benefit alone, such was the law of the tribe with respect to her. Whatever food was procured, whether from sea or forest, was all taken to her. She did no cultivating nor any other work, but all her needs were supplied by the people.

Hine-matioro left but one child, Rangikahiwa, her daughter. page 149This issue, however, patented Hine's famous grandson, Te Kani-a-takirau, who was held to be the highest chief of the whole of the East Coast. It was on this account that Te Heuheu (the paramount chief of Ngai-Tuwhare-toa), of Taupo, who had a strong objection against the sovereignty of a Pakeha Queen, proceeded to ask Te Kani-a-Takirau to be the Maori king. The late Mr. Percy Smith stated, "Te Kani-a-Takirau was without doubt the most powerful chief on the East Coast in the eighteenth century, being a grandson of the more celebrated Hine-matioro, who was more like a queen than any other chieftainess of New Zealand. It was therefore no wonder that he was offered, in 1854, the Maori Kingite crown, an honour which he politely, but wisely, declined."

In reply to the request of Te Heuheu, Te Kani-a-Takirau pointed out that he was already born a king and did not require election. But Te Heuheu said, "You may be the king of the East Coast, but I want you to be the king of the whole of the Maori people of Aotea-roa, and stamp out the mana of that pakeha woman-queen." But Te Kani said, "My kingdom is like unit my Mountain Hikurangi, which is an inherited and permanent one, and was not like yours, Tongariro, a wanderer." Hikurangi is the rocky peak (5,600 feet) inland from Ruatoria. Tradition says that Maui landed on this mountain after fishing up the North Island. The summit of Hikurangi is the first spot in Aotea-roa to be kissed by the rising sun and is the first part of the British Empire to see the dawn. The mention of Tongariro refers to a mythical story told about these mountains.

Pihanga was a smaller mountain (a female), whilst Tongariro and Taranaki (Mount Egmont), which were males, stood some distance away from each other. It came to pass that the two male mountains fell in love with the female mountain (Pihanga) and proceeded to press their suits. Tongariro came from the North, while Taranaki came from the South. There was a contest, but Tongariro won the lady's hand and banished Taranaki. The two lovers dwell side by side, while the broken-hearted Egmont stands aloof and extinct on the sea coast of his province.

There is an ancient song composed about these alpine love affairs, but as this version of the eternal triangle is not of direct interest we do not repeat it here. Suffice it to say that it was usual to couple the names of all chiefs of high standing with the name of the highest mountain in the district as their throne.

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One of the carved figures in Takitimu House has been named Mahina-a-rangi after the illustrious ancestor of that name. She was one of the women of the Ngati-Kahungunu tribe to be elevated to the majestic position of high priestess or queen. She descended from Kahungunu through a high line of descent as shown by her genealogy recorded in this book. She was the great-granddaughter of Tupurupuru, the great-grandson of Kahungunu. Tupurupuru was the first to attain to the highest position of chieftainship, that of accepted monarch among the people of the East Coast.

He was the principal chief of Turanga-nui. There were none above him in respect to mana (sovereign power). If he struck his taiaha into any hill or place, or left his belt there, the people would bring all kinds of food for him and his people. Thus it came that if one desired to compliment another, he might say, "Thou hast equal mana with Tupurupuru, son of Rakai-hikuroa."

Mahina-a-rangi having been born in the Heretaunga district was made a queen. When she grew up to womanhood she was taken to Waikato and married to a famous young chief named Turongo, who begot Raukawa, the eponymous ancestor of the tribe named Ngati-Raukawa. Raukawa begot Maniapoto, who became the originator of the tribe named Ngati-Maniapoto, and through this line descended to the Maori King.

When Te Heuheu, the paramount chief of the Tuwhare-toa tribe of Taupo, rebelled against the sovereignty of a pakeha Queen, he proposed to elect one of the Maoris to be a king. He first went to Te Kani-a-Takirau, but Te Kani declined, as has already been related in the history of Hine-matioro.

Te Heuheu, having been unsuccessful with Te Kani-a-Takirau (as being the issue of Queen Hine-matioro), next went to Waikato and offered the high honour to Potatau, the Maori Kingite, as the descendant of Queen Mahina-a-rangi, which Potautau accepted, and became the first Maori King. It was by this connection that the high honour of naming and opening of Takitimu House was given to the Maori King (Koroki), as is recorded in this book in the history of Rongomai-wahine.

The carved Meeting House at Waikato used by King Koroki as his reception room is named Mahina-a-rangi, and his dwelling house is named Turongo (the husband of Mahina-a-rangi).

Te Kawiti

Te Kawiti was an ancestor who descended from Tauira, page 151through Putara, his son, and also from Tahu-potiki, as shown by the genealogy recorded in this book.

Although the right of Tauira was lost by being conquered by Tama-te-rangi and his people, Putara, who took no part in the battle, was allowed to live on the land, and became incorporated with the conquerors.

When Te Kawiti married Kaho, or Hine-kakahoa-o-te-rangi, who was the granddaughter of Tane-te-kohurangi (the principal chief of Te Wai-roa proper), he became the principal chief of Te Uhi and lived in the pa Te Uhi-a-Karoro at the eastern side of the Awatere stream, near its mouth. Later his descendants built a meeting house there called Te Poho-o-Te Kawiti, which has since been replaced by a modern building of the same name. Te Kawiti also built another pa on top of Te Uhi hill, on the right-hand side of the road to Nuhaka. This he named after his wife, Te Pa-o-Kaho.

On a certain day Te-O-Tane, a renowned warrior whose history is recorded in this book, visited his old friend Te Kawiti. Noticing the depression on the latter's face, he asked the cause. Te Kawiti replied that he was mourning the death of his servant, Koroiho. He had sent him to gather some bush-berries at Tutu-o-te-kaha, where he was caught by the people of the place (Ngati-Ruapani) and was killed by bashing his head against the root of a tree. We may digress here to relate that it was the result of this killing that the hapu name, Ngati-kurupakiaka (bashed on a root) was bestowed by Te Kawiti on his people, which term is used to the present day.

Te-O-Tane having learned the trouble of his old friend made the belittling remark, "Me pena?" meaning "Is that the way you take your grief? Te Kawiti replied, "Me pewhea ia? ("What is the better way then?"). Te-O-Tane then brandished his patu in front of Te Kawiti's face. Te Kawiti asked, "Ma hau?" ("Will you?"). Te-O-Tane replied, "Maku mahau" ("You and I"). Te Kawiti having the undoubted proof of the prowess of Te-O-Tane when he dealt with his enemy at the battle of Te Ringa-whakapiki (as has been related in the history of Te-O-Tane in this book), consented to the proposal, and went forth to avenge the killing of his henchman.

Te Kawiti, Te-O-Tane and their forces met at Kauhouroa Stream, near Scamperdown Bridge, Frasertown, and proceeded inland. En route they encountered some of their enemies, whom they quickly despatched, and continued their march towards the enemy strongholds. On reaching one of the enemy's pas named page 152Kai-rere (situated on the top of a hill on the Mangapoike Road before reaching the Steven's homestead), the people of the pa were overpowered. All were slaughterd, with the exception of a few who escaped.

At this stage of the expedition Te Kawiti expressed his gratitude for the assistance of Te-O-Tane, and said that the death of his servant was amply avenged. He and his force then returned home.

Te Kawiti lived in his pas undefeated and became the paramount chief of the tribe Ngati-Kurupakiaka. He died of old age and was buried at an ancient cemetery called Wai-o-tinirau. Te Kawiti had four children: Tapatu (f.), Hine-wehi (f.), Momo-kore (m.), and Te Hiki (m.).


Ngaherehere is an ancestor whose origin has not been clearly stated by his principal descendants, or recorded. But it is clear that he descended from Tahu-potiki and Tama-te-rangi, as shown in his genealogy recorded in this book. Some of his descendants say that he lived at Mahia, whilst others say that he came from inland of Whakaki. Wherever he came from it is clear that he and his family first pitched his camp at Matiti, opposite the Ruataniwha pa, on the Huramua Estate. When he arrived at Matiti, Tapuwae, the principal chief of Te Wai-roa, drove him off the place. Proceeding further along the Wairoa River he made another attempt to settle at Awamate. Tapuwae again seeing this, and not wanting to start a quarrel, lit a fire near Ngaherehere's camp as an indication that he, Tapuwae, also owned this land. The former seeing this again moved on, and this time proceeded right off Tapuwae's territory to a place just above the present Marumaru Hotel.

He built his pa above the Wairoa River and named it Te Rapu, meaning "seeking a place." He also had a cultivation called Tahapaua. Ngaherehere had previously married a woman named Rurea, and at this time had six grown sons, namely: Wai-o-tuawatea, Torere, Parua, Pakura, and two others.

After he had established himself, his family, and a number of followers, he was visited by a man named Tamaroki. It happened that this Tamaroki, with his father Tutaki, and adherents, lived in a double pa called Whare-kopae, situated near and above the junction of the Ruakituri River above Te Reinga Falls. One end of this pa was occupied by Puraho and his following, who had the upper hand of their neighbours. On a page 153certain day a quarrel took place between the two leaders over an eel-pond, which resulted in Tutaki being killed. Tamaroki, the son, realising the supreme power of his opponents, decided to allow the matter to cool off without showing any intention of avenging the killing of his father. After some time elapsed and affairs had gone on as usual, Tamaroki slipped away quietly to seek assistance. Passing the pa of Ngaherehere and having no faith in the power of the latter, he continued his journey and reached the pa of a renowned warrior named Te Whakahu. On the request for help being placed before the chief, it was turned down, Whakahu saying that he did not want to intrude in any family quarrel. A similar request was put to other chiefs but met the same reply.

Tamaroki having met with no success turned his face homeward, and staggered along the road down-hearted and hopeless. On again reaching the pa of Ngaherehere he decided to make a final effort by trying to secure the service of Ngaherehere and his small band of warriors. On putting his request before Nga-herehere, the latter replied, "Ha! haere ake nei, hoki mai nei, a, peka mai nei" ("What! going past; returning, then calling here.") is used even to the present day whenever a set of circumstances warrants the taunt. Tamaroki meekly apologised for treating Ngaherehere as a last resort and said that he had hoped to have received help from those to whom he had willingly supplied food in the past. Ngaherehere accepted the apology and agreed to help his neighbour in battle. There and then they planned the conquest.

Tamaroki outlined the position of the pa and requested that in the event of victory his own people in the western end of the pa should be spared. To this Ngaherehere agreed. A night was agreed upon for the attack and a rendezvous appointed at a spot below the Te Reinga falls. Ngaherehere suggested a subtle plan to catch the enemy off their guard and Tamaroki hastened home to put the plan into operation.

When the night of the attack drew near Tamaroki suggested to all the people, as the chosen night was a particularly suitable one for the catching of eels, that an eeling expedition be arranged. This was agreed upon. Nothing was left to chance by the wily Tama. As the night promised to be a cold one he arranged plentiful supplies of firewood and cooked food to be prepared so that when the men returned tired and cold from their fishing they would be warmed and fed. Anticipating the results of the expedition a goodly supply of tuna, all were in page 154good spirits and amenable to the murderous plan. The women prepared the flax baskets to hold the cooked food and the eels while the men prepared their eeling devices. It was arranged by Tama that his enemy divide into two groups, one to go up the Hangaroa River and the other to fish the Ruakituri River, both of which junctioned above the falls near the pa. His own party was to go downstream from the falls. He also arranged that no party should terminate its fishing activities until midnight.

At the time appointed the three parties left for their respective stretches of water, although Tamaroki's thoughts were far from the catching of the slippery tuna. On arriving at the pre-arranged spot he found that Ngaherehere and his men had already arrived. He laid before them a plentiful supply of cooked food, which thoughtful act was greatly appreciated by the visitors. Perhaps these men had previously been living on short commons, as the story tells us that before leaving home Ngaherehere had arranged that his nearest neighbour, Whetete, should act as guardian of his kumara and taro plantations which, in his absence, were likely to be ruined by woodhens or pukeko.

Punctually at midnight the two fishing parties from upstream arrived back at the pa laden with tuna and tired and hungry. They dropped down before the large fires to get warm. They were fed by the women folk, and there before the fires they dropped off to sleep. For most of them it was a fatal sleep. Tamaroki led the combined forces of attackers to the home pa, and while they waited for the dawn and the attack, Ngaherehere made the remark that has lived through the years, to be still used in the present day in one form or another as the circumstances dictate, "Ka moe te mata hii tuna, ka ara te mata hii taua" ("The eyes, of the eel fishers are closed, but the eyes of the watchman are wakeful").

As the half-light of dawn gave the waiting warriors sufficient light, they fell upon the sleeping men. There was little fighting, and the crafty plan met its reward, an almost complete massacre of the inhabitants of the eastern end of the pa. As often happened in such fights, however, one named Puraho, who was the culprit in the original cause of the trouble, escaped and fled. Few others escaped, except some of the women, who fled towards Te Arai. They were chased, and on the hill leading up to Tiniroto Ngaherehere caught a very handsome woman. Her beauty impressed him, so he spared her life by making her his second wife and naming her Hopu-ara, or "caught on the track."

Ngaherehere subsequently absorbed Tamaroki, people and pa, page 155under his own chieftainship. In the course of time he married a third wife named Tiringa. He was a keen and skilful fighter and made some successful raids on the people of the Te Arai Valley. A lady named Hine-te-urunga became his fourth wife, and her descendants are still well known in Poverty Bay as the Ngai Te Aweawe.


Very little is known of the ancestor Pou-rangahua by his descendants today. It is, however, known that he lived at Te Papuni, situated inland at the far end of the Ruakituri Valley, on the Tahora Block. Although he was living between the territories of the truculent Ngati-Kahungunu tribes and the Tuhoe (Urewera), "children of the mist," who were continually making war upon one another, he was known to both as being taha rua (friendly to both sides). He thus received the respect of both peoples and was not involved in their disputes. It is interesting to note that one of the most important of the old Maori forest routes linking the coast with the Urewera, and in particular with Maungapohatu, where many Urewera tracks joined, ran through Papuni. This track is still used today, although over-grown in places. Papuni would thus be a "half-way house" for travellers from either territory.

He married a woman named Hine-whe, who begat Hika-wai, who married Te-Mihi of Tuhoe and begat Mahia alias Te Koari, who begat Wi Tipuna, who begat Ihaka, who begat Hawea Tipuna (died September, 1941). There are other lines of his descendants, but this is the principal one.

He lived with his tribes Ngati-Hingaanga and Ngati-Te Wahanga, or Ngati-Wawahanga, at his pas called Puke-Tapu and Te Arero. When the title of Te Papuni (which is a part of Te Tahora Block) was investigated by the Land Court, it was awarded to the descendants of Pou-Rangahua and his tribes, as mentioned above.

The Papuni Block is farmed under the East Coast Commission, and when it was proposed to erect a carved house as a suitable memorial to the late Sir James Carroll, the Papuni owners responded magnificently to the call, giving approximately £500, and in respect and appreciation of this contribution the name of Pou-rangahua was included as one of the carved figures in the Takitimu House (Carroll Memorial Hall).

Some very great powers were attributed to Pou-rangahua. One such is the story of the origin of the Papuni Lake. European page 156readers will probably explain this story in geological terms, and indeed it will not be the first incident of geological accident in land-forms that the Maoris have in more picturesque manner ascribed to the great power of a favourite ancestor.

"There are two large hills at Te Papuni, Orakai-Whaia and Tau-Ranga-a-Tara. The former stands on the western side of the Ruakituri River, the latter on the eastern side. In times long past away, Orakai-Whaia called to Tauranga-a-Tara to come to him that they two might dwell together as man and wife. So Tauranga-a-Tara moved over near unto Orakai-Whaia, even that they two became as one. This blocked the river, hence the waters had no outlet, and a great lake was formed. Pou-rangahua was living there at the time, and he betook himself to his canoe and hied him across the waters to the base of Orakai-Whaia. Here he proceeded by means of his magic powers to separate the two hills, that the waters might again flow down to the ocean. Hence those hills were forced asunder by him and the waters descended, leaving only the Papuni Lake."

Some time about the year 1856 some people of the land were living at Te Papuni near the lake. Above the large lake was a series of small ones, or ponds, the uppermost one being known as Tauwhare-Toroa. These people thought that it would be a fine thing to dig a channel whereby to allow the waters of the uppermost lakelet to run off that they might secure a fine haul of eels.

They cut their canal all right, and the water ran off in a fine style and flowed into the next pond beneath. The increasing pressure was too great for the carrier to withstand, and this pond broke out and emptied itself into the third, which also promptly gave way. The sum of all these waters was precipitated into the Papuni Lake, which also gave way and broke out, leaving nothing but a small muddy pool. And at present nothing is seen but a small land (flat).

There is no disputing the fact that these hills were "wedded," but the nuptials were not by free will but by an act of God. In times long past away, in very ancient times, a tremendous earthquake happened, which resulted in the two hills "marrying" in the river, which blocked up the waters of the river and formed a huge lake. And with broken ground some small lakes or ponds were formed above it. Even the great Waikaremoana shows evidence of having also been formed by a great slip, while the summit of Maungapohatu, the sacred mountain of the Urewera, is shattered and broken as by a mighty earthquake.

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The two lovers were later separated, but not by means of magic powers used by our hero, but by the force of nature which resulted in not being forced asunder but forced out together into the ocean by the continuous erosion of water.

Another fantastic version of this geological change is that it was the demon Rua-mano who was responsible for the forming and the breaking out of the Te Papuni Lake. This Rua-mano was a sea-demon, and the offspring of Tutara-Kauika (an emblematical term for the whale). He joined forces with Arai-Teuru, another sea-demon, who was said to have conveyed the Takitimu vessel to New Zealand. When Rua-mano was doing his duty on the high seas, his principal job seems to have been the saving of shipwrecked people and guarding vessels across his vast domain. When a person was shipwrecked, or in any trouble on the high seas, he proceeded to call upon the water demons, or monsters of the deep, for assistance.

The water demon desiring to reach Waikaremoana Lake, he entered and proceeded up the Wairoa River. After missing the Waiau River, which leads to the Waikare-taheke River, the only water route to Waikaremoana, he continued his journey to Te Reinga. Having entered the Ruakituri River he travelled up that river, and on reaching Te Papuni met with shallow water insufficient for him to continue further travelling. He desired to make a temporary home there. Proceeding to do so, he blocked up the river, which formed a deep and large lake, which constituted a very snug home.

After a long period of lonely life he decided to return to his ocean deeps. He burst the embankment, thus allowing the waters to flow out with him to the sea, where he again reached his domain. The word Papuni is more particularly applied to waters that have been blocked up.

The whare-runanga, or meeting house, at Erepiti pa in the Ruakituri Valley has been named Porangahua in memory of this great ancestor.


Tama-i-uia was a very prominent chief, being the descendant of a long line of ancestors whose aristocratic fame dated back many generations. According to ancient history he was no ordinary person, and on the maternal side his ancestors were regarded as Uri-taniwha, their prestige being recognised by all, therefore Tama himself was regarded as of partly supernatural origin.

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His grandmother, whose name was Hine-Te-Ariki, married Tumokonui. According to history, she was descended from a line of ancestors, known as Uri-taniwha, whose haunts and place of abode were in the deep pools of rivers. They were akin to the mermaids of ancient mythology. When speaking of the tern uri-taniwha, this expression literally means "the descendant of a taniwha." If we substitute "hermit' for the word taniwha we would be clearer as to the true meaning of uri-taniwha, a class of beings living a secluded life, not in the water, but in the fastnesses of the forests.

Hine-Te-Ariki's first children were twins and both these were taken away by spirits at birth. Some time later she gave birth to a second lot of twins, who, like the previous ones, were also taken away by the spirits. As time went on she again conceived and gave birth to a third pair, who also met with a similar fate. Depressed and full of sorrow at losing all her children, she decided to consult her father, Whana-Tuku-Rangi, who inquired, "Is it not true that you married a tatea-mahaki? (meaning a common person.) Are you not aware also that I am descended from a line of taniwha? Take heed that if it happens again, and you give birth to a child, be sure when you see a cloud descending on you, to remain over the child all the time until the mist lifts, for in that cloud the spirits of your ancestors are hidden and will take the child away if you do not carry out my instructions.

Accordingly, when later she conceived and gave birth to another child, she carried out her father's instructions, and this time to her great joy the child was not taken away by the spirits. The child was named Tonoa-Ki-Aua, which means, "I seek advice from some one," thus helping to commemorate the occasion when she sought the advice of her father. Later, after the death of her husband, Hine-te-ariki returned to her watery grave in the Waikohu river, Gisborne, and it is reported that on numerous occasions she has revealed herself to her descendants.

When in after years the child Tonoa-Ki-Aua reached maturity, she was especially espoused to Whakauika, the celebrated son of Taupara, the eponym of the well-known tribal name Ngai-Taupara. As usual, when two families of aristocratic fame are united, the people usually looked forward to the birth of a very noble chief. When the time of the expected child grew close, the whole of the people in the vicinity, as well as some who came long distances from the back country, assembled at the place where the child was to be born. To their great disappointment, when the child arrived it was a girl, and they were known page 159to express their feelings quite openly by complaining and saying, "Piki noa mai tatou i nga pari me nga horo nei, no te whanau-tanga mai he wahine ke," meaning that although they had sur passed the difficulties of high mountains and scaled precipitous cliffs and negotiated slips along the tracks, their efforts were only rewarded by the birth of a female child. It was thereupon decided to name the child Pikihoro which means, "Climbing over slips."

As time went on, the birth of another child grew close and the people again assembled from all parts. This time they brought their gifts in the form of mats, and innumerable kinds of Maori articles as presents to the newly-born child. However, to their utter disappointment, the child was another girl. Again the people muttered their complaints by saying, "Auru noa mai tatou i te kakahu, no te whanautanga mai he wahine ano,"meaning that "all our gathering of garments and other articles has been fruitless for again a female child is born." The child was there-upon named Hine-auru (maiden of gathering) and later became known as Hine-uru.

Tonoa-Ki-Aua, feeling disappointed that she had not fulfilled the desire and hopes of the people that a chief be born to them, decided to consult her "water ancestors" in order that she might be able to produce a male child. She was accordingly instructed not to wade or cross rivers, not to wash or bathe in them, nor even to drink water out of them, but to quench her thirst from a special well and bathe or wash in a special pool.

For the third time the news went round that Tonoa-ki-aua was expecting a child. As the time of the birth was fast approaching the people, in spite of previous disappointments, again assembled and awaited the result.

To the great joy and satisfaction of everybody, they were rewarded this time for their patience, by the birth of a male child. To commemmorate in history the circumstances leading to the birth of a male child by means of carrying out the advice' of the Uri-taniwha, the child was named Tama-i-uia, meaning "A son inquired after."

As the boy grew to manhood, he was taught and trained in all the arts and crafts befitting a chief. It was not long before he became very proficient in the use of war arms and an expert in the manoeuvring and conducting of all war affairs. This necessary attribute he knew he must acquire in order to safeguard himself and his people from the turbulent tribes which confronted the wide and extensive territory under his command. In the page 160north he was faced by the Whakatohea tribe, and in the south by the Rongo-Whakaata tribe. To the east were the Ngati-Porou, whilst on the west were the Tuhoe tribes respectively. Being hemmed in on all sides by these various tribes and having a large territory to protect and safeguard he was kept continually on the alert, not knowing in what hour or in what manner he might be attacked by his enemies. The strength of these powerful neighbouring tribes had compelled him to be vigilant and active at all times.

In times of warfare he was never guilty of any treacherous action and was always staunch to his friends. Because of his high ideals, he was highly respected by his enemies and greatly loved by his friends.

To define his territory, he proclaimed rock named Puhinui at Waikohu, near Te Tahora, to be his boundary on the western side. His tribe, Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki occupied the land on one side of this rock, while the Urewera people, represented by Te Rangi Aniwaniwa, occupied the land on the other side.

He also proclaimed a place on the Hauarua Block, near Tolaga Bay, to signify a declaration of peace. This was the name of a pa called Hinatore. While absent from his home and pa, a war party from Ngati-porou raided the place, and slaughtered many of his people, kidnapping his two children. The survivors managed to escape from their enemies and on arriving at a certain distance within the sight of Tama-i-uia, they made signs indicating that a terrible disaster had befallen them. On his making further inquiries, they exclaimed hurriedly, "Kaore, hoki tera te Kainga, ko te wai anake o Mangatu te rere ana" meaning that their homes were no longer seen and that the only remnant left or seen was the flowing of the Mangatu River. After also being told of the kidnapping of his two children, he immediately mustered a strong fighting force and set out in hot pursuit of the enemy. Reaching their stronghold at night he attacked and laid a siege on the pa. Before dawn of the following day, with resolute mind and determination to renew his attack on the enemy on a wider scale, he was engaged chanting certain charms of a war dance, known as Tutu Taua. He was beneath the enemy's pa, alone, and separated from his own forces by a short distance. As his men watched in the half light, they saw him stop his incantations suddenly as though dumbfounded. He stood still for a moment and then fell on the ground. Thinking he had in some manner been struck down, his warriors rushed to his aid. To their great surprise, instead of finding a wounded man, they page 161found their chief embracing his own two children who had been restored to him by the enemy, who had lowered them over the outer wall of the pa by ropes.

Overjoyed at his children's return, the chief at once made a declaration of peace with the enemy and set up the post sign, Hinatore, to signify his intentions and happiness. The parties concerned in this episode were the Te Huiwhenua on the one side, and he on the other. From that time, the succeeding generations on both sides, or as it is sometimes put, Te Whiwhi a grandson of Tama-i-uia, and Te Ruru, a descendant of Te Huiwhenua, have honoured and respected that occasion on which the lasting peace was made between them.

Tama-i-uia married five wives, whose names are as follows:—

1.Utatu (chief wife).
3.Te Manawa.

Throughout his life he was greatly loved and highly respected, not only by his own people, but also by neighbours of other tribes. At his death, a chief named Rangiuia of Uawa composed and sung the following lament:—

Moe mai e tama i roto i te whare kino,
I te whare pouri ka uea ake ra.
Ka he to manawa ka titiro ki waho ra,
Ki te waka hoehoe ki wairoro ra e.
Ka puta te paraki ka pa ki to ihu,
Nau i moe po i tukua mai ai,
Ko te tonga hau e ko te tonga taipuru.
Ka pupuru te atua ki roto i a koe,
Ka whai atu na koe i a Te Ao-matangi,
I a Weheruru e i a katakata ra,
I a Kiwa ra e nana nei te moana,
Nana nei ngaru nui nana nei ngaru roa.
Ka wawae i te pito kia marangai e,
Kia Tukuwhare ra kia honuhonu e,
Kia kekerepo ka puta atu ki waho.
Aua itu tangi e aua itu paoa ra,
Ka mamao ki te rangi ko taku rangi pea,
Ka tau ki waho ra ki waianiu ra.
He koko ariki he whare ka tumai,
Kei to tipuna e kei a Te Rauhori e,
page 162 Kei a ngatapa ra ko te huamaiora.
Na hine-te-ariki ko Pikihoro pea,
Ko Hine-uru ano ko Tama-i-uia e.
Ko koutou ra tena e hika ma e e.